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VOL.- II. 





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Thomab MoBLEYy 006 of tbo gentlemen of queen 
Elizabeth's chapel, the anthor of a well known 
treatise on the subject of practical music, was a 
disciple >f Bird, for whom he 6ver entertained the 
highest reverence. He obtained a bachelor*s degree 
in 1588, and wasrtwom into his place in the chapel 
July 24, 1592 ; he was the author of Canzonets or 
little short songs to three voices, Lond. 1593. The 
first book of Madrigals to four voices, Lond. 1594. 
Canzonets or little short Airs to 5 or 6 voices, Lond. 
1595. Madrigals to 5 voices, Lond. 1595. In- 
troduction to Music, Lond. 1597. The first book of ^ 
Aires or little short Songes to sing and play to the ' 
lute with the bass viol, Lond. 1600. And the first 
book of Canzonets to two voices, Lond. 1595, and 
1619. He also composed divine services and an- 
thems, the words of some whereof are prinlfed in 
James Clifford's Collection of divine services and 
anthems usually sung in cathedrals.* A service 
for the burial of the dead of his composition, the 
first of the kind, to the words of our liturgy, is 
printed in Dr. Boyce's Cathedral Music, vol. I. He 
also collected and published madrigals, entitled the 
Triumphs of Oriana, to five and six voices, composed 
by divers authors, Lond. 1601, and a set or two of 
Italian madrigals to English words; but the most 
valuable of all his works is his Plaine and easie In- 
troduction to practicall Musicke, so often referred to 
in the course of this work, and of which an account 
is here ^'iven. 

This valuable work is divided into three parts, the 
first teac ang to sing ; the second treating of Descant, 
with die method of singing upon a plain-song ; the 
/Other of composition in three and more parts. Each 
of the three parts of this book is a several an4L distinct 
dialogue, wherein a master, his scholar, and a person 
competently skilled in music, are the interlocutors ; 
and in the course of their conversation so many little 
particulars occur relating to the manners of the times, 

* This bode It Y«xT ftvqoently reftned to \xf Wood. It U a oolleetton 
of the words only, of tb« Mnrloes uid anthems then osnsUy lung, printed 
IB duodecimo, 16d4. The compiler was s native of OxfUrd, a chorister 
of M«gdalen college there, and afterwards a minor emnon of St. Paul'i, 
and leader In some chtuoh near Carter-lsne, and also ohi^lsln to the 
society of Seijeaaf s Inn In Fieet-itreet. Athen. Oxon. 

as render the perusal of the book in a great degree 
entertaining to those who are unacquainted with the 
subject of it ; die truth of this observation will ap- 
pear from theory introduction to the work, which 
is as follows : — 

' PAlomathes. 
' Master 

' PoLYMATHEs. Stave brother Philomathes, what haste ? 
Whither go you 80 fast? Philomath. To seek out an 
old friend of mine. Pol. But before you eoe I praie 
you Rpeat some of the discourses which you had yester- 
night at Master Sophohulus his banket, for commonly he 
is not without both wise and learned guestes. Phi. It 
is true indeed, and yesternight there were a number of 
excellent schoUers, both gentlemen and others : but all 
the propose which was then discoursed upon was 
musicke. Pol. I trust you were contented t» suffer 
others to speake of that matter. Phi. I would that 
had been the worst ; for I was «pmpelled to discover 
mine own ignorance, and confesse that I knewe nothing 
at all in it. Pol. How so ? Phi. Among the rest of 
the guestes by chance Master Amphron came thidier 
also, who fi||unff to discourse of musicke, was in an 
argument so quickly taken up and hotly pursued by 
Eudozus and Calergus, two kinsmen of master Sopho- 
hulus, as in his own art he was overthrowne, but he still 
sticking in his opinion, the two gentlemen requested me 
'to examine his reasons and confute them, but 1 refusing, 
and pretendiiu^ ignorance, the whole company con- 
demned me 01 discurtesie, being fully persuaded that 
I had been as skilfull in that art as they took me to be 
learned in others ; but supper being ended, and musicke 
bookes according to the custome, being brought to the 
tablt, the mistress of the house presented mee with a 
part, earnestly requesting me to sing, but when, after 
many excuses I protested unfeignedly that I could not, 
evene one beean to wonder, yea some whispered to 
others, demanding how I was brought up : so tnat upon 
shame of mine own ignorance I goe nowe to seek out 
mine old friende master Gnorimus, to make myself his 
schoUar. Pol. I am elad you are at length come to 
be of that mind, though I wished it sooner, therefore 
goe, and I praie God send you such good successe as 
you would wish to yourself; as for me, I goe to heare 
some mathematical lectures, so that I thinke about one 
time wee may both meete at our lodging. Phi. Fare- 

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Book Xx. 

'well, for I sit upon thornes till I be gone, therefore I 

* will make haste ; but, if I be not deceived, I see him 
' whom I seeke sitting at yonder doore, out of doubt it is 

* hee. And it should seeme he studieth upon some point 

* of musicke, but I will drive him out of his dumpe. 
'Good morrow, Sir. Master. And you also eood 
' Master Pfailomathes, I am glad to see you, seeing it is 
' so long ago since 1 sawe you, that I thought you had 
'either been dead, or then had vowed perpetually to 
'keep your ch«jnber and booke to which you were so 
' much addicted. Phi. Indeeckl have been well affected 
' t« my booke, but how have you done since first I saw 

* you ? Mast. My health since you saw mee hath been 
' so badd as, if it had been the pleasure of him who made 
' all things, to have taken me out of the world I should 
' have been very well contented, and hsve wished it more 
' ^an once : but what business ham driven you to this 
' end of the town ? Phi. My errand is to you, to make 
' jnyself your scholler ; and seeing I have found you at 
' such convenient leisure, I am determined not to depart 
' till I have one lesson in musicke. Mast. You tell mee 
' a wonder, for I have heard you so much speake against 
'that art, as to terme it a corrupter of good manners, 

* and an allurement to vices, for which many of your com- 
' nanions termed you a Stoic. Phi. It is true, but I am 
' h> far changed, as of a Stoic I would Mllingly make a 
' Pythagorean ; and for that I am impaaent of delay I 
< prait you begin men now/ Mast. With a good will ; 

* but have you learned nothing at all in musicke before? 

* Phi. Nothing. Therefore I jray you begin at the very 
' beginning, and' teach me as though I were a childe. 
' Mast. I will do so, and therefore behold here is the 
' scale of musicke which we terme the Gam.' [Giving 
him the gamut with the syllables.] 

The master then proceeds to instruct his leholar 
in the rudiments of song, in the doing whereof he 
delivers to him the precepts of the plain and men- 
surable cantus, illustrated with examples in notes, to 
some whereof, for the greater facility of utterance, 
he has joined the letters of the alphabet, and these 
are introduced by a distich, and concluded by a 
direction to begin asain, as here is shown : — 



Ifll Christes crosse be my speede in all ver - tue to 





A. b. c d. e. f. g. 



I i. k. 1. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. et 

t. double w. v. x. withy, ez-od. et per se, 

con per ae. ti-tle, ti -tie. est Amen, When you have 




done be-£^ againe,be-gin a-gaine. Christes crosse 


be my speede, in al ver - tuo to pro-ceede. 





d. e. 


The second part of the Introduction of Morley is 
a treatise of Descant, as it was then called; the 
meaning of the term, and the nature of the practice, 
are explained in the following colloquy : — 

' Master. Whom do I see afar off^ is it not my scholar 
'IPhilomathes? out of doubt it is he, and therefore I will 
' salute him. Good morrow, scholler. Phi. God give 
' you eood morrow and a hundredth, but I marvayle not 
' a little to see you so early, not only stirring, but out of 
' doors also. Mas^. It is no marvayle to see a snayle 
' after a rayne to creep out of his shell and wander all 
' about seeking the moisture. Phi. I pray you talk not 
' so darke^y, but let me understand your comparysons 
'pla3mley. Mast. Then in plaine tearmes being over 
' wearied with studie, and taking the opportunity of the 
' fayre morning, I came to this place to snatch a mouth- 
' ful of this holsom^ Ayi'e, Vhich gently breathing upon 
' these sweet-smelling flowers, and makine a whispering 
'noise amongst these tender leaves, delighteth with re- 
' freshing, and refresheth with delight my over weary 
' senses ; but tell me, I pray you, the cause of your hither 
'coming; have you not forgotten some part of that 
' which I shewed you at our last being together. Phi. 
' No verily, but the contrary, I am b^ome such a singer 
' as you would wonder to heare me. mast. How came 
'that to passe? Phi. Be silent, and i will shew you; 

* The practice of uoezlng words of a Arirolons import to notes, for 
the assistance of notftes fn the art of singing, was no new thing ; the 
Monks were the authors of it, and many of the examples of Olaniaiiiis 
himself are either Hehrew names or Latin nonsense, set to very good 
music ; but in the example before us, the distich 
Christ's cross be my spede 
• In all Tertue to procede, 

has a meaning which It will be the business of this note to enquire after. 

In the course of thb work occasion has been taken to menUon 8t. 
Nicholas, and to shew that by those of the Romish communion he Is 
looked on as the patron of young scholars. In the homllT against peril 
of idolatry, which our church has directed to be read for the instruction 
of the^eople, is a very particular enumeration of those saints, who, 
either from a supposed power to heal certain diseases, or to confer 
peculiar graces, or, in short, some way or other to favour mankind, were 
the most common objects of private supplication ; the passage referred 
to is as follows :— 

'Every artificer and profession hath his special saint as a pecnliar 
' God. As for example, schollars haTe Saint Nicholas and Saint Gregoiy ; 

* Painters Saint Luke : neither lack soldiers their Mare, nor loTcrs their 

* Venus amongst Christians. All diseases have their special Saints as 

* Gods the curers of them. The pox Saint Roche, the falling evil St. 
' Cornells, the tooth ache St Appolltn, ftc. Neither do beasU and cattd 
*lack their gods with us, for Saint Loy is the horseleach [<. e. the hon»- 
'physirian] and Saint Anthony the swineherd, ftc Where is God'a 

* proridenoe and due lionour in the mean season ? * • * if we remembw: 

* God sometimes, yet because we doubt of his ability or will, to help ua, 
' we loin to him another helper, as he were a noun adjective, using these 

* sayings : such as learn, God and Saint Nicholas be my speed : such aa 
' neese, God help and Sahti John : to the horse, God and Saint Loy save 
*thee, &c.' 

From the above passage it appears that aneiently * God and Saint 
< Nicholas be mv spede,' was a customary ejaculation of young sch<4an : 
and we can hardly suppose a more proper occasion for Uie use of it than 
when infsnts of tender years are learning the rudiments of Uterature. 
It la therefore not improbable that the distioh 

* Saint Nicholas be my spede 

* In all vertue to proeede,' 

might be the Introduction to the alphabet, and might be constantly re- 
peated by the child previous to the beginning its lesson. 

Tlie alpkftbet is ftequently termed the Criss Cross, that is to say 
Christ's cross row, because of a cross constantly placed before the letter 
A, which sira was ancienUy a direction to the child to croas itself before 
it began its lesson, as it is now in the mass-book fbr the aame action in 
diiftrent parts of the service. 

The use of the prayer to St. Nicholas may well be supposed to have 
continued amonnt us until the practice of praying to sunts was cob. 
demned Hy our chureh as superetitious, which it was somewhat beflm 
Morley's time ; and after that, as our reformers had thought proper to 
retain the use of th^ sign of the cress In tome toW tnata&Oes, bow 
natunUy did tUt variation suggett Itself, 

Christ's cross be my spede 
In all virtue to procede. 
which, at the refbrmatlon then stood, might well enough be dsoneJ 
a good Protestant prayer. 

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Ohap. XCIX. 



*I have a brother, a sood scholar and a reasonable 
'musition for sineing, he at my first coining to you, 
'conceived an opinion, I know not upon what reasons 
'grounded, that I should never come to any meane 
' knowledge in rousicke, and therefore when he heard me 
' practice alone he would continually mock me, indeed 
' notwithstanding reason, for many times I would sing 
' halfe a note too high, other while as much too lowe, so 
< that he could not contain himself from laughing ; yet now 
' and then he would set me right, more to let me see that 
' he could doe it, then that he ment any way to instruct 

* me, which caused me so diligent!;^ to apply my prick- 
' song booke, that in a manner I did no other thing but 

* sing, practising to slip from one key to another, from 

* flat to sharp, from sharp to flat, from any one place in 
' the scale to another, so that there was no song so hard 
' but I woulde venture upon it, no mood, nor proportion 
' so strange but I would go through and sing perfectly 
'before I left it; and in the end I came to such per- 
' fection that I might have been my brother's maister, for 
' although he had a little more practice to sing at first 
' sight than I had, yet for the moods, lieatures, and other 

* such things, I might set him to school. Mast. What 
' then was the cause of your coming hither at this time ? 
'Phi. Desire to leame as before. Mast. What would 
'you now leame. Phi. Beeing this last daye upon 
' occasion of some businesse at one of my friends houses, 
' we had some songs sung, afterwards falling to discourse 
' of musicke and musitians, one of the company naming 
' a friend of his owne, tearmed him the best Descanter 
'that wa3 to be found. Now, Sir, I am at this time come 
'to knowe what Descant is, and to learne the same. 
' Mast. I thought you had onely sought to know prickt 
'song, whereby to recreate yourself, being wearye of 
'other studies. Phi. Indeed when I came to you first 
' I was of that minde, but the common proverlw^s in me 
' verified, that much would have more ; and seeing I have 
' so far set foot in music, I doe not meane to goe backe 
' till I have gone quite through all, therefore I pray you 
' now, seeing the time and place fitteth so well, to dis- 
' course with me what descant is, what parts, and how 
'many it hath, and the rest. Mast. The heate in- 
' creaseth, and diat which you demand reauireth longer 
' discourse than vou looke for,Jet us therefore go and sit 
' in yonder shadie arbor to avoyde ihe vehementness of 
'the sunne. — ^The name of Descant is usurped of the 
' musitions in divers significations ; some time they take 
' it for the whole harmony of many voyces, others some- 
' times for one of the voyces or partes, and that is when 
'the whole song is not passing three voyces. Last of 
'all, they take it for singing a part extempore upon 
'a playne song, in which sense we commonly use it ; so 
'that when a man talketh of a descanter, it must be 
' understood of one that can extempore sing a part upon 
'a playne song. Phi. What is the meane to sing upon 
' a playne song ? Mast. To know the distances both 
' of^ concords and discords. Phi. What is a concord ? 
' Mast. It is a mixt sound, compact of divers voyces, &c. ' 

Among the rules for extemporary descant, which 
are in truth no other than the precepts of musical 
composition, he explains the nature of that kind of 
composition called two parts in one, which, as he 
says, is when two parts are so made as that the 
latter singeth every note and rest in the same length 
and order as the leading part did sing before. From 
hence he proceeds to declare the nature of canon 
framed to a given plain -song ; and of these he gives 
sundry examples with the plain-song in various 
sitnations, that is to say, sometimes above, sometimes 
below, and at other times in the midst of the canon. 

The third part of the Introduction treats of com- 
posing or setting of songs; and here the author 
takes occasion to censure one master Boulde, an 
ignorant pretender to mnsic ; and he does it in this 
way, he supposes Philomathes by this time to have 
profited so much by his master's instructions as to 
have got the start of his brother Polymathes, and 
that Pol3rmathe8, who is supposed to have learned 
the little he knew of music of the above Master 
Boulde, being sensible of this, is desirous of putting 
himself under the tuition of his brother's master ; the 
master tenders him a plain-song, desiring him to 
sing upon it a lesson of descant, which he does but 
very indifferently, the faults in this and another 
lesson or two which Polymathes sings, draws on 
a discourse between him and his new master, wherein 
he very humorously characterizes his former master, 
Boulde. — ' When,' says he, ' I learned descant of my 
' maister Boulde, bee seiing me so toward and 
' willing to learne, ever had me in his company; and 
' because he continually carried a plaine song booke 
' in his pocket, bee caused me to doe the like, and so 
' walking in the fields he would sing the plainsong, 
' and cause me to sing the descant, and when I sung 
' not to his contentment he would shew me wherein 
' I had erred ; there was also another descanter, 

* a companion of my maister's, who never came in 
'my maister's company, though they were much 
' conversant together, but they fell to contention, 
' striving who diould bring in the point soonest and 
' make hardest proportions, so that they thought 
' they had won great glory if they had brought in 
' a point sooner or sung harder proportions the one 
' than the other : but it was a worlde to heare them 

* wrangle, everie one defending hie owne for the best. 
' What, saith the one, you keepe not time in your 
' proportions ; you sing them false, saith the other ; 
' what proportion is this, saith bee ? Sesquipaltery, 
'saith the other; nay, would the other say, you 
' sing you know not what ; it should seem you came 
' lately from a barber's shop, where you had Gregory 
' Walker* or a Coranta plaide in the new proportions 
' by them lately found out, called Sesquiblinda and 
' Sesqui-hearken after. So that if one unacquainted 
' with musicke had stood in a corner and heard them, 

* he would have swome they had been out of their 
'wittes, so eamestlie did they wrangle for a trifle. 

* A note in th« original. ' That name In derision thej have (riven tbii 

* quadrant PaTan because it walketh among barbers and fiddlers more 
' common than any other.' 

This note of the author requires ezplanarion. In Morley's time and 
for many years after, a lute or viol, or some such musical instrument, 
was part of the famiture of a barber's shop, which was used then to be 
frequented by persons aboTe the ordinary level of the people, who 
resorted to the barber either for the cure of wounds, or to undergo some 
chirurgical operations, or, as it was then called, to be trimmed, a word 
that signified either shaving or cutting and curling the hair ; these, to- 
gether with letting blood, were the ancient occupatlens of the barber- 
surgeon. As to the other important branch of surgery, the setting of 
fractured limbs, that was practised by another class of men called bone- 
setters, of whom there are hardly any now remaining. Peacham, in his 
account of Maurice landgraTc of Hesse before cited, says he was generally 
accounted the best bone-setter in his country, whence it appears that 
this fSusulty was sometimes exercised by men of condition and benevolent 
tempers. But to return to the barber: the musical instruments in his 
shop were for ttie entertainment of waiting eustomers, and answered the 
end of a newspaper. At this day those who wait for their turn at the 
barber's, amuse themselves with reading the news of the day or week ; 
anciently they beguiled the time with playing on a musical instrument, 
which custom gave ocension to Morley to say of the quadrant Pavan 
mentioned by him^ that it was so common that it walked amongst the 

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Book XL 

'And in truth I myselfe thought sometimes that 
'they would have gone to round hufifets with the 
' matter, for the descant bookes were made angels,* 
' but yet fistes were no visitors of eares, and therefore 
' all parted friends. But to say the verie truth, this 
'Poliphemus had a very good sight, especially for 
' treble descant, but very bad utterance, for that his 
'voice was the worst that ever I had heard; and 
' though of others he was esteemed verie good in that 

* kinde, yet did none think better of him then hee 
' did of himself; for if one had named and asked his 
' opinion of the best composers living at this time, 
' hee would say in a vaine glory of his own sufficiencie 

* tush, tush, for these were his words, he is a proper 
' man, but he is no descanter, there is no stuffe in 
f him, I wil not give two pinnes for him except he 
' hath descant.' 

In the course of his directions for composing and 
setting of songs, Morley takes occasion to censure 
Alfonso Ferabosco and Giovanni Croce for taking 
perfect concords of one kind in succession, a practice 
which he loudly condemns, and says of Fairfax, 
Tavemer, Shepheard, Mundy, White, Parsons, and 
Bird, that they never thought it greater sacrilege to 
spurn against the image of a saint than to take two 
perfect chords of one kind together. 

Speaking of the several kinds of composition 
practised in his time, Morley gives the first place to 
the motet.f 

Next to the motet he places the madrigal, for the 
etymology of which word he says he can give no 
'reason 4 He says 'It is a kind of music made 
' upon songs and sonnets, such as Petrarch and many 
'other poets have excelled in, and that it is, next 
' unto the motet the most artificial, and, to men of 
' understanding, most delightful ; and would not be 
'so much disallowable if the poets who compose 
'the ditties would abstain from some obscenities 
' which all honest ears abhor, and from some such 
' blasphemies as no man, at least who has any hope 
' of salvation, can sing without trembling.' He then 
enumerates the several kinds of composition and air 
practised by the musicians of his time, mention 
whereof will be made in a subsequent chapter. 

It is to be remembered that the whole of this 
work of Morley is in dialogue, and that by the 
master, who is one of the interlocutors in it, he 
means to represent himself, who having sufiBciently 
instructed his scholars dismisses them. 

The dialogue being ended there follows what the 
author calls the Peroratio, in which he discovers 
much learning; in it he says that had it not been 
for Boetius, the knowledge of music had not yet come 
into our western part of the world, adding this as 
a reason, ' The Greek tongue lying as it were dead 
'under the barbarisme of the Gothes and Hunnes, 
'and musicke buried in the bowels of the Greeke 
' workes of Ptok>meus and Aristoxenus ; the one of 
' which as yet hath never come to light, but lies in 

• .4. e. they flew About their ean as if they had winga. 

f See an explanation of this word in page 388 of this work* in a note. 

t See the conjectures of vaiioas authors concerning it in page 888 
9t this work, in a note. 

'written copies in some bibliothekes of Italie, the 
' other hath beene set out in print, but the copies are 
' everie where so scant and hard to come by, that 
' many doubt if he have been set out or no.* 

Next follow certain compositions of the author's 
own, for three, four, and five voices, to Latin, Italian, 
and English words, which have great merit 

The annotations at the end of the work are replete 
with curious learning; in these Morley has not 
spared to censure some ignorant pretenders to skill in 
music, and,, amongst the rest, the anonymous author 
of a book entitled 'The Guide of the Path-Way to 
'Music,* printed in 15% in oblong quarto, for 
William Barley, a great publisher of music books 
about that time, of which he gives this character. 
' Take away two or three scales which are filched 
' out of Benrhusius,§ and fill up the three first pages 
' of the booke, you shall not finde one side in all the 
' booke without some grosse errour or other. For 
'as he setteth down his dupla, so doth he all his 
'proportions, giving true definitions and false ex- 
'amples, the example still importing the contrarie 
'to that which was said in the definition. || But 
' this is the worlde ; every one will take upon him 
' to write and teach others, none having more need 
'of teaching than himselfe. And as for him of 
'whom we have spoken so much, one part of his 
'booke he stole out of Beurhusius, another out of 

f FmKDsnic Bxvanusxxrs, con-rector of the college of Dortmund, an 
Imperial town in the circle of Westphalia. He wrote an Erotemata 
Musics, which was published about the year 1580. 

! After this character of the book a particular account of its contents 
1 hardly be wished for; there are printed with it three books of 
tablature, the first for the late, the second for an instrument called the 
Orpharion, and the third for one called 
the Bandore, concerning which two last 
it may not be amiss here to speak, and 
first of the Orpharion. It is of the fol- 
lowing form, and is thus described by 
the author : — 

*The Orpharion is strong with more 
'itringes than the lute, and also hath 
*inore f^ts or stons; and whereas the 
'lute is strung with gut stringes, the 
' Orpharion is stmng with wire stringes, 
' by reason of which manner of stringing, 
' the Orpharion doth necessarilie require 
' a more gentle and drawing stroke than 
'the lute; I mean the fingers of the 

* right hand must be easily drawn otcx 
' the stringes, and not suddenly griped or 
' sharpelie strokni as the lute is, for if 
' yee should doo so, then the wire stringes 
'would clash or Jarre together the one 
'against the other, which would be a 
'cause that the sound would be harsh 
' and unpleasant. Therefore it is meete 
' that you observe the difference of the 

* stroke. And cnnceming the fi-ets or 
'stoppes. the difference doth consist in 
'the dlflTerent number that is between 
'them, for the lute hath no further 
'than i, and the Orpharion hath to q; 
' but it is seldom that any lesson for the 
' Orpharion doth passe the stops of L or 
'M. yet those that ar^ cunning can at 
'their pleasure make use of all the 
' stops.' 

Among the lessons contained In this 
' book Tor the Orpharion, there is one named 
Bockington's Pound, which seems to be 
no other than that tune now called Pack- 
ington's Pound, and to which is adeptad 
nne of the songs in the Beggar's Opera. 
The original composer of it appears to be 
one Francis Cutting. 

As to the Bandore, the figure whereof is ;tUo given in the fbllowinf 
page, the author says it is easy to play on, ana is both commendable m, 
fit, either in consort or alone. He adds that the manner of tuninr doth 
a little diflfer ft-om the lute and orpharion, but he has forgotten to mentioB 
whether the strings are of wire, like those of the orphsrion, or of catgut 

Digitized by 


Chap. XCIX. 



* LoBsitis, perverting the sense of Lossius his wordes, 
' and giving ezamfdes flatte to the contrarie of that 

* whidi Lossins saitL And the last part of his book 
' treating of Descant he took verbatim out of an old 
' written booke which I have : but it should seeme 

* that whatsoever or whosoever he was that gave it 

* to the presse, was not the author of it himselfe, 
' else would he have set his name to it, or then he 
' was ashamed of his labour.' 

In the annotations on the tecond part of Morle/s 
Introduction is the following curious note on tiie 
term Descant * Thoughe I dare not affirme that 
'this part was in use with the musitions of the 
' learned PtolemsuSy or yet of that of Boetius, yet 

* may I with some reason say that it is more auncient 
' than pricksongy and only by reason of the name, 

* which is contrapunto, an Italian word devised since 
'the Gk>thes did overrun Italy, and changed the 
' Latine tongue into that barbarisme which they now 
' use. As for the word itselfe, it was at that time fit 
' enough to expresse the thing signified, because no 
' diversity of notes being used, the musicians instead 
'' of notes did set down dieir musicke in plain prickes 
' or points ; but afterwards, that custom being altered 
^ by the diversitie of forms of notes, yet the name is 
' retained amongst them in the former signification, 
' though amongst us it be restrained from the gene- 
' rality to sigmfie that species or kind which of all 
' others is the most simple and plaine ; and instead 

* of it we have usurped Uie name of descant Also 
' by continuance of time that name is also d^ene- 
' rated into another signification, and for it we use 
' the word setting and composing : and to come to 
' the matter which now we are to intreat of, the word 
' descant signifieth in our tongue the forme of setting 
^ together of sundry voices or concords for producing 

* harmony \ and a musician if he heare a song sung 

like tb0M of the lute, ffhie instmment 
is tald by Stowe In his Annals, peg. 899, 
to hiive been inrented in the fouru year 
of Qneea EUsebeth, bv John Rose, 
citixen of London, living in Bridewell. 

As to the instrument called the Or- 
pbarion, ebore described, it is necessary 
to be obsenred that it cannot be the same 
with the Orphion, mentioned in the 
poems of Sir Aston Cockaine to have been 
invented by Thomas Pilkington, one of 
the queen's musicians, for PiUdncton wss 
one of the musicians of Henrietta* the 
consort of Charles I., and the Orpharion 
appears to be of greater antiquity. 

Pilkington died about IMO, at Wolver. 
hampton^ aged thirty-five, and lies there 
buried. Besides an epitaph. Sir Aston 
Cockaine wrote a poem to his memory, 
in which are the following quibbling 

* Mastring all music that was known 

*He did invent the Orphlon, and gave 

* Though he by playing had aoquir'd 

*He evermore escaped the gamester's 

'Tet he at Gamut fluent was, and 

' Many to play, till death set hU Gam out. 
' His flats were all harmonious ; not like 

' Whose ebbs in prose or verse abuse our 

' But to what end praise I his flats, since 

' He la grown one himself, and now lies 


' and mislike it, he will say the descant is nought ; 
' but in this signification it is seldom used, and the 
' common signification which it hath is the singing 
' extempore upon a plain-song, in which sense there is 
* none who haith tasted the first elements of musicke 
' but understandeth it When descant did begin, by 
' whom, and where it was invented, is uncertaine ; for 
' it is a great controversie amongst the learned if it 
'were known to the antiquitie or no. And divers 
' do bring arguments to prove, and others to disprove 
'the antiquity of it; and for disproving of it they 
' say that in all the works of them who have written 
' of musicke before Franchinus, there is no mention 
' of any more parts than one, and that if any did 
' singe to the harpe, which was their most usual 
' instrument, they sung the same which they plaied. 
' But those who would affirme that the ancients knew 
' it, aaie : That if they did not know it, to what end 
'served all those long and tedious discourses and 
' disputations of the consonantes, wherein the most 
' part of their workes are consumed ? But whether 
' they knew it or not, this I will say, that they had 
' it not in halfe that variety wherein we now have it, 
' though we read of much more strange effects of 
' their musicke than of ours.'* 

At the end of this book is the following list of 
English musicians, the far greater part of whom 
appear to have flourished before the reformation. 
M. Pashe. Robert Jones. Jo. Dunstable. Leonel 
Power. Robert Orwel. M. Wilkinson. Jo. Gwin- 
neth. Robert Davis. M. Risby. D. Farfjax. D. 
Kirby. Morgan Grig. Tho. Ashwell. M. Sturton. 
Jacket Corbrand. Testwood. Ungle. Beech. 
Bramston. S. Jo. Mason. Ludford. Farding. 
Cornish. Pyggot. Tavemer. Redford. Hodges. 
Selby. Thome. Oclande. Averie. D. Tye. D. 
Cooper. D. Newton. M. Tallis. M. White. M. 
Persons. M. Byrde. 

By the compositions of Fairfax, Cornish, Tavemer, 
and Thome, already given, a judgment may be 
formed of the state of Music in &ose days. It 
appears that many of the old English musicians were 
men of learning in other faculties, particularly in 
astronomy and physic, and what is strange, in logic. 
Thome of York lies buried in the cathednd of that 
city, with the following inscription : — 

Here lyeth Thome, mufidan moft perfitt in his art, 
In Logick's lore who did excel! ; all vice who fet apart : 
Whofe lief and conreriation did all men*s love allure, 
And now doth reign above the Hcies in joys rooft firm and pure. 
Who died Decemb. 7, 1573. 

And in the same church is an inscription of the 

* It seems \xf the oonolasbm of this passage that Morley waa hut little 
acquainted with the eflbcts of modem music, for there is extant a relation 
to this purpose that suipasses all aecounU of tha power of ancient music 
over the human mind. It is this: a musician of Ericus king of 
Denmark, sumamed the Good, who reigned about the year 1180, a 
hundred vears after the time of Ouido, having given out that he was 
able by his art to drive men into what aflbctions he listed, even into «^ 
anger and ftiry, and being reoulred by the king to put his skill into 
practice, played so upon the harp that his anditors began first to be 
moTcd, and at last he set the king into such a ftantic mood, that in a 
rage he fell upon his most tiusty flriends, and, for lack of wc«pon, slew 
some of them with hla flst, which when he came to himself he did much 
lament. This story is recorded at large both by Ktantslus and Saxo 
Grammaticus, and is cited by Butler in his treatise on the Principles of 
Mu^c. pag. 7. ■' ■ 

Digitized by 




Book XI. 

like import, celebrating the memory of another of 
his profession in these words : — 

Muficus ct logicus Wyrnal hie jacet ecce Johannes 
Organa nainque quafi fecerat ille loqui. 

Thus hmnorously translated : — 

Musician and logician both, 

John Wyrnal lieth here ; 
Who made the organs erst to speak 

As if, or as it were. 


Thb foregoing acconnt may suffice to shew the 
design and method of Morley's Introduction to Music, 
a work for which all who love or practice the 
science are under the highest obligations to its author. 
John Caspar Trost, organist of the church of St. 
Martin at Halberstadt, a learned musician of the 
last century, translated it into the German language, 
and published it in folio, with th6 title of Musica 

The particulars of Morley's life are no otherwise 
to be collected than from a few scattered notes con- 
cerning him in the Athense Oxonienses, and from his 
own work, throughout which he speaks the language of 
a sensible, a learned, and a pious man, a little soured 
in his temper by bodily infirmities, and more by the 
envy of some of his own profession, of which he com- 
plains in very feeling terms in the preface to almost 
every one of his publications. In that before his In- 
troduction he speaks of the solitary life which he led, 
being compelled to keep at home, and that made him 
glad to find anything wherein to keep himself ex- 

ercised for the benefit of his country : and in the 

course of his work he takes frequent occasion to 

mention the declining state of his health at the time 

of his writing it; nevertheless he survived the 

publication of it some years, dying as it seems in the 

year 1604:. Doni, in his 'Discorso sopra la per- 

*fettione de Melodia,' printed with his treatise * De' 

*Generi e de* modi,' pag. Ill, styles him * Tommaso 

*Morley, erudite musico Inglese.' 

As a practical composer he has doubtless shown 
great abilities; he was an excellent harmonist, but 
did not possess the faculty of invention in any very 
eminent degree. His compositions seem to be the 
efifect of dose study and much labour, and have in 
them little of that sweet melody which are found in 
those of Bennet, Weelkes, Wilby, Bateson, and some 
others ; nor in point of invention and fine contrivance 
are they to be compared with those of either Bird or 
Tallis. He composed a solemn burial service, the 
first perhaps of the kind ever known in England, and 
which continued to be performed at the interment of 
persons of rank till it gave way to that of Purcell 
and Croft, which will hardly ever be excelled. 

After the expiration of the patent granted to Tallis 
and Bird, it seems that Morley had interest enough 
to obtain of queen Elizabeth a new one of the same 
tenor, but with ampler powers.^ It was granted to 
him 40 Eliz. Anno Dom. 1598. Under &is patent 
William Barley printed most of the music books 
which were published during the time that it con- 
tinued in force. 

The style of Morley may be judged of by the 
following composition, which is the fourteenth of his 
madrigals to four voices, published in 1594 : — 

BE-SIDES a fotm - taine, 

be-sides a foun - taine of sweet 

BE • SIDES a fonn - taine, be - sides a foun • taine of sweet 

bri - er 

brier and 

■Kg ^^===\ 

BE-SIDES a foon- taine, 


be-eidcs a foun - taine of sweet brier and 

BE - SIDES a foun - 

. . and . . ro 


heard I two lov-ers talk in sweet and wan -ton glo • 

ro-ses, heard I two lov-ers lov-ing talk in sweet and wan 

ton^ glo 

Digitized by 


Chap. C. 



. -sea, be-flides a foun - taiue, 

be-sides a fouu . taine of sweet bri - er . 

be - sides a foun - taine. 

be-sides a foun - taine of sweet brier and 

To-tes, heard I two lov-ers lov-ing talk in sweet and wan - ton glo 



and . 

ro - sea, 

heard I two lov-ers talk in sweet and wan-ton glo 



ro - ses, heard I two lov - ers talk in sweet and wan - 

ton glo 

heard I two lov-ers talk in sweet and wan - ton glo 

Say, dain-tydeere,qnothhe, to whom, tell me dain-tydeere, quoth he, to whom is thy 

ses, Say dain-tydeere, quoth he, to whom, . . say, dain-ty deere, to whom is thy lik - 

- ses. 

Say, dain-ty deere, quoth he, to whom is thy lik-ing ty 

- ses. 

Say, dain-tydeere, quoth he, to whom is thy lik - iug . 

- > ing ty - ed? To whom but thee, . . my bonny, bon-ny, bonny love, my love, to whom but 

my bonny love, my love? the gen - tie nymph 

Digitized by 




Book XL 

I die, I die, I die, quoth he, quoth he, and I, and I, and I» said 

I die, I die, I die, quoth he, 

and I, and I, audi, said 

die, I die, I die, quoili he. 

! ^TTT-r— ^ S 

and I, audi, and I, said she; 


die, I die, I die, quoth he. 

and I, and I, and I, said she ; 



ah, give me then, ah give me, give me then, quoth he, but he durst not 

ah, grive me then, ah give me, give me then, quoth he. 

ah, give me then, quoth he, give . me, give me, give me, give me then, 



^ ah, give me, give me then, quoth he, 

but durst not say, but 

say, durst he not, give . . me some to - ken, 

and . • with his hands 


durst not say some to 

ken, and . . with his hands the rest 


would have spo - ken. Fie a - way, nay fie a- way, cried the nymph then. 

fie a-way, nay fie a -way, then cried the nymph, a - laas you well doe know it ; ah, quoth 

- way, nay, cried the nymph, nay fie a - way, a • lass too well 3'ou know it ; ah, quoth he sweet • 


^S ^- ^^ ^^ J ^ ^Jnh- T^;rJ^^i^-^^ 


, . . nsyfie *-way, then cried thenyoiim, nayfie 

• -way, nay fie, a^lasa, you well doe know 

way, nay fie a-way, then cried the nymph, nay fie, a - lass, you well doe knoj 

Digitized by 


Chap. OL 



he, Bweet - lyoomekiaw me» then sweet- lycomekisse me» then iweet -lykiwe me and shew it. 

ly ooroe kisse mej„^n sweet - \y oome kisse me, then sweet - \y come kisse me, then, and shew it. 

it, qnoth he, sweet - ly come kisse me, then sweet - ly come kisse me, then sweet - ly, and shew it. 


William Bathe, a person scarce known to the 
world as a writer on mnsic, was nevertheless the 
anthor of a book with this title : ' A brief intro- 
' dnction to the trae art of mnsicke, wherein are set 
' downe exact and easie mles for such as seeke but to 
' know the traeth, with arguments and their solutions, 
' for such as seeke also to know the reason of the 
' trueth : which rales be meanes whereby any by his 
^owne industrie may shortly, easily, and regularly 
' attaine to all such thinges as to this arte doe belong : 

* to which otherwise any can hardly attaine without 
' tedious difficult practice, by meanes of the irregular 
'order now used in teaching, Jately set forth by 
'William Bathe, student at Ozenford. Imprinted 

* at London by Abel Jeffes, dwelling in Sermon-lane 
'neere Paules Chaine, anno 1584.' Small oblong 
quarto, black letter. 

The authors of the Biographia Britannica, adding 
their own laborious researches to a few memorials in 
the Athen. Ozon. have given a much more satisfactory 
account than could be expected of this obscure 
person, for his name does not once occur in any 
treatise extant on the subject of music. The account 
they give of him is that he was bom in Dublin anno 
1564; that he was descended from a considerable 
f^ily, who, what by rebellions, extravagance of 
heirs, and other misfortunes, were reduced to straight 
circumstances. They say of this William that he 
was of a sullen saturnine temper, and disturbed in 
his mind that his family was fallen from its ancient 
spendour; that he was educated under a Popish 
school-master, but removed to Cxford, where he 
studied several years with inde&tigable industry, 
but in what college, or whether he ever attained to 
any academical honours. Wood himself could never 
learn. That growing weary of the heresy, as he 
usually called the protestant &ith professed in Eng- 
land, he quitted the nation and his religion together, 
and in the year 1596 was initiated amongst the Jesuits. 
That having spent some time among the Jesuits in 
Flanders, he travelled into Italy, and completed his 
studies at Padua, from whence he passed into Spain, 
being appointed to govern the Irish seminary at 
Salamanca. That at leneth taking a journey to 
Madrid to transact some business of his order, he 
died there on the seventeenth day of June, 1614, 
and was buried in the Jesuits' convent of that city. 

Thomas Mouley. 

In the estimation of his brethren he was a man of 
learning ; and Wood says of him that he had a most 
ardent zeal for the gaining of souls ; and that though 
of a temper not very sociable, he was much esteemed 
by those of his own persuasion for his extraordinary 
virtues and good qualities. He was the author of 
several books, the titles whereof are given in the 
Biographia Britannica. 

His Introduction to Music is dedicated to his uncle 
Gerald Fitzgerald, earl of Kildare, and that for 
reasons which seem to betray somewhat of that 
saturnine temper above ascribed to him, for in it he 
thus expresses himself, * being rhetorically persuaded 
' to graunt to the publishing thereof, I forbore to do it 
' till I had considered two thinges, whereof the one 
' was the worthinesse of the matter. The other, the 
'feeding of the common affections. But for the 
' worthinesse, I thought it not to be doubted, seeing 
'heere one set forth a booke of a hundred mery 
' tales ; ♦ another of the battaile between the spider 
'and the fly;t another De Pugnis Porcorum; 
' another of a monster bom at London the second 
* of January, hedded lyke a horse and bodied lyke 
' a man, with other such lyke fictions ; and thinking 
' this matter then some of these to be more worthy. 
'As for the other, wich is to feede the common 
' affections of the patient learned, I doubt not but it 
' may soon be ; but he that wil take in hand to serve 
' to the purpose of every petty pratler, may as soone 
' by sprinckling water suffice the drienes of the earth, 
' as bring his purpose to passe.' 

The preface was doubtless intended by the author 
to recommend his book to the reader's perusal, but 
he has chosen to bespeak his good opinion rather by 
decrying the ignorance of teachers, and the method 
of instruction practised by them, than by pointing 
out any peculiar excellencies in his own work. He 
says that many have consumed a whole year before 
they could come at the knowledge of song only, but 
that he had taught it in less space than a month. 

But how highly soever the author might value his 
own work, he thought proper some years after the 
first publication to write it over again in such sort, 

* The author here mesne a trantletloo of Lee Centee NonTolles nou- 
Tellee» which ie mentioned hy Amee to hare heen printed about this time. 
The original was published in 1455, by Louis XI. of France, then 
dauphin, during his retreat firom his tether's eourt to that of the duke of 

t The Parable of the Spider and the Fly, quarto. 1556, in old English 
▼erse, by John Heywood. 

Digitized by 




Book XL 

as hardly to retain a single paragraph of the former 
edition. This latter edition was printed hy Thomas 
Este, without a date, with the title of ' A brief In- 
'troduction to the skill of song: concerning the 

* practice, set forth by William Bathe, gentleman.* 

And here again the author, according to his 
wonted custom, censures the musicians of his time, 
and magnifies the efficacy of his own rules ; for mark 
the modesty of his preface : — 

*01de musitions laid downe for song, manifold 

* and crabbed confuse tedious rules, as for example ; 
' though there be in all but size names, ut re hi fa 
' SOL LA, having amongst them an easie order, yet 
'could not they by rule declare, whether of these 
'should be attributed to everie note, unlesse they 
' had first framed the long ladder or skale of gamut, 
' to which some added, thinking the ladder too short ; 

* some hewed off a peece, thinking it too long. Then 
' would they have the learner be as perfect in coming 

* down backward, as in going up forward, lest in his 
' practice he should fall and break his necke. Then 

* must he learne gamut in rule, A re in space, ]] mi 
'in rule, G fa ur in space, <&c. Then must he 
' know GAMUT, how many cleves, how many notes. 
' A RE how many notes, <fec. Then must he know 
' H quadrij, proper-chant, and b mul, re in A rb, 

* whereby ut in C fa ut, whereby mi in A la mi re, 
' whereby, <fec. And when all have done, after their 
' long circumstances of time, whereby they should be 
' often driven to millibi, for notes standing in diverse 
' places of gamut have names that the place where 
' they stand comprehend not Touching all the 
' prolixe circumstances and needlesse difficulties that 
' they use, it loathes me greatly that heere I should 
' write them : and much more would it grieve the 
' reader to learne them. Also many things are used 
'in song for which they give no rules at all, but 
'committed them to dodge at it, harke to it, and 
' harpe upon it* 

The precepts for singing contained in this book 
are divided into ante rules, and post rules ; the ante 
rules respect Quantity, Time, and Tune ; the post 
rules, Naming, Quantity, Time and Tune; and, 
from the manifold objections of the author to the 
usual method of teaching, a stranger would expect 
that these were not only better calculated for the 
purpose of instruction, but also discoveries of his 
own ; but nothing like this appears : his rule of 
teaching is the scide with the six syllables, and the 
cliffs of Ouido ; the mutations, the stumblmg-block 
of learners, he leaves as he found them; and, in 
short, it may be truly said that not one of the * prolixe 
'circumstances or needlesse difficulties* that others 
use in teaching, is by him removed, obviated, or 
lessened : nevertheless, as a proof of the efficacy of 
his rules, he produces the following instances : — 

' In a moneth and leese I instructed a child about 
' the age of eight yeares to sing a good number of 
' songs, difficult crabbed songs, to sing at the first 
' sight, to be so indifferent for all parts, alterations, 
' cleves, flats and sharpes, that he could sing a part 
' of that kinde of which he never learned any song, 

< which child for strangeness was brought before the 

< lord deputie of Ireland to be heard sing, for there 

' were none of his age, tnongh he were longer at it, 

* nor any of his time (though he were elder) known 

* before these rules to sing exactly. 

' There was another who by dodging at it, heark- 
'ning to it, and harping upon it, could never be 
' brought to tune sharps aright, who so soone as heo 
' heard these rules set downe for the same, could tune 
' them sufficiently well. I have taught diverse others 
' by these rules in lesse than a moneth what myselfe 
' by the olde, obtained not in more than two yeares. 
' Diverse other proofes I might recite which heere 
' as needlesse I doe omit, because the thing will shew 
'itselfe. Diverse have repented in their age that 
' they were not put to sing in their youth ; but 
' seeing that by these rules, a good skill may be had 
' in a moneth, and the wayes learned in four or five 
' dayes : none commeth too late to learne, and 

* especially if this saying be true : That no man 
< is so olde but thinketh he may live one yeere 
' longer. As Aristotle in setting forth his pre- 
' dicaments saw many things requisite to be entreated 

* of, and yet unfit to be mixed with his treatise ; he 
' therefore made ante predicaments and post predica- 

* ments : so I for the same cause, desirous to abolish 
' confusion, have added to my rules, ante rules and 

* post rules. Vale.* 

As to these rules, the best that can be said of them 
is that there is nothing like them to be met with in 
any writer on music, and of the perspicuity of his 
style let this, which is the first chapter of his post 
rules of song, as he calls them, suffice for an example. 

' The exceptions from the order of ascention and 
' descention are diversely used according to the 
'diversitie of place, and accordingly they are to 
' be given, for each order in naming seemeth best to 

* them that have been brought up withall. 

' D is sometimes used in old songs as a cleve, and 
' putteth UT down to the fifth place. 

'In Italy as I understand, they change ut into 
' SOL : in England they change re into la, when the 
' next removing note before or after be under.* 

The following is the third chapter of this ingenious 
author's post rules, and respects the singing of hard 
proportions : — 

' In timing hard proportions that go odding, many 
'take care only of the whole stroke, wholly kept 
' without dividing it to the going up and then down 
' agayne of the himd. 

' Some keepe semibreefe time, as sufficient easie of 
' itselfe, and do not divide it into minim time.' 

' Three minim time is more difficult, and therefore 
' some do divide it into minim time.* 

But attend to a notable invention of this author for 
the measuring of time, and see what clear and in* 
telligible terms he has chosen to express his meaning. 

• Take a stick of a certaine length, and a stone of 
' a certaine weight, hold the stick standing upon an 
' end of some table : see you have upon the stick 

* divers marks : hold the stone up by the side of the 
' stick, then as you let fall the stone, instantly begin to 
' sing one note, and just with the noyse that it maketh 
'upon the table, begin another note, and as long 
' as thou boldest the first note, so long hold the rest, 

* and let that note be thy cratchet or thy minim, <fec.. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OIL 



" as thou seest cause, and thus maist thon measure 
' the verie time itselfe that thou keepest, and know 

* whether thon hast altered it or not/ 

The account above aiven affords occasion to 
mention a musician who licea about this ttmcy 
equally obscure, of the name of Whythome, the 
author of a book, of which the following (taking it 
from the Tenor Fart) is the title, and a very 
quaint one it is: ' Tenor of songs for 6 voices, 

* composed and made by TJiomas Whythome, gent. 

* The which songs be of sundry sorts, that is to say, 

* some long, some short, some hard, some code to be 
*songe, and some plesant or mery: so that accord- 
^ ing to the skill of the singers (not being musitians) 

* and disposition or delite of the hearers they may 

* here Jinde Songes for their contentation and 
^l^ng. 3 Now newly vublished A,D. 1571, 
^J^ At the end of this book ye shall find an ad- 

* vertisement concerning the use of the fiats and 
^sharps that are set with this mustcke, also of the 

* most needful faults to be amended that are escaped 

* in the printing these five Books.* The book is of 
an oblong form,prinied in a neat black letter type 
by old John Day. Whythomis name does not 
occur in any list of the musicians of this country, 
and it is inferred that he attained to no degree of 
eminence in his prof ession. 

John Mukby, organist, first of Eton college, and 
afterwards of the free chapel of Windsor in qneen 
Elizabeth's reign, was edacated nnder his father 
William Mnndy, one of the gentlemen of the chapel, 
and an eminent composer. In 1586, at the same 
time with Bull, Mundy the son was admitted to the 
degree of bachelor of music at Oxford ; and at the 
distance of almost forty years after was created 
doctor in the same faculty in that university. Wood 
speaks of a William Mundy, who was a noted 
musician, and hath composed several divine services 
and anthems, the words of which may be seen in 
Clifford's collection; this person was probably no 
other than Mundy the father. John* Mundy com- 

posed madrigals for five voices in the collection 
entitled the Triumphs of Oriana, before spoken of, 
and of which a particular account will be given 
hereafter ; was the author of a work entitled * Songs 
* and Psalmes composed into 3, 4, and 5 parts, for 
' the use and delight of all such as either love or 
Meame musicke,' printed in 1594. An excellent 
musician undoubtedly he was, and, as far as can be 
judged by the words he has chosen to exercise his 
talent on, a religious and modest man, resembling in 
this respect Bird. Wood says he gave way to fate 
in 1630, and was buried in the cloister adjoining to 
the chapel of St George at Windsor. 

CHAP. cn. 

Thomas Weelkes, organist of Winchester, and, 
as it should seem, afterwards of Chichester, was the 
author of Madrigals to 3, 4, 5, and 6 voices, printed 
in 1597. He also published in 1598 < Ballatte and 
' madrigals to five voices, with one to six voices ; ' 
and in 1600 ' Madrigals of six parts apt for the viols 
'and voices.* Walther in his Lexicon mentions 
that a monk of the name of Aranda published a 
madrigal of Weelkes in a collection of his own 
printed at Helmstadt in the year 1619. A madrigal 
of his for six voices is published in the Triumphs of 
Oriana. He also composed services and anthems, 
which are well known and much esteemed. An an- 
them of his ' Lord grant the king a long life/ is 
printed in Barnard's collection. 

There is extant also a work entitled * Ayeres or 
' phantasticke spirites for three voices, made and newly 
' published by Thomas Weelkes gentleman of his 
' majesties chapell, Bachelar of musicke, and Organest 
' of the Cathedral church of Chichester.* Lond. 1608. 

This collection contains also a song for six voices 
entitled ' A remembrance of my friend M. Thomas 

The following most excellent madrigal of Weelkes 
is the eleventh in the collection published by him 
in 1597:— 



my wont - ed joyes for - sake mee. 

my wont-ed 

AYE mee, . my wont - ed joyes for - sako mee, my wont - ed joyes for - sake mee, 

my wont-ed joyes for - sake . . mee. 


deep . . des - paire 


joyes for • sake mee. 

and . . 


des - paire 

doth o 

Digitized by 




Book XL 

des - paire 

doth • . o-ver - take mee. Aye mee, . . my wont ~ ed joyes for - 

ver-take, doth - - veir-take mee. Aye 

- sake mee, my wont - ed joyes for - sake mee, my wont-ed joyes for - sake . . mee. 

^pF==^=f^^^^^ T r I r-r - -.^a-K_rr~"!n'^'^feg=t^^ 

my wont - ed joyes for - sake mee, 

my wont -ed joyes for -sake mee, and 


I whi - lome, whilome sung, I whi - lome song, . . bat . . now I 

mee; I whilome, whilome sung, I . . . whi - lome sung, but now I 



I whilome sung. 

I whilome sung, I whi - lome sung, but now 


mee; 1 whilome, whilome sung, I whi - lome sung, I wtu - lome sung, but now I 

weep; thus sor-rowes run when joy doth creep, 

thus sorrowes ran when 
m "f- ^- 


thus sor-rowes run when joy doth creep, 

thus sor-rowes run when joy doth creep. doth 

weep; thus sor-rowes run when joy doth creep, 

thus 8om>wo« ran when 

Digitized by 


Chap. CII. 



joy doth creep, 

thus florrowes run when joy doth creep, 

thus sorrowes run when joy doth creep, 

creep, thus sor-rowes run when joy doth creep, 

thus Bor-rowes run when 

thus 8or-rowes run when 

joy doth creep, 

thus sorrowes run when joy doth creep, 


joy doth creep, 

sorrowes ran when joy dothcreep, when joy 

doth creep. 


rowes run when joy doth creep. 

thus sorrowes run when joy doth creep, 

when joy doth creep. I wish to 

I wislTT. to live, and yet I dye. and yet I d ye, I dye, 

for love 


to live, and yet I dye, and yet I dye. 

By the Fasti Oxon. it appears that in 1602 
Williain Weelkes of New College, Oxon. was ad- 
mitted to the degree of bachelor ; and Wood makes 
it a question whether the register of the university 
might not mistake the name of William, for that of 
Thomas Weelkes, which, considering the relation 
between New College and Winchester college, it is 
more than probable he did. 

OhiBB Fabnabt of Christ-Church college, Oxford, 

- se - ry. 
Thomas Weblkbs. 

was in 1592 admitted bachelor of music. He was of 
Truro in Cornwall, and nearly related to Thomas 
Famabie, the famous school master of Kent : there 
are extant of his composition. Canzonets to 4 voices, 
with a song of eight parts. Lond. 1698. A few of 
the Psalm-tunes in Kavenscroft*s Collection, Lond. 
1633, that is to say, the three additional parts to the 
tenor or plain-eong, which is the ancient church tune^ 
are of Farnaby's composition. 

Digitized by 




Book XI. 

John Milto5, the father of onr celebrated epic 
poet, though not bo by profession, was a musician, 
a&d a much more excellent one than perhaps will be 
imagined. He was born at Milton near Halton and 
Thame, in Oxfordshire, and, by the advice of a 
friend of the family, became a scrivener, and followed 
that business in a shop in Bread-street, London,* 
having for his sign the spread eagle, the device or 
•coat-armour of the family. Under whom, or by 
what means he acquired a knowledge of music, the 
accounts that are given of him are silent, but that he 
was so eminently skilled in it as to be ranked among 
the first masters of his time there are proofs irre- 
fragable, f His souy in a Latin poem entitled 
^^ Ad Patrem" celebrates his skill in music ; and 
in the following lines thereof j says of his father 
and himself that the attributes of Pncebus, Music 
nnd Poetry, were divided between them : — 
' Ipse voleru Phcebtu te dUpertire diiobus 
' Altera dona mihif dedit altera dona parenti, 
* Dividuum que Detm genitor que puerque tenemus,* 

Among the Psalm -tunes composed into four 
parts by sundry authors, and published by Thomas 
Kavenscrofb in 1633, there are many, particularly 
that common one called York tune, with the name 
John Milton ; the tenor part of this tune is so well 
known, that within memory half the nurses in Eng- 
land were used to sing it by way of lullaby ; and 
the chinies of many country churches have played it 
six or eight times in four and twenty hours from 
time immemorial. In the Triumphs of Oriana is 
a madrigal for five voices, composed by John Milton , 
and in a collection of musicial airs and songs for 
voices and instruments entitled 'The Teares or 
'lamentations of a sorrowful soule,' composed by 
Bird, Bull, Orlando Gibbons, Dowland, Ferabosco, 
Coperario, Weelkes, Wilbye, in short, by most of the 
great masters of the time, and set forth by Sir 
William Leighton, knight, one of the gentlemen 
pensioners in 1614, are several songs for five voices 
by John Milton, and among the rest, this : — 

had I wings like to a dove, O had I wings, had I wings like 

O had I wings like to 

a dove, 


had I wings 



had I wings like 

• The woTd •erlTener ancieiitly lignifled a mere copyist. Chaneer 
nbukM h\» amanuensis by the name of Adam SerlTenere. The writing 
of deeds and charters, mn^ng serrioe-books, and copying manuscripts, 
was one of the employments of the regular clergy. After the dissolution 
of TsUffioas booses, the business of a scriTener became a lay profession ; 
and l« Jae. a company of scriveners was incorporated, about which time 
they betook themselTes to the writing of wUm, leases, and such other 
1 as required but little skill in the law to prepare. It was at 

this time a reputable, and, if we may Judge from the circumstances of 
the elder Milton, and the education which he gave his children, a lucra. 
tire profession ; but after the Are of London the emoluments of It were 
greatly enereased br the multiplicity of business which that accident 
gaTO ooQMfam to. Irands Klrkman the bookseller was put apprentice 
to a scrlTener, and, In the account of his life, entitled The Unlucky 
Cttlsaii, he relates that almost all the business of the city in making 
lessei, mortgages, and assignments, and procuring money on securities 
of ground and houses, was transacted by these men, who hence assumed 
the name of mon«'y scriveners. The furniture of a scrivener's shop was 
a sort of pew for the master, desks for the apprentices, and a bench for 
the clients to sit on till their turn came to be dispatched. The following 
Jest may serre to explain the manner in which this business was carried 
on: A country fellow passing along Cheapside, stopped to look In at 
a scrivener's shop, and seeing no wares exposed to sale, asked the 
apprentice, the only person in it, what they sold there ? Loggerheads, 
answered the Isd. By my troth, says the countryman, ' you must have 
* a roaring trade then, for I see but one left in the shop.' 

t We are told by Phillips, In Msaeooant of his anele Mllton« that he 
also was skilled In mnsio. Mr. Fentnn In his life of him adds ihat he 
played on the organ : and there can be but little reason to suppose, con- 

sidering that he had his education in London, vis., in St. Paul's school, 
that he had his Instruction in music fhmi any other person than hia 
fisther. From many passages In his poems it appears that Milton the 
younger had a deep sense of the power of hannony OTer the human 
mind. This in the II Penseroso— 

' But let mT due feet never fall 

* To walk the studious oldsters pale, 
' And love the hich embowed roof; 

* With antique pillars massy proof, 
' And storied windows richly dight, 

* Casring a dim religious light. 

* There let the pealing organ blow, 

* To the ftill-voic'd choir below, 

' In service high and anthems dear, 

* As may with sweetness, through mine ear 

* Dissolve me into extasles, 

* And bring all Heav'n before mine eyes.' 

shews that however he might object to choral service as a matter of dis- 
o^line, he was not proof against that enthnslastic devotion which it has 
a tendency to excite. It may here be remarked that the lines above 
quoted present to the reader's imagination a view of an ancient Gothic 
cathedral, and call to his recollection such ideas as may be supposed to 
possess the mind during the performance of the solemn choral service ; 
and it is probable that tne poet became thus hnprested in his youth hy 
his frequent attendance at the cathedral of St. Paul, which was near his 
school, and In his father's neighbourhood, where the service wiu moro 
solemn than ii is now, an<l which cathedral, till It was deHroytd by tlie 
fire of London, had perhaps the most venerabie and awfhl appearance of 
any edifice of the kind in the wond. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OIL 




a dove. 

had I wings liko to a dove, like to a 

O . had I wings like to • a dove, O had I wings like 

trou-hles flie» then should I from these trou-bles flie. 

then . . should I 

j! - nr p g : n^— T-^^i^j_^L_ i J-^ mr r r r 

then should I ttom these troubles fiie, these trou - bles fiie» then should I from these troubles 




then should I ftt)m these trou - bles flie, these troubles file, 

then should I 

to a dove, 

then should I from these trou - bles flie, then should I from these troubles 

then should I from these trou-bles flie, these 

from these troubles flie, then should I from these trou-bles flie, these trou - bles flie, 



should I from these trou - bles £ie, to 

from these troubles flie, . . . then should I from these trou-bles flie, 


flie, from these trou -bles flie. 

then should I from these trou-bles flie, to wil - der - 

trou-bles flie, then should I from these u-ou-bles flie, these trou - bles flie, 

wil-der-nesse I would . . re - move, I would re - - move, re - move, 

- - nesse I would re-move, I would re 


to spend my life and there to 

'^ wil-der-nesse • 

would re-move, I would 

re - move, to spend my life 


Digitized by 




Book XI. 

^ r J f I f -^C- Lf r r r i f.J'pir r r i^ i - i— -— 4 

•pendmy life, . . 

to sp end my life and there to die, and there to die. 

to spen d my l ife and there to die, and there . • 

to die, die, and thereto die,. 

r-f^-f^ — n^ I " 

die, to die, . • 

and there to die, to spend my life and there to 

J ' I - I - r I r 




7r r h 




spend my life. 

and there to die. 

and • . . thereto 

^ -J i .. iTL- r r I: 

die, and there to die, ... to die. 



there to die. 



thereto die, aod^T^. there to die, . . to die. 

there to die, and there to die. 

to die, and thereto die, t» . • . 

John Milton. 

And lastly, it is said in the life of Milton the son, 
written by his nephew Edward Phillips, and prefixed 
to a translation of some of his Latin letters of state, 
printed in 1694, that Milton the father composed an 
In Nomine of no fewer than forty parts, for which he 
was rewarded by a Polish prince, to whom he pre- 
sented it, with a golden medal and chain.* 

CHAP. cm. 

John Copbrario, a celebrated artist on the viol 
da gamba, and a good composer for that instrument, 
and also for the lute, was in great reputation about 
the year 1600. He excelled in the composition of 
fantasias for viols in many parts ; he taught music 
to the children of James the First ; and under him 
prince Charles attained to a considerable degree of 
proficiency on the viol ; some of his vocal compo- 
sitions are to be found in Sir William Leighton's 
collection, mentioned in the preceding article, and of 

* A golden medal tnd cludn was the usual gratuity of princes to men 
of esBinence in any <rf the faculties, more espeoally Uw, physle, foetiy, 
and music. Orlando de Lasso is always represented in paintings and 
engravings with this ocnament about his neck, as are Matthiohis, Ban- 
dius, Sennertus, Erycius Puteanus, and many others. It seems that tha 
medal and chain once bestowed as a testimony of princely CsTour, was 
OTor alter n part of the dress of the person thus honoured, at least on 
public occasions. So lately as the bednning of the present centurr the 
emperor Joseph I. presented Antonio Lotti of Venice with a gold chain, 
as a compliment for dedicating to him a book of Duetti Tersetti, fto. 
of his composition, in which was contained the famous madrigal ' In una 
SItpe ombrota.' Letters from the Academy of ancient Music at London 
to Bignor Antonio LotU of Vaoloa, 1732. 

his fantasias there are innumerable in manuscript. 
He, in conjunction with Nicholas Laniere and others, 
composed songs in a masque written by Dr. Thomas 
Campion, on occasion of the marriage of Can* earl of 
Somerset and the lady Frances Howard, the divorced 
countess of Essex, and presented in the banquetting- 
room at Whitehall on St. Stephen's night, 1614. 
Mr. Fenton, in his notes on Waller, on what authority 
he does not mention, says that Henry Lawes having 
been educated under him, introduced a softer mixture 
of Italian airs than before had been practised in our 
nation, from which, and from his giving him the 
appellation of Signor, he seems to intimate that he 
was an Italian : but the &^ is that he was an English- 
man, and named Cooper, who having spent much of 
his time in Italy, Italianized his name to Coperario, 
and was called so ever after. Coperario composed 
fantasias for viols to a great number, which are extant 
in manuscript only. Hb printed works are, the songs 
composed by him in conjunction with Laniere on 
occasion of the above-mentioned marriage, and these 
that follow : — 

'Funeral Teares for the death of the Bight 
'Honorable the Earle of Devonshire, figured in 
'seaven songes, whereof sixe are so set forth that 
' the wordes may be exprest by a treble voice alone 
< to the lute and base viol, or else that the meane 
' part may be added, if any shall affect more fulncsse 

Digitized by 


Chap. CUI. 



' of parts. The seaventh is made in forme of a dia- 
'logae, and camiot be smig without two voices. 

* Invented by John Coperario. Pins pi6 FoL 
Lond. 1606. 

'Songs of Mourning, bewailing the untimely 
' death of prince Henry, worded by Thomas Cam- 
' pion, and set forth to bee sung with one voice to 
' the lute or violl by John Coperario.' FoL Lond. 1613. 

Elway Bevin, a man eminently skilled in the know- 
ledge of practical composition, fiourished towards the 
end of queen Elizabeth's reign. He was of Welsh 
extraction, and had been educated under Tallis, upon 
whose recommendation it was that on the third day 
of June, 1589, he was sworn in, gentleman extraor- 
dinary of the chapely from whence he was expelled 
in 1637, it being discovered that he adhered to the 
Eomish communion. He was also organist of Bristol 
cathedral, but forfeited that employment at the same 
time with his place in the chapel. Child, afterwards 
doctor, was his scholar. It is worthy of remark that 
although Wood has been very careful in recording 
eminent musicians, as well those of Cambridge as of 
Oxford, the name of Bevin does not once occur in 
either the Athense or Fasti Oxonienses. One of the 
reasons for his care in preserving the memory of men 
of this faculty was that himself was a passionate lover 
of music, and a performer, and Bevin's merits were 
such as intitled him to an eulogium, so that it is 
difficult to account for this omission. The above 
memoir however will in some measure help to 
supply it He has composed sundry services, some 
of which are printed in Barnard's collection, and 
a few anthems. 

Before Bevin's time the precepts for the composition 
of canon were known to few. Tallis, Bird, Waterhouse, 
and Farmer, were eminently skilled in this most ab- 
struse part of musical practice. Every canon as given 
to the public, was a kind of enigma. Compositions 
of this kind were sometimes exhibited in the form of 
a cross, sometimes in that of a circle : there is now 
extant one resembling a horizontal sun-dial ; and the 
resolution as it was called of a canon, which was the 
resolving it into its elements, and reducing it into 
score, was deemed a work of almost as great difficulty 
as the original composition ; but Bevin, with a view 
to the improvement of students, generously com- 
municated the result of many years study and ex- 
perience in a treatise which is highly commended by 
all who have taken occasion to speak of it 

This hock was published in quarto, 1631, and 
dedicated to €k)odman, bishop of Gloucester, with 
the following title : — ' A briefe and short instruction 
' of the art of musicke, to teach how to make discant 
' of all proportions that are in use : Very necessary 

* for aU such as are desirous to attain to knowledge 

* in the art ; and may by practice, if they can sing, 
' soone be able to compose three, four, and five parts, 
'and also to compose all sorts of canons that are 
' usuall, by these Erections of two or three parts in 
' one upon the plain-song.' 

The rules contained in this book for composition in 
general are very brief ; but for the composition of 
canon there are in it a great variety of examples of 

almost all the possible forms in which it is capable 
of being constructed, even to the ext&ot of sixty 
parts. In the course of his work the author makes 
use of only the following plain-song — 


as the basis for the several examples of canon con- 
tained in his book, and it answers through a great 
variety of canons, following at the stated distances of 
a crochet, a minim, a semibreve, a breve, and three 
minims, by augmentation and diminution, rect^ et 
retro and per arsin et thesin of three in one, four in 
two, in the diatessaron and subdiatessarcn, diapente 
and subdiapente, and at various other intervals. Bat 
what must be matter of amazement to every one 
acquainted with the difficulties that attend this species 
of composition is, that these few simple notes appear 
virtually to contain in them all those harmonies which, 
among a great variety of others, the following compo- 
sition of this author is contrived to illustrate : — 



l^-r^ 1 


■ j^ 1 -^ 1 




— ir^"^ — 


1 d 

II ^ 


-^^ :_ H 









Bi^p-i h 1 I TH ^^ 

The author seems to have been a devout, but, in 
some degree, a superstitious man, for speaking of 
a canon of three parts in one, he makes use of these 
words : — 

' A Canon of three in one hath resemblance to the 
' Holy Trinity, for as they are three distinct parts 
'comprehended in one. The leading part hath 
' reference to the Father, the following part to the 
' Sonne, the third to the Holy Ghost.* 

Thomas Batbson, an excellent vocal composer, 
was about the year 1600 organist of the cathedral 
diurch of Chester. Wood says he was a praon 
esteemed very eminent in his profession, especially 
after the publication of his English madrigals to 
3, 4, 5, and 6 voices. About 1618 he became 
organist and master of the children of the cathedral 
church of the blessed Trinity in Dublin, and in the 
university of that city it is supposed he obtained the 
degree of bachelor of music. The following is one 
of his madrigals for three voices :— 

Digitized by 




Book XL 

YOUR shin -ing eiee and gold -en haire, your 111- ly roe -ed lipps most faire, your lil-ly roe - ed 

YOUR shin -ing eies and gold -en haire, your lll-ly ros-ed lipps mostfaire, your lil-ly ros - ed 
YOUR shin-ing eies and gold- en haire, your lil - ly ros - ed lipps most fure, yonr lil-ly rus - ed 

J J— J ir r r ra^U-J ra i j ■ F r r ir r r ^ 

lipps most faire, 

yonr o - ther beaatles that ex - oel, your e - ther beau -ties that ex - 

lipps most faire, your o - ther beau -ties tliat 

h'pps most faire,yonr o - ther beau -ties that ex - eel, 

ex - eel, your o - ther beau - ties that ex 

your o - ther beau -ties that ex 

- eel, 

men eannotchuse but like them well, men cannot chuse but like them 

- eel, men cannot chuse but like them well, men can - not chuse, men cannot chuse but like them 

eel, men cannot chuse but like them well, men can - not chuse, men cannot chuse but like them 

well, but when for them . . . they say they*ll die, they say theyUl die. 


well, but when for them they . . say the/U die, they say they'll die, be - lieve them 

^ well, but when for them they say they'll die, they say they'll die, be- lieve 

» r i f * f r } " F- r ^- — [— "r ■ p J"- 


— 1 r- 

^ r — ^ — 1 F- r * f =e — F — j — j — r p ^ 

*^ -lieve them not, they do but lie, be - lieve them not, they do 
■ 1 ftp J^ JlpJi^jJlf' J if p J- 


1 ^ \ =± 
lie, be - - 

hH r r -1 — 

l^fc-E- — p-^.d^i^- r * i^ ^ -F -^ f — F — — 

not, they do but lie, but lie, be - lieve them not, they do 


lie, be - lieve them 

r^ — H r-h 

''t '^ r ...- "^ — • — F — ^ — 1 ^ J 1 ^ •^ 

^ them not, they do but lie, be - lieve them not, they do but 

lie, be . 

-lieve them not, they do but lie, be - lieve . . . them not, they do. . but 

not, they do but lie, ... be - lieve them not, they do but lie, they do ... . but 

^ - Ueve them not, they do but lie, . . . 


Digitized by 


Chap. CIIL 





bat when for them . 

-4 ' I 1 

they say they'll die, they say they'll die, 


but when for them they say 

t" J >» r I r ' g r : I r 

they'll die, they say they'll die, be - lieve them 
^ IJ J I L J_jL^ 

TJ . / J J 



but when for them they say 


die, they say they'll die, be - lieve 

1-1? r J r- 

^=r^ r — 1 

^ > -^ -| - 

1 r ■ r J— iR 

1— j r C 

jK r ' 1 — 

" - lieve them not. 


T— ^— F : 

do but lie, 

1 f "1 ■! — 1 

be - lieve them 

r 1^ ' -^— 

not, they do but 

] 1 — 1 

.^ 1 

lie, be - - 

yF^ '-P-'TS ^- 

■f_J-^ ^ dli=^ 

Lj; ^ p J J i,j r f—^^ 

not, they do 


lie, but lie, be - 

1 I r J J 1 

lieve them 

— i 1 — r ■ J^ 

not, they do but 

— 1 1 

lie, bo -lieve them 
^ -p ^-z 

Iff, ^ MM • 

^ them not, 

J — «-. 


^ r ^ — 

do but lie, be - 

1 ^ J — r * 

lieve them not, they 

do but 

.SL ^C 1 

lie, be - 

•-lieve ihem not, they do but lie, be - lieve . . . them not, they do . . but lie. 

not, they do but lie, . . .be - lieve them not, they do but lie, they do . . . but lie. 


lieve them not, they do but lie, 

Thomas Tomkiks was of a family that seems to 
have produced more musicians than any in England. 
His father was Thomas Tomkins, Chanter of the 
choir of Gloucester, who discovering in his son a 
propensity to music, put him under the care of Bird, 
by whose instructions he so profited, that for his 
merits he was made a gentleman of the chapel royal, 
and afterwards organist thereof: some years after 
this he became organist of the cathedral church at 
Worcester, and composed songs of 3, 4, 5, and 6 
parts, printed at London without a date, but conjec- 
tured to have been published before the year 1600. 
He was also the author of a work in ten books, 
intitled ' Musica Deo sacra et Ecclesise Anglicanse,' 
consisting of anthems, hymns, and other compositions 
adapted to the church service. The words of others 
of his compositions of this kind may be seen in the 
collection of James Clifford before mentioned. The 
same James Clifford had what Wood calls a set of 
vocal church-music of four and five parts in manu- 
script, composed by Thomas Tomkins, which he gave 
to the collection of music in the library of Mt^dalen • 
college, Oxford. Some of the madrigals in the 
Triumphs of Oriana were composed by Thomas 
Tomkins, the subject of the present article. The 
time both of his birth and death are uncertain, as are 
also the particular times when his works were 
severally published; all that can be said touching 
the time when he flourished is, that he was a scholar 
of Bird, that he was admitted to his bachelor's degree 
in 1607, being then of Magdalen college, and that he 


but lie. 

Thomas Bateson. 

was living, as Wood relates,* after the grand re- 
bellion broke out He had a son named Nathaniel, 
a prebendary of Worcester, and several brethren, 
among whom were Giles, organist of the cathedral 
church of Salisbury; John, organist of St Paul's 
cathedral, and a gentleman of the chapel ;t and 
Nicholas, one of the gentlemen of the privy-chamber 
to king Charles I., a person well skilled in the 
practice of music. 

Nicholas Laniebb, Lakibr, or Laneare (a Par- 
trait), for in all these ways is his name spelt, a musician 
of eminence in his time, though he lived and died in 
England, was bom in Italy in the year 1568. He 
was a painter and an engraver, which two latter pro- 
fessions have entitled him to a place in the Anecdotes 
of Painting in England, published by Mr. Walpole, 
who has nevertheless considered him as a musician, 
and has given a brief but curious account of him. 

During the reign of James I. the household mu- 
sicians, those of the chapel, and many others of 

• Fasti Oxon, vol. I. col. 176. 

t In the old cathedral of St. Paul was the following inscription in 
' memory of him : — Johannes Tomkins, Musicae Baccalaureus, Organista 
'sul temporis celeberrimus, postquam Capellae regali, per annos duo- 
' decim, huio antem Ecclesise per novemdecem sedulo inserriiaset. ad 
'coBlestem chorum roigravit, Septembrls 27, Anno Domini, 168t. 
' ^tatis SU8B 52. Cujus desiderium mcerens uxor hoc testatur Mar- 
'more.' Dogd. Hist. St. Paul's Cath. edit. 1658. 0/ this penon 
Wood »a!fs, he was in high esteem for his admirable knowledge in the 
Iheoreiieal and praetieal part of his faculty. Among the poems Qj 
Phineas Fletcher, (the author of the " Purple Island,") is one in which, bp 
the name of Thomalin he is celebrated, for the sieeetneu of his musical 
strains, with a tender reproof for his preferring court enjoyments to the 
pleasures of rural life; and it is highly probable that Fletcher meant to 
characterise him in Mtf second, sixth, and last of his j itcatonj eclogues, in 
each of %Dhich Thomalin is interlocutor. 

Digitized by 




Book XL 

eminence, whom the patronage of Elizabeth had 
produced, weje neglected, and very little of the royal 
favour was extended to any besides Laniere and 
Coperario; and for this it will not be difficult to 
assign a reason : the one was an Italian by birth, and 
the other had lived in Italy till his style, and even 
his very name, were so Italianized, that he was in 
general taken for a native of that country : these men 
brought into England the Stylo Recitativo, as it is 
called in the masque mentioned by Mr. Walpole, and 
which had then lately been invented by Jacopo Peri, 
and Giulio Caccini, and improved by Glaudio 

The masque at Lord Hay's for the entertainment 
of the Baron de Tour, in Ben Johnson's works, was, 
as therein \b mentioned, composed by Laniere solely; 
but at a solemnity of a different kind, the infamous 
nuptials of Carr earl of Somerset with the lady 
Frances Howard, the divorced countess of Essex, 
he and Coperario lent their joint assistance, for in 
a masque, written by Dr. Thomas Campion and per- 
formed in the banquetting room at Whitehall on 
St. Stephen's night, 1614, on occasion of that marriage, 
and printed in die same year, their names occur as the 
composers of the music. The masquers were the duke 
of Lenox, the earls of Pembroke, Dorset, Salisbury, 
Montgomery ; the lords Walden, Scroope, North, 
and Hayes ; Sir Thomas, Sir Henry, and Sir Charles 

Many songs of Laniere are to be met with in 
collections published in the time of Charles I. but 
they seem to have little to recommend them. 

An admirable portrait of himself, painted by his 
own hand, is yet in the music-school at Oxford, an 
engraving from which is inserted in the Appendix : 
at his right hand is a skull, in the mouth whereof is 
a label, containing a canon of his composition. 

George Febbbe, master of arts of Magdalen 
college, Oxford, 1595, minister of Bishop's Cannings, 
Wilts, was a native of Gloucestershire, and well 
skilled in music. Wood, in the Fasti Oxon. vol. I. 
Col. 150, has given a curious account of him, which 
is here inserted in his own words : — ' This person 
' did instruct divers young men of his parish in the 

* faculty of music, till they could either play or sing 

* their parts. In the year 1613, Qu. Anne, the royal 
' consort of K. James I. made her abode for some 

* weeks in the city of Bath, purposely for the use of 
' the waters there, in which time he composed a song 
' of four parts, and instructed his scholars to sing it 
' perfectly, as also to play a lesson or two which he 
'had composed, upon their wind-instruments: on 
' the 11th June, the same year, the queen in her 
' return from Bath did intend to pass over the downes 

* at Wensdyke, within the parish of Bishop's Cannings. 

* Of which Ferebe having timely notice, dressed him- 
' self in the habit of an old bard, and caused his 
'scholars whom he had instructed, to be doathed 
' in shepherds' weeds. The queen having received 
' notice of these people, she with her retinue made 
'a stand at W^ensdyke, whereupon these musicians 
' drawing up to her, played a most admirable lesson 

* on their wind-instruments ; which being done, they 

* sang their lesson of four parts with double voices, 
' the beginning of which was this : — 

' Shine, O thou sacred shepherds' star 
' On silly shepherd swains, &c. 

* which being well performed also, the bard concluded 
' with an epSogue, to the great liking and content of 
' the queen and her company. Afterwards he was 
' sworn chaplain to his majesty, and was ever after 
' much valued for his ingenuity.' 


The account herein before immediately given 
contains the succession of theoretic and practical 
musicians down to the end of the sixteenth century, 
at the commencement whereof, music, not to speak of 
that kind of it which was appropriated to divine 
service, from being the domestic recreation of private 
persons, and the entertainment of select companies, 
was introduced into the theatre, and made an 
auxiliary to dramatic performances. But before the 
history of this union and the subsequent progress of 
practical music can be given, it is necessary to review 
the past period, and ascertain the state of music in 
general at the close of it. 

The compositions peculiar to the church, not to 
distinguish between one and the other of them, were, 
as has been related, the Mass, the Motet, the Anthem, 
and thp Hymns for various occasions, such as the 
Stabat Mater, Salve Regina, A Solis ortu. Alma 
Bedemptoris Mater, Ave Begina Coelorum, and others 
to be found in the Romish Missal, the Antiphonary, 
and the Breviary; the only species of vocal har- 
mony calculated for private amusement hitherto 
mentioned, were the Madrigal, the Canon, and the 
Catch or Round, all which required a plurality of 
voices ; and of instrumental, the Fantazia for viols 
and other instruments to a certain number. But 
besides these, the names of sundry other kinds of 
vocal and instrumental harmony and melody occur 
in Morley's Introduction, and other musical tracts, 
of which it is here proper to take notice ; and first of 
the Canzone. 

The Canzone is a composition somewhat resembling, 
but less elaborate than the madrigal. It admits of 
little fugues and points, and seldom exceeds three 
parts, though the name is sometimes given to a song 
for one voice. Cervantes, in Don Quizote, calls the 
song of Chrysostom a Canzone. 

The word Canzonet is a diminutive of Canzone, 
and therefore means a little or short canzone or song 
in parts. Luca Marenzio, though he in general 
applied himself to more elaborate studies, Giovanni 
Feretti, and Horatio Vecchi, are said to have excelled 
in this species of composition. 

The Villanella, the lightest and least artificial kind 
of air known in music, is a composition, as Morley 
says, made only for the ditty's sake, in which he 
adds, many perfect chords of one kind, nay even dis- 
allowances, may be taken at pleasure, suiting, as he 
says, a clownish music to a clownish matter. Among 
the sonnets of Sir Philip Sidney is one said to be 
written to the air of a Neapolitan villanella. 

Digitized by 





The Ballet is a tone to a ditty, and which may 
likewise be danced to. Morley speaks also of a kind 
of Ballets called Fa la's, some whereof, composed by 
Grastoldi, he says he had seen and it seems imitated, 
for there is a collection of songs of this kind by 
Morley in five parts. 

Morley mentions many other kinds of air in 
practice in his time, as namely, the Pavan,* the 
Passamezzo, the Galliard, the Courant, the Jig, the 
Hornpipe, the Scottish Jig, and others. It most be 
noted thi^ these were all dance-tunes, and that the 
difference between the one and others of them lay 
in the difference of measure and the number of bars 
of which the several strains were made to consist. 

But of vocal music the madrigal appears to have 
been most in practice of any kmd at this time, as 
well in England as in other countries ; it was some 
years after this species of harmony was invented, that 
the English musicians applied themselves to the study 
of it, for Bird seems to have been the first composer 
of madrigals in this country ; his first essay of the 
kind was upon two stanzas of the Orlando Furioeo, 
' La Verginella,' which he set for five voices, and 
was received with the utmost degree of approbation. 

Hitherto a madrigal to any other thui Italian 
words was a thing not known ; and it seemed to be 
a doubt among musicians whether the words of 
English poetry could with any degree of propriety 
be made to consist with the madrigal style of musical 
composition, till 1583, when a certain gentleman, 
whose name is unknown, for his private delight, 
made an essay of this kind, by translating the words 
of some most celebrated Italian madrigals into English 
verse, so as thus translated they might be sung to the 
original notes. These came to the hands of one 

* The PaTMi, from Pato s peacock, to a gxare and ro^jeatic dance ; the 
method of dandna it was anciently bjr gentlemen dreeted with a cap and 
sword, bjr those of the long rohe in their gowns, by princes in their man. 
ties, and by ladies in gowns with long trains, the motion whereof in the 
dance resembled that of a peacock^s tail. ThU dance to supposed to 
hare been invented by the Spaniards ; and its figure is given with the 
characters fbr the steps in the Orchesographia of Thoinot Arbeau. 
Every Pavan has its Galliard, a lighter kind of air made out of the former. 

Of the Passametxo little to to be said, except tliat it was a Ikvourite 
air in the dmrs of queen Elisabeth. Ligon, in hto Htetoiy of Barbadoes, 
mentions a Passamezzo OalUard which in the year 1647 a Padre in that 
island played to him on the lute, the very same he says with an air of 
that kind which in Shakespeare's Henry the Fourth was originally played 
to Sir John Fatotaff and Doll Tearsbeet bv Sneak, the musician therein 
named. Thto little anecdote Ligon might have by traiUtion, but hto 
eonclusion that because it was played in a dramatic representation of the 
history of Henry the Fourth, it must be as ancient as hto time, Is very 
idle and injudicious. 

The Courant, the Jig, the Hornpipe, and a variety of other idrs, will be 
spoken of hereafter. As to Scottish Jigs, and indeed Scotttoh tunes in 
general, aU men know that the style and cast of them to unaccountably 
singular. The vulgar notion to that this singularity arises from a com- 
mixture of the primitive rude melody of that country with the more 
leflned air of tho Italians ; and that David Rizzio, the minion of Mary, 
queen of Scots, was not only the author of thto improvement, but that 
many of the most admired Scotttoh tunes yet in use are of hto composition. 
Thto to high! V improbable, seeing that none of the writers on music take 
the least notice or him as a composer. Buchanan says that he was sent 

tat into Scotland to entertain the oueen in the performance of madrigato, 
in which he sang the bass part. Melvil says tne same, and adds that he 
had a fine hand on the lute. Besides all which it will hereafter be 

shewn that the Scotttoh music, so fur from borrowing fh>m it, has 
enriched the Italian with some peculiar graces. 

Henry Pearham, the author of the Compleat Gentleman, in a humorous 
Uttle tract of hto intitled the Worth of a Penny, takes notice that northern 
or Scottish tunes were much in vogue In hto time ; for describing a man 
defected in hto mind for want of money, he says that he cannot stand 
atUL but like one of the Tower wild beasts, to still walking tnm one end 
•f hli room to another, hunmiing out some new northern tune or other. 
Pag. 14. And again, giving the character of one Godfrey Colton, a 
tailor in Cambridfge, of whom he tells a pleasant story ; he says he was 
a merry companion with hto tabor and pipe, and sang all manner of 
northern songs before nobles and gentlemen, who much delighted In hto 
y. Pag. 29. 

Nicholas Yonge, who kept a house in London for 
the reception of foreign merchants and gentlemen, 
and he in the year 1588 published them, together 
with others of the same kind, with the following 
title : — ' Musica Transalpina, Madrigales translated 
'of four, five, and size parts, chosen out of divers 
' excellent authors ; with the first and second part of 
'La Verginella, made by maister Bird upon two 
' stanisas of Ariosto,t and brought to speak English 
' with the rest, published by N. Yonge, in favour of 
' such as take pleasure in music of voices.* X 

In this collection are the first, second, and third 
parts of the Thyrsis of Luca Marenzio, as Peacham 
calls it, translated from ' Tirsi'morir volea, 'Chi fa 
' hoggi il mio sole,' of the same author, to ' What 
* doth my pretty darling ? The ' Susann* un jour,* 
of Orlando de Lasso, and the Nightingale of the 
elder Perabosco, celebrated also by Peacham, with a 
namber of other well chosen compositions from the 
best of the Italians. It was a work in great esti- 
mation; the picture of Dr. Heather, now in the 
music-school, Oxford, represents him with a book in 

t These two stanias are imitated firom the Carmen Nuptiale of Ca- 
tullus, and are as follow i-^ 

' La Verginella i simile i la Rosa ; 

* Ch' in befgiardin sd la nativa spina, 

* Mentre sola, e stonra si riposa, 

* Vk gregg^, nh pastor se I'awidna ; 

* L'aura soave, e I'alba rugiadoao, 

' L'acoua, la terra al suo favor s*h»china : 
' Oiorani vaghi, e donne inamorata, 

* Amaao haverae, e seni, e temple ornate. 

' Ifa non si tosto dal maemo stelo 

* Rimossa viene, e dal suo ceppo verde : 

' Che, quanto havea da gli huomini, e dal cielo 
' Favor, gratia, e bellesxa, tutto nerde : 
' La vergine, che 'I fior ; di che pt& selo 

* Che de begli occhi, e de la vita, haver de' ; 

* Lasda altrui corre ; il pregio cluuiaa innanti ; 

* Perde nel oor di tutti gP abi amanti.' 

OaLAVDo Fnmzoeo, Canto Prime. 
The reader wOl at first sight discover that the air in the Beggar's 

Opera, * Virgins are like the fair flower in its lustre,' to an imitation of 

the above stanxas. 
t The Idstory of thto publication to contained In the dedication of the 

book to Gilbert lord Talbot, son and heir to George, eaci of Shrewsbury, 

and to to thto purpose ;— 
* Staice I first b^^ to keep house in thto dtie, it hath been no smaU 
comfort unto mee, that a great number of gentlemen and merchants of 
good accompt (as well of thto reatane aa of feneine nations) have taken 
tn good part such entertainment of ^imsan as nnr poore aMUtie was ' 
able to aflbrd them, both by the exercise of musieke daily used in my 
house, and by famishing them with bookes of that kinde, yeerely sent 
me out of Italy and other places, which being fbr the most part Italian 
songs, are for sweetness of aire verie well liked of all, but most in 
aeootnit with them that understand that language ; as for the rest, they 
doe either not sing them at all, or at least with litUe delight. And 
albeit there be some Engltoh songs lately set forth by a great roatoter of 
musieke, which for skill and sweetness may content the most curious, 
vet because they are not many in number, men deliffhted with varietie 
have wished for more of the same sort. For whose cause chtefly 
I endevoured to set into my hands all such Engltoh songs as were 
praise-worthte, and amongst others I had the hap to find in the hands of 
•ome of my good Mends, certaine Italian madrigales, translated most 
of them five yeeres acoe by a gentleman fbr hto private delight (as not 
long befbre certaine Napotitans had been EngHshed by a very honoor> 
able personage, a councellour of estate, whereof I have seen some, but 
never possessed any.) And finding the same to be singuleriy well I&ed, 
not onely of those for whose cause I gathered them ; but of many 
skilftil gentlemen and other great musicians who aflkmed the accent of 
the words to be well mainteined, the descant not hindred (thourii sane 
fewe notes altred) and in everie place the due decorum kept : I was so 
bolde (beeing well acquainted with the sentlemau) as to entreat the 
rest, who willingly gave me such as he had (for of some he kent no 
copies) and also some other more lately done at the request of hto 
particular firiends. Now when the same was seen to artoe to a Just 
number, sulficient to fUmtoh a great set of bookes, diverse of my 
ftiendes aforesaid required with great instance to have them printed, 
wbereunto I was aa willing as the rest, but could never obtaine the 
gentleman's consent, though I sought it by many great meanes. For 
hto answer was ever, that those trifies being but an idle man's exercise, 
of an idle subject written only for private recreation, would blush to be 
seen otherwise then by twinght, much more to be brought into the 
common view of all men.' He then relates that finding that th^ were 

about to be printed surreptitiously, he ventured to pnbUsh them hunself. 

Digitized by 




Book XI 

his hand, on the cover whereof is written MUSICA 

In 1590 another collection of this kind was pub- 
lished with this title, * The first set of Italian madri- 
'gals, Englished, not to the sense of the original 
'dittie, but after the affection of the noate, by 
' Thomas Watson gentleman. There are also heere 
' inserted two exceUeut madrigalls of Master William 
' Byrd's, composed after the Italian vaine at the request 
' of the said Thomas Watson/ 

This book contains, among others, those madrigals 
of Luca Marenzio which Peacham has pointed out as 
excellent, viz., * Veggo dolce mio ben,* or * Farewell 
'cruel and unkind.* 'Cantava,' or 'Sweet singing 
' Amaryllis.* Those of Bird, which he composed at 
the request of the publisher, are both to the same 
words, viz., ' This sweet and merry month of May/ 
the one in four, the other in six parts, and are a 
compliment to queen Elizabeth. 

The success of these several publications excited, 
as it was very natural to expect it would do, an 
emulation in the English musicians to compose 
original madrigals in their own language, which 
were so well received, that from thenceforth those 
of the Italians began to be neglected. 

The first collection of this kind seems to be that 
of Morley, published in 1594, entitled 'Madrigalls 
' to foure voyces newly published, the first book.' 

In 1597, N. Yonge above-mentioned, who then 
called himself Nicholas, published a second collection 

of translated madrigals with the title of Musica 
Transalpina, the second part 

In the same year George Eirbte published a set 
of English madrigals for four, five, and six voices. 

In 1597 also, Thomas Weelkes before named pub- 
lished ' Madrigals to three, four, five, and six voices ;* 
and in 1598 * Ballets and Madrigals to five voyces, 
' with one to six voyces.' 

In 1598 Morley published with English words, 
* Madrigals to five voyces, selected out of the best 
' approved Italian authors.* 

This collection contains madrigals of Alfonso Fera- 
bosco, Battista Mosto, Giovanni Feretti, Ruggiero 
Giovanelli, Horatio Vecchi, Giulio Belli, Alessandro 
Orologio, Luca Marenzio, Hippolito Sabino, Peter 
Phillips, Stephano Venturi, and Giovanni di Macque, 
most of which are excellent in their kind, but no 
mention is made of the authors of the English words ; 
it is therefore probable that they were written by 
Morley himself, who had a talent for poetry sufficient 
for the purpose. In the dedication of the book to 
Sir Gervis Clifton, is this remarkable aphorism, 
' Whom God loveth not, they love not musique/ 

In the same year, 1598, John Wilbye, a teacher of 
music, and who dwelt in Austin Friars, London, pub- 
lished ' Madrigals to three, four, five, and six voices/ 
most of which are excellent ; this which follows is 
the tenth, and is thought little inferior to the best 
compositions of the kind of the Italian masters : — 

LA -DIE when I be - hold, La - die when I be - hold . . the ro • ses sprout - ing, the 

LA -DIE when I be • hold, La • die when I be - hold . . the ro - ses sprout - - ing, the 

LA -DIE when I be • hold 

the ro - ses sprout - - ing, 

ro - ses sprout - ing, La - die when I be - hold, La - die when I be - hold . . the ro 


*- I r r. f . r J I f M^q^^ i 'T r r i r r r^ 

ro - ses sprout 

ing. La - die when I be - hold, La - die when I be - hold . . the ro - ses 

j pr r f 

^ - r '?g-j-rJ> f ' tT-^^^ 

ses sprout - ing. 

La - die when I be - hold 

the ro - ses 

La - die when I be - hold 

Digitized by 


Chap. CIV. 



sprout - ing, the ro - ses sprout - ing, which clad in da-mask man -ties deck the. . ar- hours, which 

sprout - ing, the ro - ses sprout - ing, which clad in da-mask man - tics deck the ar - hours, which 

sprout - ing, the _ ro - ses sprout - ing, which clad in da-mask man - ties deck the ar - hours, which 

the ro 

ses sprout - ing, which clad in da-mask man-Ues deck the ar - hours, which 

clad in da-mask man - ties deck the ar 

houi^B, . . 

and then he - hold your lips, . 

clad in da-mask man - ties deck the ar - - hours, ^ and then he -hold your lips, and 

then he -hold your lips, and then he -hold your lips, where sweet love har - - hours, my eies 

. . and then he- hold your lips, . . and then he - hold your lips, where sweet love har - hours, my 

then he -hold your lips, and then he -hold your lips, where sweet love har - - hours, 

eies pre-sent me with a dou-ble dou-ble doubt - ing, a dou - hie dou - hie doubt - ing, my eies. 

I j ^u^' J r TTr ^^T-- sJcLJLf ^^'rFf- j^^f^^^fg^ ^r — r ^- ^^ 

my eies pre - sent me with a dou-ble dou-ble doubting, a dou - ble dou -hie doubt - ing, my 

^ - »ent me widi a dou - ble dou-ble doubt - - ing, 

my eies 



eies pre - sent me with a dou - ble dou - ble doubt - ing, for view - ing both a - like hard - 

*, . pre-sent me with a dou-ble dou -hie doubt - ing, for view -ing both a - 

eies pre - sent me with a dou - ble dou - ble doubt - ing, for view - ing both a - - 

'■" ii ■ " f " r I r ' c r-r 

i J^\ \ ^ I I. ' 'I 

'^ - sent me with a dou - ble dou-ble doubt 

- ing, for view* - ing both 

Digitized by 




Book XI. 

like, hard - lie my mind sop - po 

868, whe-ther the ro - ses be yonr lips 

or your 

be your lips or your lips the ro - ses, 

be yoor lips or your lips the ro - ses, 

whe-ther the ro • ses be your lips or your 

whe-therthero-scs be your lips or your 


ses, whether the ro - ses be your lips 

or your 

whether the ro - ses be your lips or your 



lips the ro - ses, for view - ing both a -like, hard - lie my mind 


lips the ro - ses, for view - ing both 

- like, hard - lie 

mind sup - po - s^ whe - ther the ro - ses be your lips 

or your lips 

^ mind sop • po - ses. 

whe-Uier the ro - ses be 


lips the ro - ses. 

whether the ro - ses be your lips or your lips the ro - ses. 

lips the ro-ses, 

whether the ro - ses be your lips or your lips the ro - ses. 

be your lips 


or your lips the ro - ses. 

vhetherthero - ses be your lips or your lips the ro - ses. 


or your lips the ro - ses. 
John Wiuitb. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OV. 



The same Wilbye, in the year 1600, published 

* A second set of Madrigals to 3, 4, 5, and 6 parts, 
'apt both for viols and voices;* dedicated to the 
Lady Arabella Stnart 


Ih 1599 John Bbnnet published 'Madrigals to 

* four voyces, being his first works.' He also com- 
posed a madrigal in the Triumphs of Oriana, and 
some of the songs contained in a book written by 
Thomas Ravenscroft, and published in 1614, en- 
titled ' A briefe discourse of the true but neglected 

* use of charact*ring the degrees by their perfection, 

* imperfection, and diminution in mensurable musicke, 
'against the common practice and custom of these 
' times.' In the preface to which book he is styled 
a gentleman ' admirable for all kind of composures 
eifiier in art or ayre, simple or mixt' 

Excepting the above short eulogium, we meet 
with no particulars reLiting to this person. Wood 

does not so much as mention him, from which 
circumstance alone it may not only be inferred that 
he was not a graduate in either university, but also 
that he was little known to the world in his pro- 
fession. In the dedication of his book of Madrigals 
to Ralph Asheton, Esq. receiver of the queen's 
duchy revenues in the counties Palatine of Lancaster 
and Chester, it is hinted that the author was indebted 
to that gentleman both for his patronage and his 
education; but under what masters he received it 
we are at a loss to find. 

The madrigals composed by Bennet, and printed 
in the collection above-mentioned, are seventeen in 
number ; this which follows is the tenth of them ; 
they are finely studied, and abound with all the 
graces and elegancies of vocal harmony ; and it may 
be said of the work in general, that it is an honour 
to our country, and in no respect inferior to any 
collection of the kind published by the Italian or 
other foreign musicians.: — 

TEE rest - lease thoughts, yee rest - lesse thoughts that 

That har 

bor dis 

- - bor dis - con -tent, dis - - con - tent. 


I ^ I - 
that har - - bor dis - 

har - bor dis - con - tent, that har-bor dis- oon-tent, ^t har-bor dis 

dis-con - tent, 

that har-bor dis - content, that har - bor dis-con-tent, that har 



^ - tent, dis 

con - tent, that har - bor dis 

con-tent, dis 

^$iii — ^ 

r iflf r r r I r ^^ 




con - tent» 

cease your as-sanlts and let my hart la - ment, and 

cease your as-sanlts, as-saolts, and let my hart la - ment, and 

- bor dis - - con - tent, cease your as-saults, ceaae your as-sanlts, and let my hart la - 


tent. cease your as-sanlts, 

cease your as - sanlts, and let my hart U • 

Digitized by 




Book XI. 

■-N - ment, and let my hart la-ment, and let my tong have leave to 





tell my greefe, 

that she may pi - tie though not graunt re 

that she may pi -lie though not gramit re - leefe, 

my greefe, that she may pi -tie though not graunt re - - - leefe, re - leefe, that she may 

my greefe, that she may pi - tie though not graunt re - leefe, that she may pi -tie 

leefe, that she may pi - tie though not grant re -leefe ; 

pi- tie would help, a' - las, 

that she may pi- tie though not graunt releefe, pi - tie would help, a - las, pi - tie would help, a 

pi - tie though not graunt re - leefe . . . re-leefe; pi - tie would help, a - las. 


sthoughnotgraimtre - leefe, re 

leefe ; 

pi -tie would help, a - las. 

' - las, what love hath al - most slaine, what love hath al 

most slaine, hath 

love liath al - most slaine, what love . . hath al - most slaine, 



r — p- 

what love hath al - most slaine, what love hath al - most slaine, what love hath 

most slaine, 

and heal the wound by con - quiring her dis 

al - most slune, and heal the wound by con - qu*ring, by con - - qu*ring, 

^i ^. TTr-^ c M^ r ir"=r""r i Lg- ^^ 



al - most slaine, and heal the wound by con - quiring her, by conquering her dis 

f^ id - most slaine. 

and heal the wound by ooa - qu*ring her dia 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Chap. CV. 



diune, her dU 

her dis - daiii6« 

daine, by . . . con - - qu'ring her dis - diine. 

by con-qu'riug her dis - daine, her ... dis - dune. 

daine, by oonqn'ring her dis - daine, by con-qu'ring her 



^- daine, by conquering her 

dis - daine, by con-qu'ring 

dis - - dame. 
John Benmet. 

John Farmer, of whom mention has already been to other their trne effect, which is to move de- 

made, published in the same year, 1599, ' The first light ; this virtue being, as he says, so singular in 

Sett of English Madrigals to four voices/ In the the Italians, as under that ensign only they hazard 

preface to this work the author professes to have their honour, 
so fully linked his music to number, as each give The following madrigal is the first in the collection. 

YOU pret - ty flowers that smile 

som - ers sake, pull in . . your 

YOU pret - ty flowers that smile for som - ers sake, pull in your heads, pull 

heads be -fore my wa-t'ry eies doe turn 

doe turn . . the medows 

l Er i r r r^pi r t'-'i^ 




heads be -fore my wa-t'iy eies doe turn, the medows to a stand - ing 

in, pull in your heads be - fore my wa-t*ry eies 

doe turn the me - dows to 


heads be - fore my wa-t*ry eies doe turn, doe turn the medows to a 

to a stand - ing lake, by whose un-time - ly floods your glo 


lake, a stand - ing lake, by whose un - time - ly floods your glo 

stand - ing lake, by whose un - time - ly floods your glo 

:£=u° r J l Uf— 7h— tr ^ ^J-rJinr] J r r 

stand - 


lake, by whose un-time - ly floods your glo 


Digitized by 




Book XL 


[ — ^ 1 

f ' r f — 



-H J- 

1 J -a M— t^ 

'^ = 



for ^ 

-1 U — 1 

loe, my hart 

"r r f J 

re - solv*d to 

^ - r= — r 

moy8t*niDg aire, feed -ing mine 

zn ^ ^^ 


1 J r • F r F 

ft f — ^- 

-1 1 

for loe, 

1 ' ' ^11' :=S: 
my hart resolv'd to 

hj . > J ni . 1 

— f 2-_ 

> j- 

-^^ = ^^-«— 

aire, feed -iDg mine 

-J ! ^ 1 

eies, feed -ing mine 
J . >:S^?=P 

1 r^ ^ 



loe, my hart 

re - 

solv'd to 

-p •- 

— ■ ^— 


aire, feed - ing mine eies, feed - ing mine 

f=f== la. r ' r F 1 


'^ dies, 


J . J ■'— 

loe, my hart 


=P P- 

Bolv'd to 

r JL 


LEt : — -: l_:_ 


h-i ■ fc« — \ 

feed - ing mine 


eies, feed-Ing mine eies, re - dou-bles tear for tear. 

tear for tear. 

eies, feed ing mine eies. 

re - don -bles tear for tear. 

re - dou - bles tear for 

re - dou - bles 

K eies, feed-ing mine eies, re - dou -bles tear for tear, re - dou - bles tear for tear, 

re - don - bles tear (ot 


for loe, my hart re - solv'd to moyst'ning 

tear, re - dou -bles tear 

tear, for loe, . . my hart resolv'd to moyBt'nmg 

tear for tear, re - dou-bles tear for tear, 

^ - dou - - bles tear 

for tear, for 

for loe, my hart re-solv'd to moyst'ning 

loe, my hart re-solv'd to moysfning 

aire, feed - ing mine eies, feed - ing mine eies, feed - ing mine eies, re - dou - bles tear for tear, 

aire, feed - ing mine eies, feed - ing mine eies, feed - ing mine eies, 

^ aire, 

feed - ing mine eies, feed - ing mine eies, re - dou • bles tear for 

tear for tear. 

re - don - bles tear for tear, re - dou - bles tear for 

tear for tear, re - dou - bles tear for tear, re - dou-blee tear 




f=^r r r I r- 

TJ- r'p i r 'F ^ J i r J J .J' l 


re - dou - bles tear for tear, re - dou-bles tear for tear. 

- dou-blestear for tear, 

y J J J .J 1 1^^ 

-\- I' J 1 '^ 

- bles tear 


tear, re - dou - bles tear for tear. 

re - dou 


Digitized by 


Chap. CVL 




The names of other compoeers of madrigals occur 
about this time, or within a few years after, the chief 
of whom were, Henry Youll, John Ward, Michael 
£^te, bachelor of music, and master of the choristers 
in the cathedral of Lichfield, and Orlando Gibbons. 
And here it may be remarked, that of the authors 
above enumerated, some only appear to have been 
graduates in one or other university, or beneficed 
musicians in some cathedral or collegiate church ; as 
to the rest, the appellation assumed by them is simply 
that of practitioner in music. Youll and Parmer 
have no other adjunct to their respective names, and 
Bateson retained it till he acquired the degree of 

Besides the several collections of madrigals above 
mentioned, there is one, the title whereof is per- 
petually occurring, in the Fasti Oxonienses. It is 
called the Triumphs of Oriana, and frequently in 
Wood's illiberal manner of expressing himself, the 
whole collection is called the Orianas. It seems by 
the work itself as if all the musicians of queen 
Elizabeth's time who were capable of composing, 
had endeavoured each to excel the other in setting 
a song, celebrating the beauty and virtues of their 
sovereign ; for to the Triumphs of Oriana it appears 
that the following musicians contributed, namely, 
Michael Este, Daniel Norcome,* John Mundy, Ellis 
Gibbons, t John Bennet, John Hilton, J George 
Marston,§ Richard Carleton, John Holmes, || Richard 
Nicholson,^ Thomas Tomkins, Michael Cavendish, 
William Cobbold, Thomas Morley, John Parmer, 
John Wilbye, Thomas Hunt, Thomas Weelkes, John 
Milton, ♦♦ George Kirbye, Robert Jones, ff John 
Lisley, and Edward Johnson. This collection was 
published by Morley with the title of ' The Triumphs 
of Oriana, to five and six voices, composed by divers 
authors. Lond. 1601.* 

The occasion of this collection is said to be this : 
the lord high admiral, Charles Howard earl of Not- 
tingham, was the only person who in the last illness 
of Elizabeth could prevail on her to go into and 
remain in her bed ; X^ and with a view to alleviate 
her concern for the execution of the earl of Essex, 
he gave for a prize-subject to the poets and musicians 
of the time, the beauty and accomplishments of his 
royal mistress, and by a liberal reward excited them 
severally to the composition of this work. This 
supposition is favour^ by the circumstance of its 
being dedicated to the earl, and the time of its 
publication, which was in the very year that Essex 
was beheaded. There is some piece of secret history 
which we are yet to learn, that would enable us to 
account for the giving the queen this romantic name ; 

* A clerk or sfnging-inan at Windsor. Temp. Jac. I. 

i ElUt Gibbons, oiganist of Salisbury, and brother of the famous 
Orhuido Gibbons, mentioned hereafter. 

t Bachelor of music, and oi^anlst of the church of St. Margaret, 

} Mentioned in Sir Anthmiy Weldon's Court and Character of King 
James, poj?. 106. 

B Organbt of Salisbury. Temp. Ella. 

5f The first professor of music at Oxford under Dr. Heather's endow- 

«• The fisther of the poet 
ft A £nnous lutenist and composer for the lute 
XX Vide Hist. View of the Negodations between the Courts of SngUnd 
and France, by Dr. Birch, pag. 208. Biogr. Brit. vol. IV. pag. 2678. 

probably she was fond of it Camden relates that 
a Spanish ambassador had libelled her by the name 
of Amadis Oriana, and for his insolence was put 
under a guard. Vide Rapin, vol. II. pag. 88. §§ 

In the reign of James I. the practice of singing 
madrigals declined so fast, that few, if any, collections 
of them were published after the year 1620, the 
reason of which may be, that the entertainments of 
his court were for the most part masques and other 
theatrical representations, with which music, at least 
that kind of it which required much skill in the 
composition, had litUe to do. The merit of these 
entertainments consisted either in the quaintness of 
the device or fable, if it may be so called, the 
magnificence of the scenes, the artificial construction 
of the machinery, or in the splendid decorations of 
the theatre or place of exhibition; and it is well 
known that Jonson wasted much of his time in com- 
posing littie interludes of this kind ; and that Inigo 
Jones was condemned to the task of studying de- 
corations for them, and exercising his luxuriant in- 
vention upon no better materials than pasteboard and 

Of the madrigal it has already been said, that it 
is a species of vocal harmony very elegant in its 
structure, and adapted to such poetry as was fit to be 
sung or uttered in the hearing of the most polite and 

S$ In the Triumphs of Oriana, madrigal VIII. is the following passage:— 
' Thus Bonnny Boots the blrth-day celebrated 

* Of her, his lady deerest, 

* Fair Oriana which to his hart was nearest/ 
And in Madrigal XXIV. this :— 

' For Bonnir Boots that so aloft could fetch it, 
' Oh he is dead, and none'of us can reach it.' 
Again, in the first of Motley's canz<mets of fire and six voices, 
published in 1607, he is thus mentioned ; — 

' Fly love that art so sprightly, 

' To Bonny Boots upr4;htly, 

' And when in heaven thou meet him, 

' Say that I kindly greet him, 

' And that his Oriana 

* True widow maid still fblloweth Diana.' 

And again bis name occurs in the ninth canzonet in the same col- 

* Our Bonny Boots could toot it, 

' Yea and foot it, 

* Say lustie lads, who now shall Bonny Boot it ? 
Bonny Boots seems to be a nick-name for some fismous singer, who, 

because of his excellent voice, or for some other reason, had permission 
to call the queen his lady ; possibly the person meant might be one Mr. 
Hale, of whom mention is made bT Sir William Segar, in his account of 
a solemn tilt or exercise of arms, held in the year 1590, before queen 
Elisabeth, in the Tilt-yard at Westminster, with emblematical represent- 
ations and music, in which the abore-mentioned Mr. Hale performed 
a part by singing the following song .— 

* Mv golden locks tfane hath to silver tum'd 

* (O tmie too swift, and swiftnes never ceasing) 

'My youth 'gainst age, and age at youth hath spum'd. 

* But spum'd in vaine ; youth waineth by enoreasing, 

' Beauty, strength, youth, are fiowers that fading beene, 
' Duety, faith, love, are rootes and ever greene. 

* My helmet now shall make an hive for bees, 
< And lovers songs shall turn to holy psalmes ; 

* A man at armes must now sit on his knees, 

* And feed on prayers that are old ages almes ; 
' And tho from court to cottage I depart, 

' My saint is sure of mine unspotted hart. 
' And when I sadly sit in homelv cell, 

* 111 teach my swainee this carrol for a song : 

* Blest be the hearts that thinke my soverelgne well, 
' Curs'd be the soules that thinke to doe her wrong. 

* Goddesse, vouchsafe this aged man his right, 

* To be your beadsman now, that was your knight. 

Sir William Segar says of this person that he was ' her majesties 
'servant, a gentleman in that arte excellent, and for his voice both 
* commendable and admirable.' Treatise on Honour Military and Civin, 
lib. III. cap. 54. And Sir Henry Wotton in his ParaUel between the 
Earl of Essex and the Duke of Buckingham, says that a sonnet of the 
earl's was upon a certain occasion sung before the queen by one H^es, 
in whose voice she took some pleasure. Reliqus Wottonianse, 8vo. im» 
page 165. ~ 

Digitized by 




Book XL 

well-bred persons. Songs in this form, for three, 
four, and more voices, were the entertainment of 
persons of rank and fashion, young gentlemen and 
ladies, and, in a word, of the better sort 

Other kinds of vocal harmony there were, in which 
the humour of the words was more regarded than the 
goodness of the metre, justness of thought, propriety 
of expression, or any other the requisites of good 
poetry. Short poems of this kind, suited to the 
humours of the vulgar, were set to music in the form 
of canon in the unison, generally in three, and some- 
times in four, five, six, and so on to many more 
parts. Besides which, we meet about this time with 
little compositions for three and four voices, called, 
for what reason it is not easy to say, Freemen's 
Songs.* The sentiments contained in these poetical 
compositions were in general not very favourable to 
good manners, for if they were not satirical, they 
were in general, exhortations to riot, dissipation, or 
incentives to lewdness, to drinking, and smoking 
tobacco, in a vein of humour adapted to a tavern or an 

Many ancient songs of this kind, set in the form 
of canon in the unison, or, as it was otherwise called, 
round, or catch, where the words of one part fell in 
with those of the other, are yet extant, so finely 
suited with apt melody and delightful harmony, that 
the best musicians of later times have in vain en- 
deavoured to equal them. 

Much of the humours and manners of the people 
of this country at different periods, is to be collected 
from vulgar and favorite song ballads. These were . 
of various kinds, namely, amorous ditties, of which 
specimens have already been given, rhyming histories, 
and popular stories, some founded in truth, others 
mere fiction. Of these a collection is extant in the 
library of Magdalen college, Cambridge, made by 
Samuel Pepys, Esq. secretary of the admiralty in 
the reigns of Charles and James II. ; but the most 
curious of the kind is that lately given to the world 
by the Rev. Dr. Thomas Percy, entitled Reliques of 
ancient English Poetry, which is not more viduable 
for its contents, than for the essays contained in it 
on the subjects of the ancient English minstrels, 
ancient metrical romances, the origin of the English 
stage, and the metre of Pierce Plowman's Vision. 

To this latter collection the inquisitive reader is 
referred for the history of this species of poetry 
during a period of nearly three hundred years. All 
that is necessary to remark in this place is, that 
excepting ancient songs and catches, some of which 
will hereafter be inserted, the ballads above-men- 
tioned, with many others of the like kind, were the 
entertainment of the common people : they were 
till the beginning of this century, and for about ten 
years after, printed on the old black letter type ; and 
were originally vended by persons who were capable 
of singing them to some well-known tune, who, in 

■ In a book entitled * Deuteromelia : or the second part of Ifadc'B 
Helodie,' printed in 1609, are many of this kind. However difficult it 
may now be to account for this term, it was formerly well xuiderstood ; 
fbr Urry, in his Glossary to Chaucer, Voce Verilats, from the French 
Tirelaie, upon the authority of Blount, interprets it a roundelay, country 
teUad or FaxxM av's Song. 

London at least, did not wander about the streets for 
that purpose, but sold them in stalls. 

Who was the author of the collection entitled 
Robinhood's Garland, no one has yet pretended to 
guess. As some of the songs have in them more of 
the spirit of poetry than others, it is probable it is 
the work of various hands ; that it has from time to 
time been varied and adapted to the phrase of the 
times is certain. 

The legend of Robinhood is of great antiquity, for 
in the Vision of Pierce Plowman, written by Robert 
Langland or Longland, a secular priest, and a fellow 
of Oriel college, and who flourished in the reign of 
Edward III. is this passage : — . 

I cannot perfitly my Pater nofter, as the prift it fingetb, 
I can rimes of Robcnbod and Randal of Cbefter, 
But of our Lorde or our Lady I leme notbyng at all. 

yet Ames takes no notice of any early impression of 
his songs. He mentions one only, entitled ' King 
Edward, Robinhood, and Little John, 'printed by 
Caxton, or at least in his house, about the year 1500, 
the last edition of his Garland of any worth is that 
of 1719. 

The history of this popular hero is but little 
known, and all the scattered fragments concerning 
him, could they be brought together, would fall far 
short of satisfying such an enquirer as none but real 
and well-authenticated facts will content We must 
take his story as we find it Stow in his Annals 
gives the following account of him : — 

* In this time (about the year 1190, in the reign 
*of Richard I.) were many robbers and outlawes, 
' among which Robin Hood and little John, renowned 
' theeves, continued in woods, despoyling and robb- 
' ing the goods of the rich. They killed none but 
'such as would invade them; or by resistance for 
' their own defence. 

'The saide Robert entertained an hundred tall 
* men and good archers, with such spoiles and thefts 
' as he got, upon whom four hundred (were they ever 
' so strong) durst not give the onset He suffered 
'no woman to be oppressed, violated, or otherwise 
' molested : poore mens goods he spared, abundantlie 
'relieving them with &at which by theft he gat 
' from abbies, and the houses of rich carles : whom 
'Maior (the historian) blameth for his rapine and 
' theft ; but of all theeves he affirmeth him to be the 
' prince and the most gentle theefe.' Annals, pag. 159. 

Bishop Latimer, in his Sermons, tells the following 
story relating to him : — 

' I came once myselfe to a place, riding on a journey 
'homeward from London, and I sent word over 
' night into the town that I would preach there in 
' the morning, because it was holyday, and methought 
'it was an holidayes worke; the church stoode in 
'my way, and I took my horse and my company 
'and went thither (I thought I should have found 
' a great companye in the church) and when I came 
'there the church doore was fast locked, I tarj'ed 
' there halfe an houre and more, and at last the key 
' was found, and one of the parish comes to me and 
' sayes Syr, this is a busie day with us. We cannot 
' heare you, it is Robinhoodes daye. The parish are 

Digitized by 


Chap. OVI. 



' gone abroad to gather for Robinhoode, I pray you 
" let them not I was fayne there to give place to 
*Robinhoode: I thought my Rochet would have 
'been regarded though I were not: but it would 
* not serve, it was faine to give place to Robinhoodes 
*men.' Sermon VL before king Edward VI. 
foL 74. b. 

Sir Edward Coke, in his third institute, pag. 197, 
speaks of Robinhood, and says that men of his law- 
less profession were from him called Roberdsmen : 
he says that this notable thief gave not only a name 
to these kind of men, but that there is a bay in the 
river of in Yorkshire, called Robinhood's 

bey. He farther adds, that the statute of Winchester, 
18 Edward I. and another statute of 5 Edward III. 
were made for the punishment of Roberdsmen and 
other felons. 

Drayton in his Polyolbion, song 26, thus cha- 
racterizes him : — 

' From wealthy abbots' chests, and churches abundant 

'What oftentimes he took, he shar'd amongst the 


* No lordly Bishop came in lusty Robin's way, 

' To him before he went, but for his pass must pay. 
'The widow in distress he gratiously reliev'd, 

* And remedied the wrongs of many a virgin griev'd.* 

Heame in his Glossary to Peter Langtoft, voce 
trotOt inserts a manuscript note out of Wood, con- 
taining a passage cited from John Major, the Scottish 
historian, to this purpose, that Robinhood was indeed 
an arch-robber, but the gentellest thief that ever was ; 
and says he might have added, from the Harleian 
MS. of John Fordun*s Scottish Chronicle, that he 
was, though a notorious robber, a man of great 
devotion and charity. *- 

He is frequently called Robert earl of Huntingdon ; 
and there is extant a dramatic history of his death 
that gives him this title. There is also extant a 
pedigree of his family, which shows that he had at 
least some pretensions to the earldom. Nevertheless 
the most ancient poems on him make no mention of 
this title ; and in a very old legend in verse, pre- 
served in the archives of the public library of Cam- 
bridge, he is expressly asserted to have been simply 
a yeoman.* 

Dr. Stukeley,in his PalsBOgraphia Britannica, No. 11, 
1746, has given an account of the descent of this 
famous person, to this purpose; viz., that his true 
name was Robert Fitz-Ooui, but that agreeably to 
the practice in the north of England, the two last 
letters of his name were contracted into d, whence he 
was called Hood ; that he was a man of rank, being 
grandson of Ralph Pitz-Ooth, a Norman earl of 
Kyme, whose name appears in the roll of Battell- 
Abbey, and who came into England with William 
Rufus. — That Robin Hood's maternal grandfather 
was Gilbert de Gient, earl of Lincoln ; his grand- 
mother was the Lady Roisia de Vere, sister to the 
earl of Oxfonl, and countess of Essex, from whom 
the town of Royston, where she was buried, takes its 
name. Robin Hood's father William was in those 

• Vide Beliijues of Andent English Poetry, vol. I. pag. 81. 

times of feudal dependance, a ward of Robert earl of 
Oxford, who by the king's order gave to him in 
marriage the third daughter of lady Roisia. 

Robinhood had for his coat-armour Gules, two 
bends engrailed. Or. The tragedy above-mentioned 
makes him to die by poison, but the vulgar tradition 
is, that being compelled to apply to a nun for as- 
sistance in a disorder that required bleeding, she 
performed the operation so that he died under it. 

At Kirklees in Yorkshire, now the seat of the 
Armitage family, but which was formerly a Bene- 
dictine nunnery, and probably the very place where 
he received his death's wound, is a grave-stone near 
the park, under which, as it is said, Robinhood lies 
buried. There is an inscription on it, now not 
legible; but Mr. Ralph Thoresby, in his Ducatus 
Leodiensis from the papers of Dr. Gale, dean of York, 
gives the following as his epitaph : — 

Hear, undernead dis laid ftean, 
Lais Robert, Earl of Huntingtun, 
Nea arcir ver az hie (a geude : 
An piple kauld im Robin Heud. 
Sic utlawz az bi, an iz men, 
Wii England never figh agen. 

Obiit 24 kal. Dekembris, 1247. 

Dr. Percy doubts the genuineness of this epitaph, 
and with good reason, for the affected quaintness of 
the spelling, and the even pace of the metre, are 
certainly ground for suspicion. 

The same author has given, from a manuscript of 
his own, a ballad of Robinhood and Guy of Gisbome, 
which was never before printed, and, as he says, 
carries the marks of much greater antiquity than any 
of the conunon popular songs on the subject 

The songs above-mentioned, although many of 
them are totally devoid of historical truth, being in 
short metrical legends, were yet interesting enough 
to engage the attention of the people, for either the 
subject was of some dignity, or the catastrophe 
affecting, or the poetry was level to the common 
apprehension ; in short, they fell in with the popular 
humour ; and in this way only can we account for 
their transmission through a succession of ages, and 
their existence at the present time. Too con- 
temptuously therefore does the author of the Art 
of English Poesy speak of our ancient songs and 
ballads, when, comparing them to those grave and 
stately metres which he takes occasion to commend, 
he calls them ' small and popular musickes, song by 
' these Cantabanqui upon benches and barrels' heads, 

* where they have none other audience then boys or 

* countrey fellowes that passe by them in the streete, 
' or else by blind harpers, or such like taveme min- 
*strels that give a fit of mirth for a groat, and 
' their matters being' for the most part stories of 
*old time, as the tale of Sir TopaSy the reportes 
' of Bevis of Southampton^ Guy of Wamncke, 

* Adam Bel, and Clymme of the Clough, and such 
' other old romances or historicall rimes, made pur- 
*posely for recreation of the common people at 
'Christmasse diners and brideales, and in tavemes 
' and alehouses, and such other places of base resort ; 
'also they be used in enrols and rounds, and such 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Book XL 

'light or lascivious poexnes, which are commonly 
'more commodiously uttered by these bujBFons or 

* vices in playes then by any other person.* 

CHAP. cvn. 

SuGH was the general state of music in England 
at the close of the sixteenth century; as to our 
poetry, it had been gradually refining from the time 
of Chaucer, and was arrived to great perfection, 
when it received some little check from the attempts 
of a few fantastic writers to improve it by certain 
rules, teaching men to become poets, or makers, as 
they affected to call them, rules that left scarce any 
room for the exercise of those faculties with which it 
is, though perhaps a little hyperbolically, said a poet 
is bom ; much of this affected cant about poets and 
makers is observable in the writings of Roger 
Ascham, the preceptor to the children of Henry 
VIII. somewhat of it in Sir Philip Sidney's elegant 
little tract * The Defence of Poesie,* and in the Dis- 
coveries, as they are called, of Ben Jonson, and more 
in a work entitled ' The Arte of English Poetry con- 

* trivcd into three bookes, the first of poets and 
' poesie, the second of proportion, the third of oma- 
' ment' London, quarto, 1589.* 

The author of this book, though some have as- 
cribed it to Sir Philip Sidney, is in general believed 
to be one Webster Puttenham, a genUeman pensioner 
of Queen Elizabeth, a man not altogether destitute 
of learning, but whose notions of the perfection of 
poetry are such, as no degree of learning can justify. 
What the author has said in his first book of poets 
and poesy is common enough, and scarcely worthy 
of remark ; but his second book, intitled of Propor- 
tion poetical, is founded upon such principles, and con- 
tains such rules for writing poetry as eoj^d never 
have entered into the head of a man who had any 
taste or relish of that art which he professes to teach. 
His arguments in favour of proportion poetical are 
these : — ' It is said by mathematicians that all things 
'stand by proportion, and by the doctors of our 
'theology ^t God made the world by number, 
'measure, and weight.' As to poetical proportion, 
' he says, ' it holdeth of the musical, because poesie 
'is a skill to speak and write hannonically ; and 
' verses or rhyme be a kind of musical utterance by 

* Three yean before this, vss publlfhed a Discourse of English 
Poetry, a small tract in quarto, mitten by William Webbe ; this is a veiy 
curious book, and coDtains in it a proposal for the reformation of Eng- 
lish poetry, by establishing a prosodia of versification in imitation of the 
Greeks and Latins. Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Edward Dyer, Spenser, and 
some others laboured to subject our poetry to some such rules as are 
here prescribed, but without effect. The author gives a general account 
of the English poets from Gower down to his own time, and speaks in 
terms of very high commendation of Anthony Hunday, an earnest 
traveller in this art, in whose name he says he had seen very excellent 
works, especially upon nymphs uid shepherds, well worthy to be viewed 
and to be esteemed as very rare noetry. He celebrates also Dr. Phaer 
and Dc Twine, the translators of Virgil, and Arthur Golding for his 
labour in Ovid's Metamorphoses, and Dr. Gabriel Harvey, the brother of 
the physician, an admired Latin poet. He speaks of certain compo- 
sitions after the manner of the acrostic, by W. HnnnU, and says that the 

tic, by 
earl of Surrey translated some part of Virgil into English hexameters, 
' ' " -- ^ - ib,^ 

I prentise in the divine art or Jfoesle.' xnisprc 
was James the Sixth of Scotland, and of England the first. Tne book 

part of "^ _ 

A fuller account of this curious book is givna in the British Librarian of 
Mr. 01dys,No. II. 

About the same time, viz., in 1584, was printed at Edinbunh in quarto, 
' The Essayes of a prentise in the divine art of Poesie.' This prentise 

contains Sonnets, the Uranie of Du Bartas translated into English verse, 
a poem entitled Phoenix, a version of PsaJm CIV. and 'Ane schort 
* Treatise conteining some reulis and cauteMs to be observit and eschewit 
' in Scottis poesie.' 

' reason of a certain congroitie in sounds pleasing to 
' the ear, though not perchance so exquisitely as the 
' harmonical concents of artificial musicke, consisting 
' in strained tunes, as is the vocal musicke, or that 
'of mbclodious instruments, as lutes, harps, regals, 
'records, and such like.' And, adds he, 'this our 
'proportion poetical resteth in five points, staffe, 
' measure, concord, situation and figure.' 

All these are treated of in their order : as to staffe 
or stanza, he exhibits it ia various forms, viz., as 
consisting of few or many verses, for the framing 
whereof the rules given by him are so mechanical, 
that they leave very little room for the exercise of 
&ncy or invention. 

As to proportion in figure, it is a thing so little 
heeded in poetry, or rather indeed so little under- 
stood, that we are necessitated to adopt the ex- 
planation of it by the author, and make use of his 
own words : — 

' Your last proportion is that of figure, so called 
for that it yelds an ocular representation, your 
meeters being by good symmetric reduced into 
certaine geometrical figures, whereby the maker 
is restrained to keepe him within his bounds, and 
sheweth not onely more art, but serveth also much 
better for briefness and subtiltie of device, and for 
the same respect are also fittest for the pretie 
amourets in court to entertaine their servants and 
the time withal, their delicate wits requiring some 
commendable exercise to keepe them from idlenesse. 
I find not of this proportion used by any of the 
Oreeke or Latine poets, or in any vulgar writer, 
saving of that one forme which they cal Anacreons 
egge. But being in Italic conversant with a certaine 
gentleman who had long travelled the oriental parts 
of the wortd, and seen the courts of the great 
princes of China and Tartaric, I being very in- 
quisitive to knowe of the subtilties of those countreys, 
and especially in matter of learning, and of their 
vulgar poesie ; he told me that th^ are in all their 
inventions most wittie, and have the use of poesie 
or riming, but do not delight so much as we do in 
long tedious descriptions, and therefore when they 
will utter any pretie conceit, they reduce it into 
metrical feet, and put it in form of a lozango or 
square, or such other figure, and so engraven in 
gold, silver, or ivorie, and sometimes with Tetters 
of ametist, ruble, emeralde, or topas, curiousely 
cemented and peeced together, they send them in 
chaines, bracelets, collars, and girdles to their mia- 
tresses to weare for a remembrance; some fewe 
measures composed in this sort this gentleman gave 
me, which I translated word for word, and as near 
as I could, following both the phrase and the fimre, 
which ia somewhat hard to performe because of the 
restraint of the figure, from which ye may not 
digresse. At the beginning they wil seeme nothing 
pleasant to a English eare, but time and usage will 
make them acceptable inough, as it doth in all 
other newe guises, be it for wearing of apparell 
or otherwise.* 

The geometrical figures recommended by him are 
the lozenge, called Eombus, the fuzee or spindle 

Digitized by 


Chap. CVII. 



called Romboides, the triangle or tricquet, the sqnare 
or quadrangle, the piUaster or cylinder, the spire or 
taper called Piramis, the rondel or sphere, the egg^ 
or figure ovall, the tricquet reversed, the tricquet 
displayed, the lozange reyersed, the egg displayed, 
the lozange rabbated. 

It is highly probable that the practice of composing 
verses resembUng the form of eggs, altars, wings, 
and many other such quaint devices, now deservedly 
the sul]ject of ridicule, had its foundation in the 
precepts contained in this book. The great pro- 
ficients in this species of false wit were Withers, 
Qnarles, Crashaw, Herbert, and some others, but they 
had but few followers ; and notwithstanding the pains 
which Puttenham has taken to recommend it, the 
proportion of figure, as he terms it, has been little 

The state of English poetry at this period is in 
general verv well known to aJl that are conversant 
in English literature, but it may be thought necessary 
to be somewhat particular with respect to that species 
of it which is to be more inunediately connected 
with music, and to give an account of a number of 
writers little known to the world, the authors of 
madrigals, sonnets, and other compositions for music, 
many whereof will be found to have great merit 

Puttenham has enumerated some of the most cele- 
brated poets of his own time and of the age pre- 
ceding, as namely, the earl of Surrey, Sir Thomas 
Wyat, Lord Vaux, Maister Chaloner, Maister Edward 
Dyer, N. Breton, Gteorge Gbscoigne, Sir Philip 
Sidney, Sir Walter Raleigh, and others; but there 
are many writers of this class whose names scarce 
ever occur but in collections of songs and short lyric 
poems, at this time very little known. One of the 
first of this kind extant is the ' Paradyse of daynty 
'Devises,' printed in 1677, the greater part by 
Richard Eldwards before mentioned,* others by 

^ Of Edwardi as a musician mention has already been made, •«« 
page 362, but besides his excelleiioy in the faculty of music, it seems 

that he possessed a considerable talent in poetry. Wood s«rs be 
was a member of Lincoln's Inn, and gtres a farther account of him in 
the Athen. Ozon. vol. I. col. 151, to this purpose, tIs. that he was the 

author of two comedies, Damon and Pythias, and Palemon and Arcite, 
often acted at court before queen Elisabeth, and in the university of 
Oxford, in the hall, for he was of Christ-church college.— That the queen 
was so delighted with the latter of these, that she sent for Edwards, and, 
after commending sundry passages in it, gave him many thanks, and 
a promise of a reward. This promise it seems she made good by 
appointing him first a gentleman of her chapel, and afterwards, upon the 
decease of Richard Bowyer, in 1561, master of the children. Asafkrther 
testimony of her fitvour, she formed the children of the royal chapel into 
a company of players, and granted to Edwards licence to superintend them. 
It is remarkable that the first rmlar establishment of a company of 
players was that of the children of Paul's in 1378 ; their theatre was the 
dnging^chool in or near the cathedral. The next was that of the parish- 
clerks of London at Skinner's-well ; the next that of the children of the 
rojnsi chapel above-mentioned; a few years after which another was 
established under the denomination of the children of the revels. These 
two camK°ies of children last mentioned became very fkmous ; all LiUv's 
pU^, and many of Shakespeare's and Jonson's, were first acted oy 
them ; they were looked on with a Jealout eye by the actors at the 
tlieatres ; and Shakespeare alludes to the injudicious approbation of their 
performance in the following speeches of Rosencrants and Harolat>— 
* There is an aiery of Uttle children, litUe eyases [nestlings of 

* an eagle or hawk] that cry out on the top of question, and are most 
-tyrannleaQy clapp'd fort: these are now tlxe fashion; and so berattle 
'the common stages (so they call them) that many wearing rapiert are 
' afraid of goose-quills, and dare scarce come thither. Ham. what are 

* they chil<uen ? Who maintains them ? How are they esooted ? [paid] 
' WiU they pursue quality no longer than they can sing ?' ftc Hamimt, 
act II. scene 2. 

Among the children of queen Elisabeth's chapel was one named Sal. 
Pavey, who was it seems an excellent actor in the character of an old 
man. He died under the age of thirteen, and is celebrated by Sen 
Jonson in an epit^h printed with his epigrams. 

Bltfiop Tanner, in hit BibUotheca, hat an trtkle for Edwardt, fai 

Lord Vaux, Edward Vere Earl of Oxford, William 
Hunnys, Thomas Chnrchyard, Lodowic Lloyd, Jasper 
Heywood, and others. 

The first of these collections is in the title-page 
said to contain 'sundry pithy preceptes, learned 
'counsels, and excellent inventions, right pleasant 
'and profitable for all estates;* besides these there 
are divers songs, many of which have been set to 
music, and certain verses of Edwards's in commen- 
dation of music, beginning 'Where griping grief 
the hart would wound,' alluded to in Shakespeare's 
Romeo and Juliet, act IV. scene 5. 

Another collection of the same kind was printed 
in the year 1614. with the title of England's Helicon, 
or the Muses Harmony, a collection of songs. The 
names of the authors are as follows : Sir Phil. Sidney, 
Edmund Spenser, Michael Drayton, Edmund Bolton, 
Robert Greene, Thomas Lodge, Nich. Breton, Shep- 
heard Tonie, George Peele, Howard Earl of Surrey, 
Thomas Watson,t John Wooton, W. Shakespeare, 
Bar. Yong,| Richard Bamefield, Earle of Oxenford, 
Sir Edward Dyer, N. Yong,§ M. N. HoweU, Christo- 
pher Marlow, William Browne, || Christ Brooke. 

The other collection, namely, England's Helicon, 
is altogether in that vein of Poetry which Sir Philip 
Sidney introduced amongst us, and is celebrated for 
its pastoral simplicity. In it are in truth many very 
fine compositions, most of which are set to music by 
the ablest masters of the time, and chiefly in the 
form of madrigals. 

Most of the persons above named were, in com- 
parison of our English classics, obscure writers ; they 
are nevertheless recorded, with many curious par- 
ticulars relatin g t o them, by Winstanley, Langbune, 
Phillips, and Wood, and their merits are such as 
entitle them to the regard of such as wish to form 
a true judgment of English literature. 

To this class of poets succeeded another, who 
deviating from their predecessors, introduced into 
their compositions, allegory and all the subtleties of 
metaphysics, and even school theology ; these were 
Sir John Davies, Phineas Fletcher, author of the 
Purple Island, Dr. Donne, and a few others ; this 
style of writing famished very little employment for 
the musical composers of this time : as it was affected 
and obscure, it was short-lived, and gave way to that 
natural, elegant, and easy vein of poetry, which 
Spenser, Daniel, Carew, and Waller introduced and 

which are mentioned some poems of his not printed in the Paradyse of 
da]mty devises. He appears by the cheque book to have died on the 
last day of October, 1566. 

William Humiis, another of the authors abore-mentioned, and who 
also wrote many of the poems printed in the Paradyse of daynty devises, 
and also translated some of JDavid's Psalms into English metre, was 
likewise a musician and a gentleman of the chapel ; his name occurs as 
such both in the list of Edward the Sixth's chapel establishment, and in 
that of queen Mary. He succeeded Edwards as master of the children, 
being appointed to that office on the fifteenth day of November, 1666, and 
died the sixth of June, 1597. 

t Mentioned before as the publisher of the first Sett of Italian ICadri- 
gals Englished. From the circumstance of his having written poems 
printed m this collection, it is probable that he was the translator of the 
madrigala published by him. 

X The translator of the Diana of George de Montemayor into English. 
Most of his poems in the England's Helicon are taken from this translatimi. 

§ Nicholas Tong, before-mentioned as the publisher of the Mntioa 
Tiansalpina in two books. 

I Author of Britannia's Paatocals. The rest may be met wMh In Hit 
Athens and Fasti Oxoniensis. 

Digitized by 




Book XII. 

practised, and which lent to music as many graces as 
it borrowed from it* 

To the catalogue of English musicians herein 
before given, and continued down to the year 1600, 
the following additions may be made, of persons less 
noted for the number and variety of their publi- 
cations, though perhaps not less excellent in their 
faculty, viz : — 

Richard Allison, a private teacher of music in 
London, flourished in the reign of queen Elizabeth, 
and dwelt in Duke's Place near Aldgate. He was 
one of the ten authors that composed parts to the 
common Psalm tunes printed by Thomas Este in 
1594, octavo. He also published the Psalms with 
this title * The Psalmes of David in meter, the plaine 
' song beeing the common tunne to be sung and plaid 

* upon the Lute, Orpharyon, Citteme, or Base Viol, 
'severally or altogether, the singing part to be 

* either tenor or treble to the instrument, according 
' to the nature of the voyce, or for foure voyces, with 

* teime short tunnes in the end, to which for the most 

* part all the Psalmes may be usually sung, for the 
' use of such as are of mean skill, and whose leysure 

* least serveth to practise.* Fol. London, 1599. 

HuoH Aston, an organist in the time of Henry 
VIII. composed a Te Deum for five voices, now in 
the music-school, Oxon. 

Thomas Ashwell, a cathedral musician, lived in 
the reigns of Henry VIII. Edward VI. and queen 
Mary ; some of his compositions are in the music- 
school, Oxon. 

Edward Blancks, one of the composers of the 
Psalms in four parts, printed by Este, and mentioned 

Avery Burton, a cathedral musician in the reign 
of Henry VIII. an anthem of his in five parts is in 
the music-school, Oxon. 

Richard Carleton, bachelor of music, and in 
priest's orders, was the author of Madrigals to five 
voices, printed in 1601. He was one of the com- 
posers of the Triumphs of Oriana. 

Benjamin Cosyn, a famous composer of lessons 
for the harpsichord, and probably an excellent per- 
former 0)1 that instrument, flourished about this time. 
There are many of his lessons extant that seem in no 
respect inferior to those of Bull. The name William 
CosiN occurs in the Ashmolean manuscript list of 
musicians of Anthony Wood, and he is therein said 

to have been organist of the Charter-house before the 
wars. It is probable that these persons were the 
sons of John Cosyn, who in 1585 published the 
Psalms in music of five and six parts. 

Hugh Davis, bachelor of music, of New college, 
and afterwards organist of Hereford cathedral, is 
celebrated for his skill in church music He died 
in 1644. 

John Farrant, organist of Salisbury, another 
John Farrant, organist of Christ's hospital within 
Newgate, London ; and Daniel Farrant, supposed 
to be the son of Richard Farrant before mentioned ; 
all flourished about the year 1600 ; the latter is said 
to have been one of the first of those musicians who 
set lessons lyra-way, as it is called, to the viol, in 
imitation of the old English lute and Bandore. 

John Floyd, of Welch extraction, bachelor of 
music, and a gentleman of the chapel, temp. Hen. 
VIII. He made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, re- 
turned and died in the king's diapel, and was buried 
in the Savoy church with ^is inscription : Johannes 
Floyd virtutis et religionis cultor. Obiit 3 Apr. 1523. 

John Gilbert, a bachelor of music of Oxon, 1510. 
John GkK)DMAN, a noted composer, 1605. Matthew 
Goodwin, 1585. Walter Hilton, a Carthusian 
monk, and eminently skilled in music. He lived 
temp. Hen. VI. and wrote De Musica Ecclesiastica, 
lib. I. Tobias Hume, a soldier by profession, but 
an excellent performer on the Viol da Gamba ; he 
published in 1607, and dedicated to queen Anne, the 
consort of James I., a collection of songs entitled 
'Captaine Hume's Poeticall Musicke, principally 
' made for two basse violls, yet so contrived that it 
'may be plaied 8 severall waies upon sundry in- 
* struments with much facilitie.' Matthew Jeffries, 
' a vicar choral of the cathedral of Wells, and bachelor 
' of music of Oxon, 1593. John Keeper of Hart 
' hall : he published select Psalms in four parts 1574 
Henry Noel, a gentleman pensioner of queen Eliza- 
beth, and much favoured by her, for his skill in 
music. Francis Pilkington of Trinity college, 
Oxon, bachelor of music in 1595. Henry Porter 
of Christ-church college, Oxon. bachelor of music 
in 1600. HicHARD Bead, bachelor of music in 1592. 
a composer of services. John Silvester, bachelor 
of music in 1521, an eminent musician. Hobert 
Stevenson, created doctor in music, 1596. Henry 
Stoning, a noted musician, temp. Eliz. 


From the foregoing deduction of the history of 
music a judgment may be formed, as well of the 
practice and the uses to which it was at different 
periods applied, as of the improvements from time 
to time made in the science. In particular it may 
be observed, that in all ages, and in almost all 
countries, it made a part of religious worship. Among 

* In this view of poetry the sonnets of Shakespeare and- the Amorettl 
of Spenser, surpass erery thing of the kind in the English language ; 
and It is to he wondered at that till about the year 1798, neither the one 
nor the other of them were ever set to music. A part of the Amoretti 
was ttitn set, and published by Dr. Manrice Greene for a single yoice, 
tout the work did turn little honour. 

the Heathens and Jews, music was employed in sacri- 
fices; and these authorities in the opinion of the 
primitive fathers were deemed sufficient to justify 
the introduction of it into the ritual of the Christian 
church. From the middle of the fourth century to 
this time, music has therefore in some way or other 
made a part in the public worship of every church 
which acknowledges Christ for its head. 

As to secular music, it may be remarked to have 
consisted either in that kind of it which is suited to 
triumphs, to shows and public spectacles, rejoicings 

Digitized by 


Chap. CVin. 



and festivities, or in that less vociferons kind, intended 
either for solitary practice or convivial recreation. 
In both of these die music was in general an anxiliar 
to poetry, or at least was made nse of to enforce 
some sentiment, to awaken devotion, or inspire love. 
The principles of harmony were by this time suf- 
ficiently explored, and something like what we now 
call Air was discoverable in ^e melody of those 
times, the subsequent improvements in music res- 
pected chiefly, style, expression, and the power of 
exciting different passions by an artful combination 
and succession of corresponding sounds, and rendered 
it fit for a more intimate union and connection with 
poetry than had been known before ; of which con- 
nection it is now time to speak. 

It has already been shewn that the modem lyric 
poetry had its nse among the Provenpals ; and those 
who have undertaken to give the history of the 
theatre, seem more disposed to derive the origin of 
the principal theatrical entertainments now in use, 
from the same source, than from the more perfect 
models of ancient Greece and Rome. But here 
a distinction is to be made between tragedy and 
comedy on the one hand, and on the o<£er those 
inferior species of dramatic poesy, namely, moral- 
ities, mysteries, mmnmeries, masques, serenatas, and 
above all the musical tragedy, or, as it has long been 
called, the Opera. The former of these have an 
undoubted claim to high antiquity, the latter it is 
conjectured had their rise in those times of ignorance 
and barbarism on which we look back with no other 
view than to estimate the degree of literary improve- 
ment in the course of a few centuries, and are in 
general of such a kind as scarce to merit a critical 
attention ; the opera however will perhaps be thought 
so intimately connected with the subject of this work, 
as to require a very particular consideration. 

The Italian writers have taken great pains to 
ascertain tho origin of the musical drama or opera. 
Riccoboni in his 'Reflexions historiques et critiques 
sur les differens Th6atrea de TEurope,* has collected 
their several opinions on the subject, and dates the 
public exhibition of operas from the year 1637, when, 
as he relates, the opera of Andromache was performed 
at the theatre of 8t. Cassan at Venice. This author 
seems to have made but a very indifferent use of the 
materials in his possession, and his account of the 
matter is very loose and unsatisfactory : it is to be 
observed that there is a diversity of opinions touching 
the origin of the musical drama, and he has adopted 
that which gives it the lowest degree of antiquity, 
the others carry it many years backwarder; these 
opinions shall severally be stated, and submitted to 
the reader's choice.* 

* Mr. Diyden, in the prefkce to his Albion and Albaniut, confetiM 
that he was not able by any search, to get any light either of the time 
when the opera bwan, or of the first author ; but he professes, upon 
probable reasons, to believe that ' some Italians, having curiously observed 

* the gallantries of the Spanish Moors at their Zambras, or royal feasts, 

* (where musick, songs, and dancing were in perfection ; together with 

* their machines at their running at the ring, and other solemnities) 
' might have refined upon those Moresque amusements, and produced this 
'pkttsinff kind of drama, by leaving out the warlike part, and forming a 
'poetical design to introduce more naturally the machines, music and 

* dances.' Then he proceeds tc say, that however operas began, musio 
has flourished principally in Italy; and that he believes their operas were 
first intended lor the celebration of the marrii^es of their princes, or the 
magnificent triumphs of some general time of Joy; and accordingly the 

First, it is said that the opera was invented by 
Johannes Sulpitius, sumamed Verulanus, a native of 
Veroli, a town in the Campania di Roma, and who 
flourished towards the end of the fifteenth century^ 
this is asserted by Bayle in the article Sulpitius, and 
his authority for it is Father Menestrier, who in his 
treatise ' Des Representations en Musique,' pag. 155, 
156, has the following passage : ' Those remains of 
'dramatic music which had been preserved in the 

* church, served to restore it two hundred years ago ; 
' and Rome, (which had in a manner lost it, in order 
' to bestow upon the recitation and declamation of 
'actors, what the Grecians bestowed upon singing 
'and harmony) brought it upon the stage towards 

* the year 1480, as I learned from Sulpitius, in tho 
' epistle dedicatory prefixed to his notes upon Vitru- 
' vius,t which he presented to Cardinal Riari, great 
'chamberlain of the church, and nephew of pope 
' Sixtus IV. Sulpitius, praising the magnificence of 
' the Cardinal, who had built many stately palaces in 
' the neighbourhood of Rome, b^ of him that he 

* would erect public theatres for musical represen- 
' tations, of which Sulpitius calls him the restorer, 
' having shewn at Rome a few years ago what had 
' not been in use there for many ages. He tells the 
' Cardinal in that epistle that Rome expects from 
' him a theatre for such performances, because he has 
' already given such an entertainment to the people 
' upon a moveable theatre set up in a public place, 
' and at other times in the castle of St. Angelo for 
'the Pope's diversion, and in his palace for some 

* Cardinals.* J 

ErythrsBUs, in his Pinacotheca I. pag. 62, and 
Orescimbeni, ascribe the invention of the musical 
drama or opera to Emilio Cavaliere, who in the year 
1590, exhibited in the palace of the grand duke at 
Florence, 'H Satiro,* and * La Disperazione di Fileno,* 
two dramas of the pastoral kind set to music.§ This 
relation, true as it may be, does not ascertain the 
original invention of the opera, which, according to 

expences upon these occasions were out of the purse of the sovereign or 
republic, as has been often practised at Turin, Florence, Venice, tec 

In a postscript to the above-mentioned prefkce, Dryden retracts this 
opinion, and says thM possibly the Italians went not stf far as Spain for 
the invention of their operas ; for that they might have taken the hint 
at home, and formed this drama by gathering up the shipwrecks of the 
Grecian and Roman theatres, which were adorned with music, scenes, 
dances, and machines, especially the Grecian. And in the preface itself 
he observes that though the opera is a modem invention, yet it is built 
on the foundation of the Ethnic worship. 

t Bayle remarks that Menestrier is mistaken in this description of 
Sulpitius's edition of Vitruvlus ; it is true that he published it during 
the pontificate of pope Innocent VIII. that is |to say, between 1484 and 
1492, but without notes or various readings. Bayle, Sitlpitius, note A. 

t ' Tu enim primus tragoedia quam nos Juventutem excitandl gratiA 

* et AoxuB et C amta&x pnmi hoc aevo docuimus (nam e^usmodi actionem 
'Jam multis sseculis Roma non viderat) in medio loro pulpitum ad 
' quinque pedum altitudinem erectum pulcherrimi exomastL Eam- 

* demque postqutkm in Hadriani mole Divo Innocentio spectante est acta, 

* rursus intri tuos penates tamquam in media Circi cavei toto confessu, 
' umbraculis tecto, admisso populo, et plurlbus tui ordinis spectatoribus 

* honoilfiei excepistL Tu etiam primus picturatse scena fadem, quilm 
' Pomponiani comsediam agerent nostro ssculo ostendisti : quare k te 
' theatrum novum tota urbs magnis votis expectat.' 

It seems that the opera here spoken of, was set to music by Francesco 
Beverini, a learned musician who flourished in the pontificate of Sixtus 
IV. and that the sul^ect of the drama was the conversion of St. Paul. 
It is remarkable that Sulpitius in his dedication stvles himself only the 
reviver of this entertainment ; by which expression he seems to intimate 
that it was in use among the ancients; and of that opinion Diyden 
appears at last to have been by the postscript to the prefkce to his Albion 
and Albanius before cited. 

f Orescimbeni, Commentaij. Intomoall' Istoria della volgar Poetla, 
vol. I. lib. iv. page 234. 

Digitized by 





the above account, must have been in 1480, or, as 
Sulpitius intimates, still more early. 

Notwithstanding these relations, it is insisted on 
by many that the mnsical drama or opera was in- 
vented by Ottavio Rinuccini, a native of Florence, 
a man of wit, handsome in person, polite, eloquent, 
and a very good poet.* He considerably enriched 
the Italian poetry with his verses, compost after the 
manner of Anacreon, and other pieces which were 
set to musiti and acted on the stage. His first com« 
position of this kind was a pastoral called Daphne, 
which being but an essay or attempt to introduce 
this species of musical entertainment into practice, 
was performed only to a select and private audience ; 
and the merit attributed to thb peice encouraged 
him to write an opera called Enrydice.f The music 
both to the pastoral. Daphne, and the opera, fhrydice, 
was composed by Jacopo Peri, who on this occasion 
is said to have been the inventor of that well known 
species of composition, Recitative.} The Eurydice 
was represented en the theatre at Florence in the 
year 1600, upon occasion of the marriage of Mary 
de Medicis with Henry IV. of France. Rinuccini 
dedicated his opera to that queen, and in the follow-^ 
ing passage declares the sentiments he was taught to 
entertain of it by his friend Peri. 

* It has been the opinion of many persons, most 
' excellent queen, that the ancient Greeks and Romans 
'sang their tragedies throughout on the stage, but 

* so noble a manner of recitation has not that I know 

* of been even attempted by any one till now ; and 
'this I thought was owing to the defect of the 
' modem music, which is far inferior to the ancient ; 
' but Messer Jacopo Peri made me entirely alter my 
' opinion, when upon hearing the intention of Messer 
' Giacomo Corsi and myself, he so elegantly set to 
'music the pastoral of Daphne, which I had com- 
' posed merely to make a trial of the power of vocal 
' music in our age, it pleased to an incredible degree 
' those few that heard it. From this I took courage : 
' the same piece being put into better form and re- 
' presented anew in the house of Messer Peri, was 
' not only favoured by all the nobility of the country, 

* He entertained a wild pasikm for Mary de Medicis, and followed her 
into Prance, where he notwithstanding succeeded so well in obtaining 
the farour of Henry IV. to whom she was married, that he made him 
one of the gentlemen of his bedchamber. It is said of him that he bad 
a singular propensity to amoroui pursuits, but that his inclination for 
the queen naving been greatly mortified by her wisdom and virtue, he 
was a&cted with a salutary shame, became a penitent, and applied 
himself to exercises of devotion, which he cootlnued during the re- 
mainder of his life. His poems were ooUeeted bv his son Peter Frauds 
Rinuccini, and were printed in Florence in 1624, with a dedication to 
Lewis XIII. An account of this person is given by Johannes Victor 
Roscius in his Pinacotheca II. pag. 61, published under the name of 
Janus Nidus Erythrseus. 

t Nicius Erythrsut «scribes to him two other operas, Arethuaa and 

X This is the general <9lnion, and it is the niore likdy to be true, as 
Peri has almost in terms related the process of the invention. Never- 
theless some writers, and particularly KIrcher, h»ve given the honour of 
it to Giulio Cacdni, a contemporary musician with Peri ; his words axe : 
' Julius Caccinus was the first that restored the ratio of the redutlve 
' style in singing, so much In ufe among the ancients' [Musurg. torn. I. 
pag. 610.1 In Uds sentiment Kixoher seems to be mistaken, though Peri 
himself, in his preface to the Eurydice, says that in the invention of it 
he imitated the practice of the andcnt Greeks and Romans [Vide Ores, 
dmbeni, Commentaij intoreo all' Istoria della volgar Poesia, vol. I. lib. 
iv. pag. 233,] for in those few andent musical compositions now extant, 
there are no melodies to be found that can be said to bear the least 
resemblance to the modem recitative ; neither is it to be inferred f^om 
what the andent harmonicians have said of the Mdopoieia, that they 
were in the least acquainted with the nature of that progression, which 
constitutef the difference between recitative and soag. 

' but heard and commended by the most serene grand 
'duchess, and the most illustrious Cardinals dal 
'Monte and Montalto. But the Eurydice has met 
' with more favour and success, being set to music 
' by the same Peri with wonderful art ; and having 

* been thought worthy to be represented on the stage, 
' by the bounty and maguificence of the most serene 

* grand duke, in the presence of your majesty, the 
' cardinal legate, and so many princes and gentlemen 
' of Italy and France ; from whence, beginning to 
' find how well musical representations of this kind 

* were likely to be received, I resolved to publish 
' these two, to the end that others of greater abilities 

< than myself may be induced to carry on and im- 
' prove this kind of poetry to such a degree, that we 

* may have no occasion to envy those ancient pieces 
' which are so much celebrated by noble writers.' 

Father Menestrier confirms the above account, 
adding thereto some farther particulars in the fol- 
lowing passage : — 

'Ottavio Rinuccini, a Florentine poet, having a 
' particular talent at expressing in his verses all kinds 

< of passions, found means to adapt music and singing 
*to them so well, that they neither destroyed smy 

* part of the beauty of the verses, nor prevented the 

* distinct understanding of the words, which is often 
'hindered by an affected multiplicity of divisions. 
' He consulted in this Giacomo Corsi, a gentleman of 
' Florence, well skilled in music and polite literature, 
'and both calling in Giacomo Cleri,§ and Giulio 
'Oaccini, excellent masters in music, they together 
'composed a drama entitled Apollo and Daphne, 
' whidi was represented in the house of Messer Corsi, 
' in the presence of ^e grand duke and duchess of 
'Tuscany, and the cardinals Monti and Montalto, 
'with so much success that he was encouraged to 
' compose another, namely, his Eurydice, and caused 
'it to be exhibited soon after at the same place. 
' Claudio de Monteverde, an excellent musician, com- 
' posed the music to the Ariadne on the model of 
'these two; and being made chapel-master of St 
' Mark's in Venice, introduced into that city these 

* representations, which are now become so famous 
' by the magnificence of the theatres and dress, by 

* the delicacy of voices, harmony of concerts, and the 
'learned compositions of this Monteverde, Soriano, 
' GiovaneUi, Teosilo, and other great masters.' || 

Count Algarotti, from a preface of Peri to the 
Eurydice, has given a very succinct relation of the 
occasion and manner of this invention in the follow- 
ing words : ' When he (Teri^ had applied himself to 
' an investigation of that species of musical imitation 
' which would the readiest lend itself to the theatric 
' exhibitions, he directed his researches to discover 

§ This should be Jacopo Peri. 

I Dee RepresenUt en Musique, pag. 168, et seq. 

That KIrcher should ascribe to Caccini rather than Peri the invention 
of Recitative, can only be accounted for by this circumstance, that 
Menestrier's book was not published till thirty years after the writing 
of the Musurgia; and thou^ he hints at Peri's prefsce to the Eurydice, 
it does not appear that he had ever seen it. 

That they were both excellent musicians is not to be doubted: of 
Caccini very ttttle is known, except that he was by birth a Roman. Peri 
was a Florentine, and is celebrated by Nicius Erythrseus, in his Pma. 
ootheca I. pag. 144 : by Cresohnbeni, in his ConmientaiJ intorno aU' 
tstoria della volgar Poesia, ydi. I. pag. 233, and indeed by most writen 
that have taken occasion to mention him. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OVIII. 



*the method of the ancient Greeks on similar oc- 

* casions. He carefblly remarked what Italian words 

* were, and what were not capable of intonation ; and 
' was very exact in minuting down the several modes 

* of pronunciation, and the proper accents to express 

* grief, joy, and all the other affections of the human 
' mind, with a view to make the base move in proper 
'time, now with more energy, now with less, ac- 

* cording to the nature of each. So scrupulous was 
' he, that he attended to all the niceties and peculiari- 
'ties of the Italian language, and frequently con- 
' suited with several gentlemen not less celebrated 

* for the delicacy of their ears, than for their skill in 

* the arts of music and poetry. 

' The conclusion from tlus enquiry was, that the 

* ground-work of the imitation proposed should be 
*an harmony, following nature step by step, in a 
' medium between common speaking and melodv. 
' Such were the studies of the musical composers m 
' former times. They proceeded in the improvement 
' of their art with the utmost care and attention, and 
' the effect proved that they did not lose their time 

* in the pursuit of unprofitable subtleties.** 

These are the accounts which the writers of greatest 
authority give of the invention of the musical drama 
or opera, as it is called ;f and from this period it will 
not be very difficult to trace its progress and farther 

In the extract herein before given from Menestrier, 
it is said that the Ariadne of Rinuccini was set to 
music by Claudio Monteverde ; this is in the highest 
degree probable, not only because Monteverde waa 
at that time in high reputation, being then Maestro 
di Cappella to the republic of Venice ; J but because 
an opera of his entitled L'Orfeo, Favola in Musica, 
is extant, which was represented at Mantua but a 
very few years after the Eurydice, viz., in 1607, 
corresponding most exactly with those set to music 
by Peri; ihtii is to say, it consists of airs and 
chorusses, with an intermixture of recitative ; answer- 
ing to the description thereof in the passage above 
cited from Algarotti, taken, as he asserts, from the 
preface of Peri to the Eurydice. 

This opera, for aught that can now be learned, was 
the first ever printed with the music, and is supposed 
to have been publiabed soon after its representation. 
A new edition of it was printed at Venice in 1615, 
by Bicciardo Amadino. 

The structure of this drama is so very unlike that 
of the modem opera, as to render it a subject of 
curious speculation ; for first it is to be observed that 
in the performaaee of ii no aecompaniment of a 
whole orchestra was required; but the airs per- 
formed by the several singers were sustained by in- 

• Sagglo topn rOpem te motka dd Signor Conte Algarotti, pag. 27. 

f FcnrncdT a common appftnatkm to denote it was, ' Opera eon in- 
temediL' This appetn by a passage in the life of Padre Paolo Sarpi, 
wherein a relation is made of many attempts to murder that excellent 
person, and of one in particnlar, wherein afnend of his, Padre Fulgentio, 
was woonded, the aaasaains mJitaUng him Ibr Father PauL TIm lelater 
•ays that these mnrdwers sseaped, and adds that by a struiis a eddent 
Hiey were not pursued so ouickly as tliey might have "bem, for that theft 
ereoJUag was presented at the theatre of St. Luigi an Opera con intermedii, 
whidi occasioned so great a concourse of people, that the murderers 
Ibaad means to retreat. 

{ The Ariadne of Monteverde is celebrated by Olo. Battista Donl In 
Ms tnatise De Pr«stantla Musics ceteris, pag. 67. 

struments of various kinds assigned to each character 
respectively in the dramatis personse, which stands 
thus in the first page of the printed book : — 

La Musica Prologo 

Choro di Ninfe e Pastori 

Chori di spiriti infemali 
Cnoro de pastori che 

fecero la Moresca 

Del fine. 

Duoi Gnmicembani 
Duoi coDtrabassi de Viola 
Dieci Viole da brazzo 
Un Aroa doppia 
Daoi Violini picooli allaPraooese 
Daoi Chitarooi 
Duoi Organi di legno 
Tre Bassi da gamba 
Qoattro Tromboni 
Un Regale 
Duoi Cornetd 

UnFlautina alia vigesima seconda 
Un Clariuo con tre trombe 8ordiue§ 

By the first personage is to be understood the 
Genius of music, who sometimes epe$ka in that 
character at large. * 

The overture, if it may be called by that name, 
is a short prelude, eight bars of breve time in length, 
in five parts, for a trumpet and other instruments, 
and consists of two movements, the last vdiereof is 
termed Ritomello, a word signifying the same with 

This composition, which the author calls a Toccato, 
from toccare, to touch, is directed to be sounded 

f The names of the several instruments aboTe*mentionednqninsome 
pwticular explanathm ; and first it is to be obeenred, that the word 
Orauicembani is misprinted, and should be Clavicembani. for the word 
Clariceqibano occurs Arequently throughout the opera, and Grauicembani 
never : as to Clavicembano, it is supposed to mean the same as Clavi- 
cembalo, the true Italian appellation for a harptichord. 

As to the Centrabassi de viela, these are supposed to mean viels, of a 
sise between the tenor viol and violin. 

The Viole da braazo, of which it is to be observed there are ten required 
in the performance of this opera, were clearly the arm.viol or tenor viol ; 
the term da braxxo being used in contradistinction to da gamba, which if 
appropriated to that species of base viol which in the performance am M 
is placed between the legs. 

The Arpa doppta seems to be the double-strung harp, an instrument, 
which though by some said to have been invented by the Welsh, and by 
others t^ the Irish, was very well known at this time. 

The Violini niccoli alia Francese must in st rictne ss signiiy i 
violins; and of OMse there sre none new known but that oen t —ptais 
instrument called the Kit, which liardly any but dancing-masters are ever 
known to touch ; it is therefore probable that by Violini piccoll we are to 
understand common treble violins ; and this is the more likely, as violins 
are no where else mentioned in the catalogue of instmasents now under 

TlM noun Chitaroni is the nominative case phiral of Chitanra, of which 
the word Guitar is manifestly a corruption. 

Organi di legno, of which two are nere required, can signify nothing 
but organs of wood, that is to say, organs with wooden pipes : for it is 
well known that most sigans ape oomposed both of wooden and leaden 

'Trhe Bassi da gamba were dearly leg viols above described. 

The Tromboni could be no other than trumpets, concerning which it 
is unnecessary In this place to be particular. 

The instrument agamst the name of Apollo, is Un Regale, a Bsga!, 
which term has already been shown to mean a smell portable organ, pro- 
bably with pipes of metal. 

The shepherds who sfaig the last chorus, dance also a Horesca; this it 
seems they do to the instruments mentioned in the last three lines of the 
above catalogue. The Comet, though an instrument now out of use, is 
very well described by Mersemras, Kiseher, and other writers on mnaku 
B«t the Flantino aOa vigesima seoondo, merits a very particular enquiry. 

It is well known that of the flute Abec, which has already been de- 
scribed in this work, there are various sizes, smaller than that formerly 
used in concerts, and which was therefore called the concert flute, and 
that of these the lowest note, though nominally F, must in power 
answer to that sound in the great system, to which it conesponds in a 
Mular course of succession upwards ; for this reason that slaed flute 
whose lowest note F was an unison with the note f in the acutes, was 
called an ocUve flute. Un Flautlno alia vigesima secondo, bv parity of 
reason must therefore mean a treble octave flute, i. e. a flute whose 
nominal F was by the smallness of the instrument removed three octaves, 
measured \(y the interval of a twenty-seoend above its true and proper 
situation in the scale« A flute thus small could not be much bigger than 
the oaten reed so frequently mentioned by the pastoral poets. 

The word Clarlno, as Altieri renders it, is a small trumpet, perhaps -an 
octave higher than the noble instrument of that name. 

The Trombe sordine were probablv trumpets of a less sbdll and iderdng 
sound than those of this day ; but this is only conjecture. 

Digitized by 




Book XII. 

three times ' Avanti il levar da la tela,' before the 
rising of the cloth or curtain. 

To the overture succeeds the prologue, consisting 
of five speeches in recitative; it is spoken by the 
first of the personages named in the dramatis personse, 
who represents the Genius of music, and sometimes 
speaks m that character at large, and at others in the 
person of a single performer, as thus, * I su cetera 
d'or cantando soglio ;' the purport of these speeches 
severally, is to declare the argument of the opera, to 
excite attention, and enjoin silence, not only on the 
audience, but on the birds, and even things inanimate, 
as in the following instance : — 

' Hor mentre i canti altemo hor lieti hor mesti, 
* Non si mova Augellin Ara queste piante, 
' Ne s'oda in queste rive onda sonante 

* £t ogni auretta in suo camin s'arresti.' 

The opera then begins with a speech in recitative 
by a shepherd, which is immediately succeeded by 
a chorus of five parts in counterpomt, directed to 

be sung to the sound of all the instruments. Other 
chorusses are directed to be sung to the sound of 
guitars, violins, and flutes, as particularly mentioned 
in the opera : solo airs there are none ; but Reci- 
tatives, Chorusses, and Ritomellos, Terzetti, and Duetti, 
make up the whole of this opera, which concludes 
with what the author calls a Moresca; this is a 
composition in five parts, merely instrumental, and 
conjectured to be the tune of a dance a la Moresca, 
or after the fashion of the Moors, who it is well 
known long before this time settled in Spain, and in- 
troduced into that kingdom many customs which 
were adopted in other countries. 

A specimen of recitative music, in the form in 
which it was originally conceived, cannot at this day 
but be deemed a curiosity ; as must also an air in 
one of the first operas ever composed: for these 
reasons the following dialogue and duetto are inserted, 
taken from the fifth act of the Orfeo of Glaudio 
Monteverde : — 

Apollo deacende in ana nnnola, cantando. 

PERCH'a lo adegno ed al do - lor ia pre - da Co - si ti do - ni o fig - lio ? Non 


d non h cou-sig-lio^ Di ge-ne-ro - so pet - to ser-vir al proprio*af-fct - to, Quincibiasmoe perig-lio; 

Gia sou-ra star ti veg - gia. On - do mo - vo dal C itl per dar - ti ai - ta, Hor tu m'ascol - ta, 

Ch*adi8-pe-ra - to fi - ne. Con es.tre- mo do-lo - re, Mliavean con-dot -to gii sdegn' ed A- 

- - mo - re ec - co-mi danqn'at*ten-{oa tne ra-gio • ni, Ce-les - te pa-dre hor cio* che vnoi m*im-po - nL 

Digitized by 


Chap. CVIII. 




da - ra an -cor non sa - i, Ck>-me nnl -la qua giik di-Iet-tae da - ra? Dan 

- - qac Be go-der bra - mi immor-tal vi - ta, Viente nemi-co al Ciel ch'a se t'in - vi - ta 

Nel so - - lee nel-le stcl - le Va-geg-ge - rai , . le sue sembian - ze bel - le. 

Ben di - CO tan - to Pa - dre far- si non deg - no fig - lio se non segais - ci il tuo fe-del con-sig - lio. 

Apollo ed Obfeo ascende al cielo, cantando. 

Digitized by 




Book. XTL 

- lo Dove ha vir - tii to - ra - ce, Do - gno pre - mio di se di - let 

Cie - lo DoTe ha vir - td ve - ra - ce, De - gno pre - mio di se 

to e pa - ce, Dove ha vir-tii ve - ra - ce De • 

Dove ha vir-tft ve - ra - re De - 

Claudio Montevebdb. 

Notwithstanding that tHis kind of melody is said medium between speaking and singing, but approach 

by the inventors of it to correspond with the method too nearly towards the latter to produce the effects 

of enunciation practised by the ancient Greeks and of oratory. 

Romans, it may well be questioned whether the There is no final chorus of voices to the opera 

difference between the one and the other was not from whence the above extracts are made, but the 

very great, for this reason, that the inflections of the representation concludes with a dance to the fd* 

voice in the modem recitative do not preserve a lowing tune : — 


Digitized by 


Chap. CDL 




There is very little doubt but that the Cantata 
Spiritnale, or what we now call the Oratorio, took 
ita rise from the Opera. Menestrier* attributes its 
origin to the Crusades, and says that the pilgrims 
returning from Jerusalem and the Holy Land, from 
St James of Compostella, and other places to which 
pilgrimages were wont to be made, composed songs, 
reciting the life and death of the Son of God, and 
the mysteries of the Christian faith, and celebrating 
the achievements and constancy of saints and mart3nr8. 
This seems to be a mere conjecture of Menestrier ; 
other writers render a much more probable account 
of the matter, and expressly say, that the Oratorio 
was an avowed imitation of the opera, with this 
diflference only, that the foundation of it was ever 
some religious, or at least moral subject. Crescimbeni 
speaks of it in these terms : — 

* The Oratorio, a poetical composition, formerlv a 

* commixture of the dramatic and narrative styles, 

* but now entirely a musical drama, liad its origin 
' from San Filippo Neri,t who in his chapel, after 
< sermons and other (Irvotions, in order to allure 
' young people to pious offices, and to detain them 
'&om earthly pleasure, had hymns, psalms, and 
'such like prayers sung by one or more voices. 

* These in process of time w-ve published at Rome, 
*and particularly in a boo> printed in 1585, with 
' the title of Laudi Spirituaay stampate ad istanza 

* d^ JRR. PP. della Congregazione deW Oratorio ; 
' and another in 1603, entitled Lavdi Spirituali di 
*diversiy solite cantarsi dcpo sermoni dcH PP. 
' della CongregaTume dell Oratorio, Among these 
' spiritual songs were dialogues ; and these entertain- 
'ments becoming more Sequent, and improving 

* every year, were the occasion that in the seventeenth 
' century oratorios were first invented, so called from 
' the place of their origin.:]: It is not known who 

« Bes Represent en Muiique, pag. 153. 

t St Plifllp Neil WM born At Florence In the year 1515. He wm 
Intended by his parents for a merchant, and to that end was sent to his 
uncle, who followed that employment, to be Instructed therein, but he 
betook himself to study and exerdses of devotion, and beoune an 
ecclesiastic. The congregation of the Fathers of the Oratory, founded 
by him. Is an institution well known : in the first establishment of It he 
was assisted by Csesar, afterwards Cardinal Baronius, who was his disciple. 
Baronios in his annals has borne an honourable testimony to his character 
and abilities, by styling him the original author and contriver of that 
The • - - -^ -.. , 

I both a devout and learned man. 

great work. Tnere is an account of St. Philip Neri in Bibadeneyra's 
Lives of the Saints, by means whereof, notwithstanding the manv silly 
ilpable fUsities related of him, it is easy to discover that he 

X This though the true, is but an awkward etymology. The society 

Claudio Montetebde. 

' was the first that gave them this name, not even by 
'the fathers of the Congregation, who have been 
'asked about it. We are certain however that 

* Oratorios could not begin before the middle of 
*the above-mentioned century; as we do not find 
*any before the time of Francesco Balducci, who 
'died about the year 1645, in whose collection of 

* poems there are two, one entitled " La Fede^ ove 

* si spiega il Sagrifizio d' Abramo," the other " II 
' Trumjo sopra la Santissima Vergine ;" and although 
' Giano Nicio Eritreo, who flourished even before 
*1640, speaking of Loreto Vettori, of Spoleto, an 
' excellent musician and a good poet, says that on 
' a certain night he heard him sing in the Oratory of 
'the above-mentioned fathers, Magdalenos ma de- 
'jientu crimina, segue ad Christi pedes abjicientis, 
' querimonia ; whicn lamentation might be in that 

* kind of poetrv we are just speaking of; yet, as the 
' author of it is unknown, and the time not certain 
' when it was sung, we cannot say it preceded the 
' Oratorios of BalduccL§ 

' These compositions in the beginning were a 
' mixture of dramatic and narrative parts, for under 
' the name of history, in those of Balducci or of Testo, 
' as well as in all otiiers, the poet has introduced the 
'dramatis person®; but although Testo's manner 
'has been followed even in our days, at present it 
' is quite abolished, and the Oratorio is a drama 
' throughout Of these some are ideal, others para- 

* bolical, and others with real persons, which are the 
'most common, and others are mixed with both 
'the above-mentioned kinds of persons: they are 
'generally in two parts, and, being set to music, 
' take up about two hours in the performance ; yet 
' Malatesta Strinati, and Qiulio Cesaro Grazini, both 
' men of letters, published two Oratorios, the former 
' on St. Adrian, divided into three acts, the latter on 
' St George, into five. No change of place or length 
' of time is observed in them, for being sung without 
' acting, such circumstances are of no service. The 
' metre of them is like that of the musical drama, 
' that is to say, the lines rhymed at pleasure ; they 
' are full of airs, and are truly very agreeable to hear 
' when composed by good authors, such as Cardinal 

here spoken of, La Congregaxione del Padrl' dell Oratorio, evidently 
derives its name ttoxa the verb Orare, aa oratory being a place of prayer : 
in this instance the appellative Oratorio is ttansflBrred ttom the place to 
the exercise ; a singular pnxtf how inadequate the powers of language 
are to our ideas. 
I Jani Nicci Eiythrsei Pinac. altera Ixviii. art. Loestvs Vzctokivs. 

Digitized by 





*Pier Matteo Petrucci, and Gio. Filippo Berninoa, 
' prelate in the conrt of Home, among the dead ; and 
' Cardinal Benedetto Pansilio, and Pietro Ottoboni, 
' now living, who both in this, as well as in all kinds 

* of poetry, are arrived at great excellency. 

* Bnt although Oratorios are at present so much in 
'vogue, we have not lost entirely the manner of 
' singing sacred things, for we hear some of them 
*in those dialogues which are called Cantatas, and 
' particularly in the summer, when the fathers of 
' Vallicella perform their concerts in the garden of 

* the monks of St Onofrio. This custom is likewise 
'followed with great splendour at particular times 
'of the year by Cardinal Gio. Battista Spinola of 

* St. Cecilia, who on Wednesdays has some very fine 
' ones performed in his palace ; for the most part the 
' composition of Flaminio Piccioni, an eminent dra- 

* matic poet. There is sung besides every year on 
' Christmas eve in the pontiff's palace, a charming 
' cantata, in the presence of the sacred college, for 

* whom Giubileo da Pesaro, who died a few years 
' ago, composed some very famous ; as likewise Paolo 
'Francesco Carli, a Florentine poet, not less cele- 
' brated for his serious, than his comic productions: and 
'this year the advocate Francesco Maria de Conti 
'di Campello has favoured us with one, that for 
' sweetness of versification, nobility of sentiment, and 
' allusion to the present affairs of Italy, deserves to 
' be highly commended.' * 

To this account of Crescimbeni, Mons. Bourdelot 
adds, that St Philip Neri having prevailed upon the 
most skilful poets and musicians to compose dia- 
logues in Italian verse, upon the principal subjects 
of the Holy Scripture, procured some of the finest 
voices of Rome to sing, accompanied with all sorts 
of instruments, and a band of music in the interludes. 
— ^That these performances consisted of Monologues, 
Dialogues, Duos, Trios, and Recitatives of four 
voices ; and that the subjects of some of them were 
the conversation of the Samaritan woman with the 
Son of God ; of Job with his friends, expressing his 
misery to them — ^The prodigal son received into his 
father's house — Tobias with the angel, his father, and 
wife — The angel Gabriel with the Virgin, and the 
mystery of the incarnation. — That the novelty of 
these religious dramas, and, above all, the exquisite 
style of music in which they were composed, drew 
together such a multitude of people as filled the 
church boxes, and the money taken for admission 
was applied in defraying the expences of the per- 
formance. Hence the origin of Oratorios as they 
are now styled, or spiritual shows,f the practice 

* Crescfmb. Comm. Int all' Istor. della volf . PoetU, toI. I. lib. iv. 
pag. 256. 

t This U a mistake; spiritual shows, though not with music and 
recitatiTe, axe much more ancient than the time of St. Philip Neri. The 
fraternity del Gonfalone, as it is called, was founded in 1264 ; and in their 
statutes, printed in Rome in 1584, it is expressly decUured that the 
principal end of this institution was, that the members of the fhitemity 
should represent the passion of our Lord. It is true that this practice 
was abolished in the pontificate of Paul III. that is to say, about the 
year 1548 ; but we learn from Crescimbeni and other writers, that re- 
presentations of this kind were common in Italy, and the practice of great 
antiquity. Vasari, in his life of Bufiklmacco the painter, gives an 
account of a feast that was solemnised on the ilver Amo in the year 1304, 
where a machine representing hell, was fixed on boats, and a sacred 
history acted, supposed to be that of Lazarus. Comment, int. all' Istor. 
della irolg. Poesia, vol. I. lib. iv. pag. 241. 
^ It is probable that this representation suggested to Pietro de Cosimo, 

whereof is now become so general in Rome, that 
hardly a day passes in which there are not one or 
two such representations. J 

The deduction of the history of church-music, 
herein before given, contains an account of the rise 
and progress of antiphonal singing in the Greek and 
Latin churches, the opposition it met with, the pa- 
tronage given it by the Roman pontiff at succeeding 
periods, the form of the choral service exemplified 
in the Cantus Gregorianus, with a general idea of 
the musical offices directed by the ritual of the 
church of Rome, as well on solemn as ordinary 

That the mode of religious worship, above de- 
scribed, prevailed in all the European churches till 
the time of the Reformation, is not to be doubted : 
the first deviation from it that we are now able to 
trace, was that which followed the reformation by 
Luther, who being himself a great proficient in, and 
a passionate lover of music ; and being sensible of its 
use and importance in divine worship, in conjunction 
with his friend Melancthon framed a ritual, little less 
solemn, and calculated to engage the affections of the 
people, than that of the church of Rome : and, to 

a Florentine painter, of whom Feltbien has given an account, the idea of 
a spectacle, the most whimsical, and at the same time the most terrifying 
that imagination can conceive, which in the year 1510 he caused to be 
exhibited at Florence. Felibien's relation of it is to this purpose: 
' Having taken a resolution to exhibit this extiaordinaiy spectacle at the 
' approaching Carnival, Cosimo shut himself up in a great hall, and there 
' disposed so secretly every thing for the execution of his design, that no 
' one had the least suspicion of what he was about. In the evening of 

* a certain day in the Carnival season, there appeared in one of the chief 
' streets of the city a chariot painted black, with white crosses and dead 
< men's bones, drawn by six bufialos ; and upon the end of the pole stood 
' the figure of an angel with the attributes of Death, and holding a long 
' trumpet in his hands, which he sounded in a shrill and moumfUl tone, 
' as if to awaken and raise the dead : upon the top of the chariot sat 
' a figure with a scythe in his hand, repiesenting Death, having under his 
' feet many graves, firom which appeared, halfway out, the bare bones oi 

* carcases. A great number of attendants, clothed in black and white, 
' masked with I>eath'6 heads, marched before and behind the chariot, 
' bearing torches, which enlightened it at distances so well chosen, that 
'every thing seemed natural. There were heard as they marched, 
' muffled trumpets, whose hoarse and doleful sound served as a signal for 
' the procession to stop. Then the sepulchres were seen to open, out of 

* which proceeded, as by a resurrection, bodies resembling skeletons, who 
' sang, in a sad and melancholy tone, airs suitable to the subject, as 
' Dolor pianto e Penitenza^ and others composed with all that art and in- 

* vention which the Italian music is capable of: while the procession 
' stopped in the public places, the musicians sang with a continued and 

* tremulous voice the psalm Miterere^ accompanied with instruments 
' covered with crape, to render their sounds more dismal. The chariot wan 
' followed by many persons habited like corpses, and mounted upon the 
' leanest horses that could be found, spread with black housings, having 

* white crosses and death's heads painted at the four comers. Each of 

* the riders had four persons to attend him, habited in shrouds like the 
' dead, each with a torch in one hand, and a standard of black tafiety 

* painted with white crosses, bones, and death's heads in the other. In 

* short, all that horror can imagine most affecting at the resurrection of 

* the dead, was represented in this masquerade, which was intended to 

* represent the triumuh of Death. A spectacle so sad and mournful struck 

* a damp through Florence ; and although in a time of festivitv, made 

* penitents of some, while others admiring the ingenious manner in which 
' every thing was conducted, praised the whim of the inventor, and the 

* execution of a concert so suitable to the occasion.' 

Crescimbeni, Comm. int. all' Istor. della volg. Poesia, vol. I. lib. iv. 
pag. 243, spelling of those representations of sacred history, says that 
he had met with one, namely, Abraham and Isaac, written by Feo 
Belcari, and acted for the first time in the church of St. Mary Magdalen 
at Florence in 1449. 

These representations, however well intended. Called of producing the 
end of their institution ; Castelvetro says that in his time, and even at 
Rome, Christ's passion was so acted as to set the spectators a laughing. 
In France was a company of strollers, incorporated as it seems for the 
same purposes as the fmtemity del OonCslone, with whom Francis I. 
was much delighted ; but the abuses committed by them were so nu- 
merous, that towards the end of his reign a process was commenced 
against them, and in four or five years after his decease they were 
banished France. Rymer, at the end of his Short View of Tragedy, has 

gven a copy of the parliament roll, containing the process at length, 
e has also, because it contains a particular history of the stage, given 
an abridgment of it in English. 

t Hist, de la Musique, et de ses Effets, torn. I. pag. 256. 

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Chap. ODL 



say the truth, the whole of the litargy, as settled by 
him, appears to be, if not a reasonable, at least 
a musical service. The evidence of this assertion is 
a book intitled 'Psalmodia, hoc est Cantica sacra 
veteris Ecdesia selecta,* printed at Norimberg in 
1553, and at Wittemberg in 1561. The publisher 
of it was Lucas Lossius, rector of the college at 
Lunenberg,* who has also given his own Scholia 

To speak of this work in particular, it is prefaced 
by an epistle from Melancthon to the editor, whom 
he acknowledges as his intimate friend. This is 
followed by a dedication of the book to the brethren 
Frederick and John, sons of the reigning king of 
Denmark. The work is divided into four books, and 
the offices therein severally contained appear by the 
titles of each as they follow thus in order : — 

Liber primus, continens Antiphonas, Respon- 

soria, Hymnos et Sequentias, qxm leguntur diebus 

Dominicis, et festis Christi. 

Liber secundus« continens cantica veteris ecdesiae, 

selecta de prsecipiiB festb sanctorum Jesu Christi. 
Liber tertius, continens cantiones missae, seu 

sacri, ut vocant, praeter Introitus, quos suprk in 

Donunicis, et festis diebus invenies suo loco. 
Liber quartus, Psalmi cum eorum antiphonis 

ferialibusy et intonationibus, additis scholiis et lec- 

tionis varietate ex Psalterio D. Georg. majoris. 

Calvin, whose separation from the church of Rome 
was founded in an opposition as well to its discipline 
as its tenets, in ,his establishment of a church at 
Geneva, reduced the whole of divine service to prayer, 
preaching, and singing ; and this latter was by him 
laid under great restraints, for none of the offices in 
the Romish service, namely, the Antiphon, Hymn, 
and Motet, with that artificial and elaborate music to 
which they were sung, were retained; but all of 
music that was adopted by him, consisted in that 
plain metrical psalmody now in general use among 
the reformed churches, and in the parochial churches 
of this country. Not but there is reason to believe 
that the practice of psalmody had the sanction of 
Luther himself. 

The opinion which Luther entertains of music in 
general, and of the lawfulness of it in divine worship, 
appears by those extracts from his CoUoquia Mensalia 
herein before given; and there is good reason to 
believe, not only that those sweet Motetaj, which his 
friends sang at supper with him, were the composition 
of Grerman musicians, but that German musicians 
were also the authors or composers of many of those 
melodies to which the Psalms then were, and even 
now are, usually sung. Sleidan informs us that upon 
a certain occasion, mentioned by him in his History 
of the Reformation of the Church, Luther para- 
phrased in the High German language, and set to 
a tune of his own composing, the forty-sixth Psalm, 
' Dens noster refngium/ It is certain that he was 
a performer on <he lute; and in the work above 
cited he speaks of his skill in music as an acquisition 
that he would not exchange for a great matter. 
Besides this, there is a tradition among the German 

• See an account of thia person, pag. 397 of this work. 

Protestants that he was the author of many of the 
melodies to which the Psalms are now usually sung 
in their churches ;f and Bayle expressly says that to 
sing a Psalm was, in the judgment of the orthodox 
of that day, to be a Lutheran. All this considered, 
it is more than probable, though history is silent in 
this respect, that the practice of psalmody had its 
rise in Germany. We are not however to conclude 
from hence that it was admitted into the churches of 
the reformed, or that it made part of their public 
worship in the life-time of Luther; it rather seems 
to have been confined to family worship, and con- 
sidered as a source of spiritual consolation ; and to 
this purpose the many devout ejaculations with which 
the Psalms of David abound, render it with a re- 
markable degree of propriety applicable. 

In this situation stood the matter about a year 
before the death of Luther ; no vulgate translation of 
the Psalter had as then appeared in the world, and 
there was little reason to expect one from any country 
where the reformation had not got firm footing, 
much less was there to think that any such work, 
in a country where the established religion was the 
Romish, could possibly receive the sanction of public 
authority. But it fell out otherwise ; and, however 
paradoxical it may sound, the protestant churches 
were indebted for this indulgence to a body of men 
whose tenets indeed forbad any such hopes, namely 
the college of the Sorbonne at Paris. 

It happened about the year 1543, that there lived 
in France, Clement Marot, a man moderately endowed 
with learning, but extremely improved by conver- 
sation with men of parts and ingenuity, who with 
great success had addicted himself to the study of 
poetry ; he had acquired great reputation by certain 
imitations of Tibullus, Propertius, and Catullus, and 
had by an elegant translation of the first book of 
Ovid's Metamorphosis into the French language, 
established the character of a good poet This man 
being inclined to Lutheranism, was persuaded by 
a friend to publish at Paris a French version of the 
first thirty of David's Psalms, which he did by per- 
mission of the doctors of the Sorbonne, wherein they 
declare that the book contained nothing contrary to 
the Christian faith ; soon after he added twenty more, 
but before he could complete his design, which was 
to have translated the whole in like manner, he died, 
and a version of the rest in French metre also, was 
supplied by his friend Theodore Beza. 

Sleidan, from whom the above account is in part 
taken, has bestowed this eulogium on Marot: 'I 
' thought it not amiss to commend the name of so 
'excellent an artbt to other nations also; for in 

* France he lives to all posterity ; and most are of 

* opinion that hardly any man will be able to equal 
' him in that kind of writing ; and that, as Cicero said 
'of Caesar, he makes wise men afraid to write. 
' Others and more learned men than he, have handled 
' the same subject, but have come far short of the 

* beauty and elegancy of his poems.' 

t Mr. Handel has been many times heard to say that the melody of 
our hundredth Psalm, which by the way is that of the hundred and 
thirty.fourth both of Goudimel and Claude le Jeune's Psalms, and 
certain ottuur Psalm-tunes, were of Luther's composition. . 

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Book XII. 


This it is to be noted is the character of Marot 
and his book, drawn by a Protestant historian. 
Another writer but of a different persuasion, Fami- 
anns Strada, has given a less favourable account of 
both; and yet perhaps, allowing for that prejudice 
which he could not but entertain against the author 
of such an innovation as this of Marot undoubtedly 
was, it is such as will justify the character that 
Sleidan has given of him; that of Strada is as 
follows : — 

' Among the grooms of the bed-chamber to Francis 

* I. of France, there was one Clement Marot, bom at 

* Douve, a viUage in the earldom of Namur, a man 
*nuturally eloquent, having a rare vein in French 

* poetry, wherewith the king was much taken, who 
'therefore kept him as a choice instnunent of his 
'learned pleasures. But as his wit was somewhat 
'better than his conditions, from his acquaintance 

* with the Lutherans he was suspected to have changed 

* his religion ; and therefore fearing the king would 
' be offended, he fled to his majesty's sister at Bern, 
' the old sanctuary for delinquents ; a while after, the 
' king was pacified and he returned to Paris, where 
' he was advised by his friend Franciscus Vatablus, 
' the Hebrew lecturer, to leave the trifling subjects 

* he wrotiB upon, and study divine poesy. Tliereupon 
'he began to translate ihe Psalms of the Hebrew 
' prophet into French stanzas, but so ignorantly and 
'perversely,* as a man altogether uideamed, that 

* the king, though he often sang his verses, yet, upon 
' the just complaints of the doctors of the Sorbonne, 
' and their severe censure past on them, commanded 
' that nothing of Marot in that kind should be from 
'thenceforth published. But being forbid by pro- 
' clamation, as it ofiten happens, the longing of the 

reader, and fame of the work was increased so, that 

* new tunes were set to Marot*s rhymes, and they 
' were aimg like profane ballads. He in the mean 
' time growing bold by the applauses of the people, 
' and not able to forbear bragging, for fear of punish- 
'ment, ran to Geneva; and flying from thence for 
' new crimes conamitted, and first having been well 
' whipped for them, he died at Turin. The success 
' of this translation of the Psalms moved Theodore 
' Beza, a friend of Marot, and who wrote an elegy 
' in French on his death, to add to the fifty which 
' Marot had published, a version in French of the 
' oUier hundred made by himself, so the whole book 
'of David's psalms was finished; and to make it 
' pleasing to the people, tunes were set to them by 
'excellent composers, that chimed so sweetly, that 
'every one desired to have the new psalter; but 
' many errors in it against religion being detected, 
' and the work therefore prohibited, as well because 
' the sacred verses of the prophet were published in 
*a vulgar tongue by profane persons, as that they 

were dolo mah bound up with Calvin's catechism 
at Geneva : these singing psalms, though abhorred 
and slighted by the Ca^olics, remained in high 
esteem with heretics; and the custom of singing 
the Geneva psalms in French at public meetings, 

• MftTot nndentood not the Hebrew Uoinugt, bat was fUrnished with 
' } txaosUtion of the Pialmi by Tatablu. Sayle, Mabot, in not. 

' upon the highway, and in shops, was thenceforth 
* taken for the distinctive sign of a sectary .'f 

To this account of Strada may be added from 
Bayle, that the first publication of thirty of the psalms 
was dedicated to Francis I., that it was so well re- 
ceived by the people, that copies could not be printed 
60 fast as they were sold off; that they were not then 
set to music as they are now, to be sung in churches, 
but every one gave such a tune as he thought fit ; 
' Each of the princes and courtiers,' says this author, 
'took a psalm for himself: Hen. II. loved this, 
" Ainsi qu'on oit le cerf bruire," which he sang in 
' hunting ; Madam de Valentinois took this, " Du 
" fond de ma pens^e." The queen chose the psalm 
" Ne vueilles pas 6 Sire," which she sang to a merry 
' tune ; Anthony king of Navarre took this, " Revenge 
" moy, pren le querelle," and sang it to the tune or a 
' dance of Poitou. In the mean time, Marot, fearing 
'lest he should be sent to prison, fled to Geneva, 
' where he continued his version as far as fifty psalms. 
' Beza put the remaining hundred into verse ; and the 
' psalms which he rh3rmed in imitation of Marot's, 
' were received by all men with great applause.* 

CHAP. ex. 

No sooner was this version of the Psalms completed, 
than Calvin, who was then at the head of the church 
of Geneva, determined as it were to consecrate it> and 
introduce the practice of singing psalms amongst his 
people : for some time he stood in doubt whedier to 
adopt the Lutheran choral form of singing in con- 
sonance, or to institute a plain unisonous melody in 
which all might join ; at length he resolved on the 
latter, and to this end employed a musician, named 
Guillaume Franc, to set them to easy tunes ef one 
part only, in which the musical composer succeeded 
so well, that the people became infatuated with the 
love of psalm-singing ; at length, that is to say, in 
the year 1553, which was about seven after the 
version was completed, Calvin, to put the finishing 
hand to his design, divided the psalms into pauses or 
small portions, and appointed them to be sung in 
churches, and so made them a form of religious 
worship; soon after they were bound up with the 
Geneva Catechism, and from that time the Catholics, 
who had been accustomed to sing Marot's psalms in 
common with profane songs, were forbid tie use of 
them under a severe penalty. The Protestants how- 
ever continued the indiscriminate use of them at 
church ; they considered the singing of psahns a» an 
exercise of devotion ; in the field it was an incentive 
to courage and manly fortitude, for in their frequent 
insurrections against their persecutors, a psalm sung 
by four or five thousand of Uiem answered the end of 
the music of trumpets and other warlike instruments, 
and, in shorty was among them the accustomed signal 
to battle. 

To this purpose Strada mentions several notable 
instances tlutt happened a few years after the pub- 
lication of Marot's version ; and first, speaking of the 
popular tumults in the Low Countries about &e year 

t Stradft de Bello Belgico, lib. III. Sir Rob. Staprlton's tantlfttion. 
Ex Florimond de Remond in Hist Ortu. &c. H«ret. lib. Tiil. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OX. 



1562, he relates that ' two French Galvinist preachers 
' in the night, the one at Valenciennes, and the other 

* at Tonmay, openly before a great assembly in the 
' market-place, delivered their new gospel, and when 

* they had done were followed through the streets by 

* the multitude, to the number of an hundred at Va- 
lenciennes, and six himdred at Toumay, singing 

* David's Psalms in French.* And in another place 
'he says that on the 21st of August, 1566, the 

* heretics came into the great church at Antwerp with 

* concealed weapons, as if they resolved, after some 
' light skirmishes for a few days past; to come now to 
'battle, and waiting till evensong was done, they 
' shouted with an hideous cry Long live the Gheuses ; f 

* nay, they commanded the image of the blessed Virgin 

* to repeat their acclamation, which if she refused to 

* do, they madly swore they would beat and kill her ; 

* and though Johannes Inmiersellius, prsetor of the 

* town, wi£ some apparitors, came and commanded 
' them to keep the peace, yet he could not help it, 
' but the people running away to get out of the tumult, 

* the heretics shut the doors after them, and as con- 
' querors possessed themselves of the church. Now 
' when they saw all was theirs, hearing the clock strike 
' the last hour of the day, and darkness giving them 
' confidence, one of them, lest their wickedness should 

* want formality, began to sing a Geneva psalm, and 

* then, as if the trumpet had sounded a charge, the 
'spirit moving them altogether, they fell upon the 
' efiBgies of the mother of God, and upon the pictures 
' of Christ and his saints, some tumbled down and 
'trod upon them, others thrust swords into their 
' sides, or chopped ofif their heads with axes, with so 
' much concord and forecast in their sacrilege, that 
' you would have thought every one had had his 
'several work assigned him; for the very harlots, 
' those common appurtenances to thieves and drunk- 
' ards, catching up the wax candles from the altars, 
' cast down the sa<n:ed plate, broke asunder the picture 
' frames, defaced the painted walls ; part setting up 
' ladders, shattered the goodly organs, broke the win- 
' do^s flourished with a new kind of paint Huge 
' statues of saints that stood in the walls upon pedes- 
' tals, they unfastened and hurled down, among which 
'an ancient great crucifix, with the two thieves 
'hanging on each hand of our Saviour, that stood 
' right against the high altar, they pulled down with 
' ropes and hewed it to pieces, but touched not the 
' two thieves, as if they only worshipped them, and 

* desired them to be their good lords. Nay they pre- 
' sumed to break open the conservatory of the eccle- 
' siastical bread, and putting in their polluted hands, 
' to pull out the blessed body of our Lord. Those 
' base offscourings of men trod upon the deity, adored 
' and dreaded by the angels. The pixes and chalices 
' which they found in the vestry they filled with wine 
' prepared for the altar, and drank them off in de- 
' rision ; they greased their shoes with the chrisme or 
' holy oil : and after the spoil of all these things, laughed 
' and were very merry at the matter.' J 

• De Bello Belgico, lib. III. 

t A name which tigniM* o VagranU or rather a Beggar^ hmt hatktg 
hem appUed to them bf a nobleman^ an enemy to their faction, they ateumed 
Uatadepmeaofkim. Vide StndOt tmb anno \55^, 
. X DeBeUoBelgico,Ub V. 

Such were the effects produced by the introduction 
of psalm-singing among those of the reformed re- 
ligion ; and no one can be at a loss for a reason why 
those of the Komish communion have expressed 
themselves with the utmost bitterness against the 
practice of it Bayle in the article Marot, has given 
a letter from a gentleman who had served the queen 
of Navarre, to Catherine de Medicis, subscribed Vil- 
lemadon, dated in August 1590, containing an account 
of the reception of the psalms which Marot met with at 
court, but abounding with such severe and scurrilous 
invectives against the Calvinistical psalmody, and 
those who were the friends of it, that the omission of 
it in this place will, it is hoped, find a ready excuse. 

From Uie several relations herein-before given it 
would be difficult to form any judgment either of the 
merit of Marot's version or of its author, but Bayle 
has summed up his character, and, after bestowing 
high commendations on his Psalms, ranks him among 
the best of the French poets. 

Having said thus much of the poetry, it now remains 
to speak of the music of Marot*s psalms : the common 
notion is that they were originally set by Lewis 
Bourgeois and Claude Goudimel, which is only so 
far true as it respects the setting of them in parts ; 
for it appears by an anecdote conmiuicated to Bayle 
by a professor of Lausanne, and inserted in a note 
on a passage of his life of Marot, that before this 
, they were sung to melodies of one part only in the 
churches at Greneva, and that the composer of those 
melodies was one Guillaume Franc ; and to this fact 
Beza himself testifies in a kind of certificate, signed 
with his own hand, dated Nov. 2, 1552. Bayle's 
correspondent farther adds, that he had in his pos- 
session a copy of the Geneva psalms, printed in 1564, 
with the name Guillaume Franc to it, whereto is pre- 
fixed the licence of the magistrate, «gned Gallatin, 
and sealed with red wax, declaring Guillaume Franc 
to be the author of the musical notes to which the 
psalms in that impression are set 

It seems that Bourgeois composed music to only 
eighty-three of the Psalms, which music was in four, 
five, and six parts ; these Psalms so set were printed 
at Lyons in 1561. As to Goudimel, it is certain that 
he set the whole in four and five parts, for the book 
was printed at Paris in 1565, by Adrian Le Roy and 
Kobert Ballard. Nevertheless there is reason , to 
think that this or some other collection of Marot's 
Psalms with the music, had made its appearance 
earlier than 1565; and indeed express mention is 
made of fifty of Marot's Psalms with the music, 
printed at Strasburg with the liturgy in 1545 ; and 
there is extant a preface to Marot*s Psisdms written by 
Calvin himself, and dated June 10, 1543, wherein is 
the following passage : ' All the psalms with their 
' music were printed the first time at Geneva, with a 
' pre£Eice concerning an agreement of the printers 
' thereof, whereby tibey had engaged to appropriate a 
' part of the profits arising from that and fiiture im- 
'pressions for the relief of the poor refugees at 
* Geneva. § 

f Bqrle, Marot, in not. This agreement Is alluded to by the deacons 
of the church of Geneva, who in a note after the preface to the Sermons 
of Calvin on Deuteronomy, published anno 1567, complain of the breach 
of it, insisting that those who printed the psalms every day, could not 

Digitized by 




Book XIL 

The name Gnillanme Franc is hardly known 
among musicians, however, as the original melodies 
have never heen ascrihed to any other author, credit 
may he given to the anecdote above-mentioned to 
have been communicated to Bayle concerning them. 
What those original melodies were will hereafter be 
considered. It is certain that the honour of first 
composing music in parts to the Geneva psalms is 
due to Bourgeois and Goudimel ; of the former very 
little is to be learned, but the character and unfor- 
tunate history of the latter remain on record. 

Claude Goudimel, a supposed native of Franche 
Comt^, was of the reformed religion ; and in the 
Histoire UniverseUe of Mons. D*Aubign6 is men- 
tioned, among other eminent persons, to have been 
murdered in the massacre of Paris on St Bartho- 
lomew's day, anno 1572: the circumstances of his 
death, as there related, are, that he, together with 
Mons. Perot, a civilian, were thrown out of a window, 
dragged along the streets and cast into the river ; but 
this account is erroneous in respect of the place of 
his death; for Thuanus, in that part of his history 
where he takes occasion to mention the massacre of 
Lyons, has these words: 'The same fate [death] 
' attended Claudius Gt>udmiel, an excellent musician 
< of our time, who set the psalms of David, translated 

* into metre by Clement Marot and Theodore Beza, 
'to various and most pleasing tunes.' In the Pro- 
testant Martyrology mention is made of Goudimel 
in these words: 'Claudius Goudimel, an excellent 
' musician, and whose memory will live for ever for 

* having composed tunes to the greater part of David's 

* psalms in French.* 

With respect to Goudimel's work, the music in 
four parts to the psalms, it was first published in the 
year and has past a multitude of editions; one 
in 1602, printad at Delft, without any mention of 
Bourgeois, is intitled *Les Pseaumes mis en rime 
' Fran9oise. Par Clement Marot et Theodore de 
Beze ; mis en musique h quatre parties par Claude 
'Goudimel.* These psalms, for the greater facility 
in singing them, are of that species of musical com- 
position called Counterpoint; but before his death 
Goudimel had meditated a noble work, viz., the psalms 
in five, six, seven, and eight parts, composed in the 
form of motets, with all the ornaments of fugue, and 
other inventions common to that kind of music ; he 
had made a considerable progress in it, and, had not 
death prevented him, would quickly have completed 
the work. 

The psalms of Marot and Beza were also set by 
another very eminent musician, Claude le Jeune, of 
whom an account has already been given.* He 
was a Protestant, a native of Valenciennes, and 
a favourite of Henry IV. of France. In the title- 
page of many of his works, published after his death, 
he is styled 'Phenix des musiciens;' and unques- 
tionably he was in his art one of the greatest men of 
that day. 

There are extant two collections of psalms with 

with a good conscience do so without paying to their poor what was 
promised and agreed to be paid for their use before they were printed 
the first time. 
* Book Z. ehap. zc. of this work. 

the music of Claude le Jeune, both which appear to 
be posthumous publications ; the one of these, most 
beautifully printed in separate books, of a small 
oblong form, at Paris, in 1613, and dedicated by his 
sister, Cecile le Jeune, to the Duke de Bouillon, 
contains the whole hundred and fifty psalms of Marot 
and Beza, with the music in four and five parts as it 
is said, but in truth the fifth part is frequently 
nothing more than a reduplication of some of the 
others in the octave above. A few of the psalms in 
this collection are plain counterpoint, the rest are of 
a more artificial contexture, but easy enough for the 
practice of persons moderately skilled in singing. 
There is extant also another collection, published at 
Paris in 1606, of a larger size than the former, 
entitled ' Pseaumes en vers mezurez, mis en Musique, 
*A 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, et 8 parties, par Claude le 
'Jeune, natif de Valentienne, Compositeur de la 
' musique de la chambre du Boy;' these are certain 
select psalms paraphrased by an unknown author, 
and as to the music, it abounds in all those ornaments 
of fugues, points, and varied motion, which distinguish 
the Canto figurato from the Canto fermo ; so that 
thus set they might not improperly be styled Motets. 
This last collection of psalms was published by the 
author's sister, Cecile le Jeune, and dedicated by her 
to a friend and fellow-servant of her brother, one of 
the gentlemen of the chamber to Henry IV. 

She also published in 1603, and dedicated to our 
king James I. a book entitled Le Printemps, con- 
taining compositions of her brother in three, four, 
five, six, seven, and eight parts, in the style of 
madrigals. By an advertisement prefixed to the book 
it seems that it was part of a work which the author 
had undertaken, and intended to adapt to the four 
seasons of the year. Another work of his was also 
published by the same Cecile le Jeune in 1606, 
mtitled 'Octonaires de la vanity et inconstance du 
monde,* in three and four parts. 

These two musicians, Goudimel and Claude le 
Jeune, are the most celebrated composers of music 
to the French psalms. But here it is necessary to 
remark, that though the common opinion is that they 
each composed the four parts, superius, contratenor, 
tenor, and bassus, of every tune, yet the tenor part, 
which at that time was of the most consequence, as 
it carried in it the air or melody of the whole com- 
position, is common both to the tunes of Goudimel 
and le Jeune, and was in fact composed by another 
person, so that neither of them have done any thing 
more than given the harmony to a certain melody, 
which melody is in both authors one and the same. 

It is very difficult to assign a reason for this con- 
duct, unless we suppose that these melodies, to which 
the studies and labours of both these eminent men 
were but subservient, were on the score of their 
antiquity or excellence, in such estimation with the 
people, as to subject a modern musician that should 
reject them, to the imputation of envy or vanity ; or, 
perhaps after all, and abstracted from every other 
claim to preference, the frequent use of them in the 
French protestant congregations might have occa- 
sioned such prejudices in their favour, as to render 

Digitized by 


Ohap. CXI. 



any othere actually inadmissible among them. In 
either case our curiosity leads us to enquire who was 
the author of those melodies which two of the most 
eminent musicians of France condescended thus to 
honour. In short, recollecting what Bayle has related 
about the original French psalm-tunes of one part, 
and laying the above circumstances together, Uiere 
is little reason to doubt but that those original melo- 
dies which constitute the tenor part, and are therefore 
the ground-work of Goudimel and Claude le Jeune*s 
psalm-tunes, were those very original tunes which 
the above-cited author has ascribed to Guillaume 

The psalms thus set by Goudimel and Claude le 
Jeune, were introduced into the public service of the 
church, not only at G^eneva, but in France, Flanders, 
and most other countries where the reformation had 
got footing, and the service was in the French lan- 
guage; and continued to be sung until the version 
became obsolete ; the church of Geneva, the first tliat 
received, was the first that forsook it and made use 
of another, begun by Mons. Conrart, and finished by 
Mons. Bastide ; but the French churches, which since 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes became settled 
in foreign countries, continued and still use the 
version of Marot and fieza, revised and altered from 
time to time through a great number of editions, so 
as to correspond with those innovations and refine- 
ments to which the French and most other living 
languages are liable.* 

Of tiie German psalmody very little can be said. 
It is imagined that the High Dutch version of the 
psalms was made very soon after Luther's time by 
some of the ablest of their ministers; but as the 
language \& not very fit for poetry, whether it be 
good or bad the world has shewn very little curiosity 
to enquire. There are many excellent melodies sung 
in the German protestant congregations, which is 
no wonder, considering that that country has been 
famous for skilful musicians. They have a tradition 
among them that some of these melodies were com- 
posed by Luther himself; and as it is certain that 
he was skilled in music, that they were is highly 


It remains now to show what part the church of 
Elngland acted with respect to church music, and to 
account for its existence at this day : and here it may 
be observed, that the great revolutions of religion 
and government gener^ly take a tincture from the 
characters of those under whose authority or influence 
they are brought about. The affection of Leo X. to 
music, was propitious to the final establishment of 
choral service in the Romish church ; and that it is 
yet retained in this kingdom, notwithstanding the 
reformation, and the many efiforts of its enemies to 
banish it, may be ascribed to the like disposition in 

" Thit mmtt be understood wUh an egcepHon^ for <» tome ehurekee both 
kere and abroad^ the French protettante ting a paraphraee of the Ptalme, 
bg Anioine Oodeau. Thit pereon woe eueeeteivelf Bitihop of Orasee and 
fence, and died in 167S. The Paalme thus paraphrased are set in four 
parts 69 Jaeques de CMrp, and were Jirst published in Amsterdam in 1691 ; 
tome gears after iheg were reprinted bg Pearson for the use of the French 
ekmrwhet in London. 

the four last princes of the Tudor family. For to 
instance in Henry Vlll. it is certain that he was not 
only a lover of music, but profoundly skilled in it as 
a science.f 

It will appear farther, that all the children of 
Henry were skilled in music ; with respect to his 
son Edward, we are told by Cardan that he ' Cheli 
'pulsabat;' and in Edward's manuscript Journal, 
written with his own hand, now in the British 
Museum, and which is printed in Burnet's History 
of the Reformation, mention is made of his playing 
on the lute to the French embassador.^ 

As to Mary, her affection for the choral service 
might probably arise from her attachment to the 
Romish religion, yet she too was skilled in the 
practice of music, as appears by a letter from her 
mother queen Catherine to her, wherein she recom- 
mends to her the use of the virginals or lute if she 
have any.§ 

The skill in music which Elisabeth possessed is 
clearly evinced by the following passage in Melvil's 
Memoirs.|| * The same day, after dinner, my Lord 
'of Hunsdean drew me up to a quiet gallery that 

* 1 might hear some music, (but he said he durst not 
' avow it) where I might hear the queen play upon 
' the virginals. After I had hearkened a while I took 
' by the tapestry that hung before the door of the 

* chamber, and seeing her back was towards the door, 
'I entered within the chamber, and stood a pretty 
' space, hearing her play excellently well ; but she 
' left off immediately so soon as she turned her about 
' and saw me. She appeared to be surprized to see 
' me, and came forward, seeming to strike me with 
' her hand, alledging she was not used to play before 

* men, but when die was solitary to shun melancholy.*^ 
To this passage it may not be improper to add 
a little anecdote, which perhaps has never yet ap- 
peared in print, and may serve to shew either that 
she had, or affected to have it thought she had, 
a very nice ear. In her time the bells of the church 
of Shoreditch, a parish in the northern suburbs of 
London, were much esteemed for their melody ; and 
in her joumies from Hatfield to London, as soon as 
she approached the town, they constantly rang by 
way of congratulation. Upon these occasions she 
seldom fiuled to stop at a small distance short of the 
church, and amidst the prayers and acclamations of 

t See the forgoing volume, book VIII. chap. Ixxril. In a letter from 
Sir John Harrington to the lord treainrer Burleigh, mention it made of 
certain old Monkiah rhymes called ' The Blacke Saunctua, or Monkea 
Hymn to Saunte Satane/ The fkther of Sir John Harrington, vho had 
married a natural daughter of Henrv VIII. named Esther, and was very 
well skilled in music, having learned it, as the letter says, ' in the fellow- 
' ship of good Malster Tallis, set this hymn to music in a canon of three 

* pails ! and the author of the letter says that king Henry was used * in 
' plesannt moode to sing it.' Nugao Antlqua, printed for W. Frederick 
at Bath. 8vo, 1769, pag. ISS. 

t '19 July [1551]. Mons. le Maresohal St. Andre supped with me; 
' ^ter supper saw a doaen courses, and alter I came and made me ready. 

* SO. The next morning he came to me to mine arraying, and saw m| 
' bedchamber, and went a hunting with hounds, and saw me shoot, and 
' saw all my guards shoot together; he dined with me, heard me play on 
'the lute, ride; came to me to my study, supped with me, and so 
' departed to Richmond.' Collection of Records, ftc. tai the Appendix 
to Bum. Hist. Reform, part II. pag. 31. 

) Burnet Hist Reform, part II. Appendix pag. 142. 

I Lond. 1752, pag. 99. 

f It is also said that she played on an Instrument strung with wire, 
called the Poliphant. Preface to Playford's Introduction to the Skill of 
Musick, edit. 1666. 


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the people, would listen attentively to and commend 
the music of the bells. 

From these particulars it may reasonably be in- 
ferred, that the several princes to whom they relate 
were disposed to the retention of music in our solemn 
church service. It remains to shew on the other 
hand what were the sentiments of those who headed 
the reformation in England with respect to this part 
of divine service. 

And first it appears that great complaints were 
made by many of the dignified clergy and others, of 
the intricacy and difBculty of the oharch music of 
those times. In consequence whereof it was once 
proposed that organs and curious singbg should be 
removed from our churdies.* Latimer, in his diocese 
of Worcester, went still farther, as appears by certain 
injunctions of his to the prior and convent of St 
Mietry, whereby he forbids in their service all manner 
of singing.f 

By a statute of 27 Hen. VIII. cap. 15, power was 
given to the king to nominate two and thirty persons 
of his clergy and laity to examine all canons, consti- 
tutions, and ordinances provincial and s3modical, and 
to compile a body of sudi ecclesiastical laws as should 
in future be observed throughout this realm. Nothing 
was done towards this necessary work during the 
life-time of Henry ; but in the reign of his son the 
consideration of it was resumed, and a commission 
granted for the purpose to eight bishops, eight 
divines, eight civilians, and eight common lawyers. 
The deliberations of this assembly, composed of the 
ablest men in their several professions that the age 
afforded, terminated in a work, which though pr nted 
and exhibited to public view, is incomplete, and ap- 
parently defective in respect of authority, as wanting 
the royal sanction. It was published first in 1571, 
by Fox the Martyrologist, and by some other person, 
for very obvious reasons, in 1640, under the title of 
Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum. Dr. Walter 
Haddon, a celebrated Latin scholar of that age, and 
Sir John Cheke, were employed in drawing it up, 
in the doing whereof they very happily imitated the 
style and form of the Roman civil law, as contained 
in the Pandects and Institutes of Justinian ; but it 
seems the giving the work an elegant form was the 
whole of their merit, for virtually and in substance 
it was the work of Cranmer, who at that time was 
justly esteemed the ablest canonist in England. 

Upon this work it may be observed that if ever 
choral music might be said to be in danger of being 
banished from our churches, the era of the compi- 
lation of the Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum 
was of all others the time; and it may well be 
imagined that to those who were interested in the 
retention of the solemn church service, the years 
which were spent in framing that work, were a 
dreadful interval; however their fears were con- 
siderably abated when it was known that the thirty - 
two commissioners had not reprobated church music, 
but had barely condemned, by the name of figurate 
and operose music, that kind of singing whidi was 

• Born. Hist. Refonn. part III. pag. 802. SO*. 
f Burnet Hist. Refonn. part II. CoIlectioD of Reoordi, book 11. 
numb. SS. 

productive of confusion, and rendered unintelligible 
to the auditory those parts of the service which 
required their strictest attention ; at the same time 
the rule prescribed by the commissioners requires 
that certain parts of the service be sung by the 
ministers and clerks in a plain, distinct, and audible 
manner ; which in efifect was nothing more than 
reducing choral service to that state of purity and 
simplicity from which it had deviated. | 

In the book of Homilies we meet with a passage, 
which, whether intended to justify or reprehend the 
use of music in divine worship, has been a matter of 
controversy : an objection is put into the mouth of 
a woman, supposed to be discoursing with her neigh- 
bour on the subject of the reformed church service, 
which she utters in the following words : — * Alas, 

* goffip, what fhall we now do at church, fince all the 

* goodly fights we were wont to have are gone ; fince we 

* cannot hear the like piping, finging, chanting, and play- 

* ing upon the organs that we could before?* Upon which 
the preacher interposes, saying, * But, dearly beloved, 

* we ought greatly to rejoice and give God thanks that 
' our churches are delivered out of all thofe things which 

* difpleafed God fo fore, and filthily defiled his holy houfc 

* and his place of prayer.* § 

Upon a review of the censures on church-music 
contained in the decree of the council of Trent, 
heretofore mentioned, and in the Reformatio Legum 
Ecclesiasticarum, it will for the most part be found 
that they were occasioned rather by the abuses that 
for a long time had attended it, than any persuasion 
in the reformers of the unlawfulness of the practice. 
It is true that those of the English clergy, who in 
the persecution under queen Mary had fled to Franc- 
fort, and there laid the foundation of nonconformity, 
affected to consider it as superstitious and idola- 
trous ; but the less rigid of their brethren thought it 
had a tendency to edification, and was sufficiently 
warranted by scripture and the practice of the 
primitive church. 

The rule laid down for church music in England, 
almost a thousand years ago, was * Simplicem 
*sanct6mque Melodiam, secundum morem Ecclesiae, 
*sectentur;*|| with a view to this the thirty-two 
commissioners laboured to prevent the corruption 
of a practice that had at least the sanction of 
antiquity on its side, and to remove from the church 
what they as justly as emphatically termed ' curious 

% *Id divinle eapltibas redtandie, et Psalmit eoncloendia, mhtUtrl 
' et derld diligenter hoc cogitaie debent, non solftm i le Demn laudarl 

* oportere, sed alios etiam hortatu et ezemplo et obienratione iUoruin 

* ad eundem coltnin addnoendoe eeee. Qoapropter partita roeee et dis- 

* tinctd pronuntient, et cantos sit iUonmi dams et aptus, nt ad auditorum 
'omnia sensum, et intelligentiam proveniant; itaque Tibratam iUam, 
*et operosam mosioam, qius flgorata didtur, auferri placet, qua sic in 
'multitudliiis aurlbos tnmultnatur, nt s»pA linguam non possit Ipsam 
' loqnentem intelligere. Turn aoditores ettam ipsi sint in opere simni 

* cnro deriois et ministris oertas dlTinomm ofBoionun particulas canentes, 

* In quibus Psalml primiim erunt. annumerabitur flddsymboliun, et gloria 
' in exoelsls, decern solemnla prscepta, cseteraque hi^usmodi praedpua 
' religionis capita, qnsB maxiroum in communi fide nostra pondus habent : 

*hiis enina ... - 


I divini eultna exerdtatlonibus et invitamentis populus 
jet, ac sensil auendam habebit orandi, quorum si nuUv nisi 
aoscultandi partes sint, ita IHget et Jacet mens, ut nullam de rebus 
' divinis Tehementem et serlam oogitationem susdpere possit.' Refor- 
matio Legum Ecdesiasticarum, tit. De Diyinis Offldis, cap. S. 
) Second part of the Homily of the Place and Time ( 
pag. S09. 
I Spelman. Condi. voL I. pag. 248. 

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Oeap. OXIL 



There is an ambiguity in the expression ' cnrions 
singing' which might lead a stranger to the state 
of mnsic at this period to snspect that it meant such 
a nicety, exactness, and yolabiUty in the performance, 
as is at present required in the music of the theatre ; 
but this seems not to have been the case. Morley, 
who is somewhat free in his censure of the choir 
singers of his time, acquits them of any such affected 
nicety in their singing as might lead men to say it 
was over curious: on the contrary, he represents 
their performance as sloyenly to a great degree.* 
In short, the true object of those many censures 
which at different times were jpassed on choir service, 
was not curious singing, but mtricate, elaborate, and 
unedifying music : Jiffurata is the epitibet by which 
it is characterised in the Beformatio Legum Eccleai- 
asticarum; now Canitu Jifturatua is a term used in 
contradistinction to CaitUus plantu or Cd^ntusfirmus, 
and means that kind of song which abounds with 
fugues, responsive passages, and a commixture of 
various and intricate proportions, which, whether 
extemporary or written, is by musicians termed 
descant, and of this kind of music a specimen will 
be found in Appendix, No. 57.t 

CHAP. cxn. 

The above particulars sufficiently explain the term 
Curious Singing, and shew that the music of the 
church was, at the time above spoken of, extremely 
elaborate and artificial in its contexture. It also 
appears that those who had the direction of choral 
service in the several churches and chapels in this 
kingdom, were to a great degree solicitous about the 
performance of it ; and to we end that every choir 
should be furnished with a competent number of 
singers, 'more especially boys, writs or plaearA were 
issued, empowering the officers to whom they were 
directed, to impress the male children of poor persons 
in order to their being instructed in music, and 
qualified for choir service. Tusser, the author of the 
Five hundred Points of good Husbandry, and who 
was bom in the reign of Henry VHI. relates that 
being a child, and having been sent by his fiither to 
a music school, as was the practice in those times^ 
he was removed to Wallingford college, where he 
remained till he was seized by virtue of one of those 
placards, which at that time were issued out to 

• Introd. to PracticaU Mngic, ptg. 179. 

t l>r. Brown, on the anthoitty of OasMndi, Mtertt that mbm ihae, he 
•aifi not how kMDg, alter the faiTention of oouBterpart by Goido, aooording 
to the natural tendencj of ttda tanproTement, lUl the world ran mad affaa 
an artificial rarietj of parts. Dfaiertation on the Union, fto. of Poetry 
and Miuie, pag. SM. In thia he seems to have made a twofold mistake, 
foi neither was Oddo the inventor of coonterpoint, nor was it after 
a Taori^ of parts that the world were ronning mad : it was an aAetion 
tot that cnrious and intricate moslo above spoken of that intoxicated the 
mnsfcians, and which first the council or Trent, and afterwards the 
thirty-two commissioners, as above is related, endeavoured to reform. 
Kor is this author less unfortunate in his assertion that the Greeks that 
escaped from the taking of Constantinople brought a refined and enervate 
^edea of music into Italv from Greece. lUd. Some aneicnt Greek 
manuscripts on music and other suUects were all they brought and 
oaanv of them have ainee been published; that enervate speeiee of 
mnsie which he complains they brought to Rome, is no where taken 
nociee of in history; if by enervate he means elaborate, it is to be 
aeeoonted for by suppodbng, that as the science improved, the musidana 
departed by degrees from that simpllolty which dtsttngniahes the songs 
of the Provencals, who, after all that can be said, were the fathers of 
tihe modem secular music, for as to eockaiaatkal muslo, notwithstanding 
aB tiiat he has advaneed, it was under tlte dixeotion and management of 

sundry men, empowering them to impress boysf for 
the service of &e several choirs in this kingdom; 
and that at last he had the good fortune to be settled 
at St Paul*s, where he had Bedford, a skilful musician, 
for his master. The poor child seems to have had 
a hard time of it, as appears by his account in these 
words: — 

Stanza III. 

It came to pat that bom I was, 
Of linage good and gentle blood, 
In Eflex laier in village faier 

That Rivenhall hight: 
Which village lide by Banktree fide. 
There fpend did I mine infancy; 
There then my name in honen fame 

Remained in fight 

I yet but yoong, no fpeech of tong. 
Nor teares withall that often £dl 
From mothers eies when child out cries 

To part her fro; 
Could pitty make good father take. 
But oat I muft to (bng be thruft; 
Say what I would, do what I could, 

His mind was fo. 


O paiocfiill time I for every crime 
What toofed cares, like baited bearea ! 
What bobbed lips, what yerkes, what nips, 

What robesi how bare ! what coUedge fkrel 
What bread how ftale! What penny ale! 
Then Wallingford how wert thou abhor'd 

Of filly boies! 

Thence for my voice, I muft (no choice) 
Away of forie like pofting horfc, 
For lundrie men had placards then 

Such child to take: 
The better breft, the lefler refl§ 
To ierve the queere, now there now here ; 
For time fo fpent I may repent^ . 

And ibrrow make. 


But marke the chance, myfelf to vance. 
By fiiendihip*s lot to Paule*s I got ; 
So found I grace a certain fpace < 

Still to remaine 
With Redford || there, the like no where 
For cunning fuch and vertue much, 
By whom ibme part of muficke art 

So did I gaine. 

t Sm a noU of a eommiMiion, mnd also a letttr directed to the maeter of 
VU ekildrem of tke ekapel, Riehard Oomre (fueni Bowyer mentioned ^A» 
page 54S; Temf.Bd»ard VI. in Strype^s mm». eeelee Foi.!!., 588, 539, 
givii^potm' to take np ekildrem for tke Un^e use, and to eene in kiickeipeL 

I This expression Is worthy of a critical observation :* 
'The better bxest the lesser rest.' 

In singing, the sound is orlginaUy produced by the aetlon of tbe lungs: 
wbleh are so essential an organ m this respeet, that to have a good 
breast was ftnncrly a eonunon pertphiaais to denote a good singer. The 
Italians make use ef the tanns Foce diPeitomA Voce di Teetn to signify 
two Idnds of voice, of whieh the first is the best. In Shakeepeare'a 
oomedv of TweUlh Night, after the elown is asked to sing. Sir Andrew 
Agueoheek says : — 

* By my troth the fool has an excellent breast.' 

And in tbe statutes of Stoke ooUege In Sufiblk, fbunded by Parker, 
archbishop oi Canterbury, Is a provision in these words: 'of which said 
'qneristers, after their breasts are ebanged [i. e, their voices broke] we 
'will ttkB most rat of wit and capacity be he^ien with exhibition of forty 
* ahUUngs, fte.' Btrype*s Lift of Parker, pag. 9. 

I John Redfbrdt organist and afanoner of St. Paul's. See page M7 
of thiswodc 

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Book XIL 

From I'aule's I went, to Eaton fent 
To learn ftreightwaies the latin phraies. 
Where fiftie three ftripes given to mee 

At once I had 
For fault but (inall or none at all. 
It came to pas thus beat I was j 
See Udall* fee the mercie of thee 

To me poore lad. 

Such was the general state of cathedral music 
about the middle of the fifteenth century; the 
reformation in religion, which took place at that 
period, produced great alterations, as well in the 
discipline as doctrine of the Christian church ; these, 
to far as they respect the Lutheran ritual, have been 
already mentioned; and those that relate to the 
Calvanists are purposely referred to another place. 
It remains then to trace the rise and progress of that 
formulary which at present distinguishes the church 
of England from the other reformed churches. And 
first it is to be noted, that until about the year 1530, 
the liturgy, as well here as in other countries then in 
subjection to the see of Rome, agreeably to the Roman 
ritual, was said or sung in Latin. In the year 1536 
the Creed, Pater noster, and Ten Commandments 
were by the king's command put into English; 
and this, as Fuller observes, was the farthest pace 
which the reformation stepped in the reign of king 
Henry Vlll.t 

In the year 1548, being the second of the reign 
of Edward VL a liturgy wholly in English was 
composed by Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and other eminent divines, confirmed by a statute 2 
and 3 of the same king, that imposed a penalty on 
such as should deprave the same, or neglect the use 
thereof, and printed in the year 1549, with the title 
of the * Book of Common Prayer, <fec.* as being 
framed as well for the use of the people as the 
priest) and in which all are required to join in 
common. Against this liturgy some objections were 
taken by Calvin, Beza, Fagius, Peter Martyr, Bucer, 
and others, upon which a statute was made in the 
fifth and sixth years of the same king, enacting that 
it should be faithfully and godly perused, explained, 
and made perfect This was accordingly done, and, 
with some variations, the liturgy was published in 

• This Udall was Nicholas Udall, styled by Bale < Blegantisslinas 
' omnium bonarum llteranun maffister, et earum felicissimus Interpres ;' 
and that master of Eton school whose severity made divers of his 
schoUrs run away from the school for fear of beating. Roger Asoham 
tells the story in the prefece to his Scholemaster; and a specimen of 
Udall's elegance both in verse and prose mav be seen in the appendix to 
Ascham's works in quarto, published by John Bennet, 1761. 

The life of this poor man [Tnsser] was a series of misfortune ; fh>m 
Eton he went to Trinity hall in Cambridge, but soon left the university, 
and at different times was resident in various parts of the kingdom, 
where he was successively a musieian, schooUmaster, serving-4nan, 
husbandman, grasier, and poet, but never throve in any of these several 
vocations. Fuller relates * that he traded at large in oxen, sheep, dairies, 
' and grain of all kinds, to no profit ; that whether be bffight or sold he 
Most; and that when a renter he impoverished himeelf, and never 
* enriched his landlord :' all which seems to be too true by his own showing, 
and is a proof of the truth of that saying in holy scripture that the battle 
is not to the strong, nor the race to the swift. 

As to the nve hundred Points of Husbandry, it is written in familiar 
verse, and abounds with many curious particulars that bespeak the 
manners, the customs, and modes of living in this country tnm the 
year 1520, to about half a century after; besides which it discovers such 
a degree of OBConomical wisdom in the author, such a s«^alous attention 
to the lionest arts of thriving, such a general love of mankind, such 
a regard to justice, and a reverence for religion, that we do not only 
lament his misfortunes, I ut wonder at them, and are at a loss to account 
for his dying poor, who anderstood so well the method to become rich. 

t Church Hist, fai Brttaine. book VII. pag. 186. 

In the first year of the reign of queen Elizabeth 
it underwent a second, and in the first of James 
a third revisal ; but the latter of these produced only 
a small alteration in the rubric, so that we may date 
the final settlement of the English liturgy from the 
year 1559, when it was printed by Grafton, with 
this title, 'The Booke of Common Prayer and 
' Administration of the Sacraments, and other Rites 
' and Ceremonies of the Church of England.* 

But notwithstanding these several alterations and 
amendments of the ritual, it will be found that the 
solemn service of our church is nearly coeval with 
the liturgy itself; for the rubric, as it stands in the 
first common prayer of Edward VI. prescribes in 
terms the saying or singing of mattens and even- 
song; and in the ministration of the communion 
that the clerks shall dng in English for the office or 
Introite, as it is called, a psalm appointed for that 
day. And again it directs that the clerks shall sing 
one or many of the sentences therein mentioned, 
according to the length and shortness of the time 
that the people be offering. Again, the rubric to 
the same first common prayer of Edward VI. directs 
that on Wednesdays and Fridays the English litany 
shall be said or sung in all places after such form 
as is appointed by the king*s majesty's injunctions. 
These, together with the several directions con- 
tained in the rubric above-cited, for singing the post 
communions, Gloria in excelsis, and other parts of 
the service, sufficiently prove that, notwithstanding 
the objections against choral music, and the practice 
of some of the reformed churches, the compilers of 
the liturgy, and indeed the king himself, as may 
be gathered from his injunctions, looked upon the 
solemn musical service as tending to edification, and 
were Hier^fore determined to retain it. And this 
opinion seems to be adopted by the statute of 2 
and 3 Edw. VI. cap. 1. which though it contains no 
formal obligation on the clergy or others to use or 
join in either vocal or instrumental music in the 
common prayer, yet does it clearly recognize the 
practice of singing, and that in such terms, as cannot 
but preclude all question about the lawfulness of it 
with those who admit the authority of parliament to 
determine the form and order of public worship, for 
the statute enacts that 'if any manner of parson, 

* vicar, or other whatsoever minister that ought to 
*sing or should sing or say Common Prayer, ac- 
' cording to the form then lately appointed, or shall 
' refuse to use the same, or shall use any other form, 
' he shall forfeit, <fec.' 

And section VII. of the same statute is a proviso 
that psalms or prayer taken out of the Bible may be 
used in due time^ not letting or omitting thereby 
the service or any part thereof.:]: This lets in the 
Jubilate^ Magmfi/iat^ Nunc Dimittist and Anthem ^ 
hU not the Te jbevm. 

The subsequent abolition of the mass, and the 

t Witti respect to the manner of performing the solemn choral service 
at the beginning of the reign of Edward VI. we meet with the following 
note: *0n the eighteenth day of the moneth of September, 1547, the 
' letany was sung fii the English tongue in St. Paul's church between the 
' quire and the high altar, the singers kneeling, half on the one side and 
' half on the other. And the same day the epistle and gospel was also 

* red at the high mass in the English tongue.' Heylin's History of the 
Reformation, pag. 42. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OXIL 



introduction of a new liturgy into the church, calcu- 
lated to be either sung or said in churches, as it 
implied no less than a total repudiation of the ancient 
musical service, made it necessary for those who were 
concerned to maintain the dignity and splendour of 
divine worship to think of framing a new one. Many 
very excellent musicians were living about that time, 
but few of them had embraced the new religion, as it 
was called, and those of the old could not be expected 
immediately to assist in it Dr. Tye, the king's pre- 
ceptor in music, was a protestant, but he had under- 
taken, in emulation of Stemhold, to translate the 
Acts of the Apostles into English metre, and farther 
set them to music of four parts ; notwithstanding all 
which, in less than two years after the compiling of 
king Edward's liturgy, aformule was composed, so 
perfect in its kind, that, with scarce any variation, it 
continues to be the rule for choral service even at 
this day. 

The author of this valuable work was that John 
Marbeck or Merbecke, of whose persecution, grounded 
on a suspicion of heresy, an ample account has 
herein-before been given. This book was printed by 
Richard Grafton in 1650, and has this short title : — 
Vtu Soolte of Contnum yraier noteH* 

At the bottom of the last leaf is the name 9ohtt 
iWerbeite^ by which we are to understand that he 
was the author or composer of the musical notes: 
these, so far as the liturgy of Edward VI. and that of 
Elizabeth may be said to correspond, are very little 
different from those in use at this day, so that this 
book may truly be considered as the foundation of 
the solemn musical service of the church of England. 

A particular account of this curious work is here 
intended to be given, but first it is necessary to 
observe that it is formed on the model of the Romish 
ritual ; as first, it contains a general recitatory in- 
tonation for the Lord's Prayer, the Apostle's Creed, 
and such other parts of the service as are most 
proper to be read, in a certain key or pitch. To the 
Versicles, Responses, Introits, Kyries, Gloria in ex- 
celsis, Offertories, Prefaces, Sanctus, and Post-com- 
munions, melodies are adapted of a grave and decent 
form, and nearly as much restrained as those of St 
Ambrose or Gregory ; and these have a harmonical 
relation to the rest of the service, the dominant of 
each being in unison with the note of the key in 
which the whole was to be sung. 

After a short explanation of the musical characters 
that occur in the book, follows the order of Mattins, 
banning with the Lord's Prayer* which, as it is 
not required by the rubric to be sung, is set to notes 
that bespeak nothing more than a succession of sounds 
of the same name and place in the scale, viz., C bol fa 
UT, that being about the mean tone of a tenor voice. 
These notes are of various lengths, adapted to express 
the quantity of the syllables, which they do with 
great exactness. 

For the reasons of this uniform kind of intonation 

' It is to be remarked that the leiitences from scripture, one or more 
vbereof the minister at his discretion is directed to recite; the exhor- 
tation, general confession, and absolution, with which the order of 
Ccnnmon Prayer now begins, were no part of King Edward's liturgy, but 
were first inserted In that of Queen Elizabeth. 

it is necessary to recur to the practice of the churoh 
at the time when choral or antiphonal singing was 
first introduced into it, when it will be found that 
almost the whole of the liturgy was sung; which 
being granted, the regularity of the service required 
that such parts of it as were the most proper for 
music, as namely, the Te Deum and other hymns, 
and also the evangelical songs, should be sung in one 
and the same key ; it was therefore necessary that 
this key, which was to pervade and govern the 
whole service, should be fixed and ascertained, other- 
wise the clerks or singers might carry the melody 
beyond the reach of their voices. As the use of 
organs or other instruments in churches was not 
known in those early times, this could no otherwise 
be done than by giving to the prayers, the creeds, 
and other parts of the service not so proper to be 
sung as read, some general kind of intonation, by 
means whereof the dominant would be so impressed 
on the ears and in the memories of those that sung, 
as to prevent any deviation from the fundamental 
key ; and accordingly it may be observed that in his 
book of the Common Praier noted, Marbeck has 
given to the Lord's Prayer an uniform intonation f 
in the key of C, saving a small inflexion of the final 
clause, which here and elsewhere he makes use of to 
keep the several parts of the service distinct, and 
prevent their running into each other. But this will 
be better understood by a perusal of the composition 
itself, which is as follows : — 


Tit QvsiK wytA the Prixst. 


-♦— ♦- 

VRS Fa-ther which arte in hea-Ten, hal-low-ed, &c. 

Prjist. b Lorde o - pen thou my Cppes. 


Answxk. And my mouth ihal ihew forth thy praife. 


g— p ■ ■ ■- 

Prisst. Glo^ry be to the Father and to the Sonne, and to the 

f It is true that that uniform kind of intonation above described, 
especially in the precatory parts of divine service, is liable to exception, 
as being void of that energy which some think proper in the utterance 
of prayer ; yet when it is considered that the inflexions of the human 
voice are so various with respect to tone and cadence, that no two 
persons can in strictness be said to read alike , and that scarce an v thing 
u more offensive to a nice and discerning ear thui false emphasis or an 
affected pathos, it may well be questioned whether a grave and decent 
monotony Is not upon the whole the best form of utterance, at least in 
public worship, as well for the other parts of the service required to be 
read, as the prayers. 

Digitized by 




Book XXL 


» » 

» ♦ ■ ■- 

■ ^ » 

H0-I7 Ghoft. As it was in the beginnyng, unow,ande-Yer 

■ ♦ '♦ 


■ ■ ■ » : 

thy mercy up-on us, Answ. And gnuntut thyfalva-ci-on. 



♦ ♦ ■■ ■ - 

ihalhe,warldwythoutend. A-men. Piaifeye the Lcnie. ^*^' O Ixirde (tTe the kyng. ANnr. And mercifuUy heare 

The maimer of intonating the psakns is directed 
to be the same as of the hymn Venite eznltemoa, the 
notes whereof are as follow : — 


com, lett at fyng un-to the Lorde, lett 

us hertly icjoyce in the ftrength of oure 

■ . ♦ 

r And Jo firtb taytb tke reft of tit Pfalma, 
at tkty be appomted, 
(id - Tt-cion, &c 

Next follows the Te Demn, which being a hmn 
of praise, deviates more from that tone of audible 
reading directed by the robric than the preceding 
parts of the mattin-service. The Benedictos, which 
is directed to follow the second lesson, is noted in a 
di£Ferent manner; in short, it is set to a chanting 
tnne, which is iterated as the several verses retom. 
The same hymn, Benedictos, is set to other notes, 
bat still in the form of a chant, and either of these, 
at the election of the priest, are allowed to be snng.* 

Then follow the Eyrie and Ohriste Eleyson, and 
after them the Apostles* Oreed and Lord's Prayer, 
both of which are intonated in fa ut ; bat in the 
intonation of the latter this particolar is remark- 
able ; it is directed to be sang bv the choir with 
the priest to the daase, 'And lead as not into 
temptadon,* which the priest sings al<me, and is 
answered by the choir in the last clause. The 
versidesyf responses, and collects follow inamediately 
after ; the whole is ihas intonated : — 



PuxsT. And leadens not in -to tempta-cy-on, Amw. Bat 



de-li-rer m from e-Vil. Amen. Pxnrr. O Lorde, (hew 

•■ Thepnettoe of Chanting the Ptalma, which donbtleaa la meant to 
imitate tne andent antinhonal atnging Inatituted hy flaTianns and 
Diodoroa, la aoppoaad to have had its rise at this time. In the BngUsh 
Psalter, to fidutate the praetloe of chanting, the text is oonstantly 
pointed In a manner no way reoooeOeaUe with tlie rules of Orthofm^y, 
xhax Is to say, with a colon as near the middle of the verse as posnhle. 
witbont tiie least regard had to the sense of It, aa here, ' I am well 

* pleased: that the Lord hath heard the voloe of my prayer.' *0 how 

* amiable are thy dwellings: thon Lord of lioatsl' 'Behold now, 

* praise the Lord: all the servants of the Lord.' 

The Psalter referred to by the common prayer to be read In the dally 
aervlce, is taken from the great Bible tranklated \^ MQes Coverdale and 
oCiMn ; and In the title page thereof the psalms are said to be pointed as 
they are to be sung or said in ehurehes. In the great Bible the method 
of punctuation Is that which the sense requires, but in the Psalter from 
queen Elisabeth's time downwards, the psalms are pointed In the manner 
above described. For the rule of chanting, belbre each verse of thepeahn 
was thus divided, we are to seek. 

♦ The versieles *0 Lord open thou my lips, ftc.' and Uie reeponaes are 
by the dd church musicians improperly termed Preem; and ue versieles 
*The Lord be with you, fro.' with their answers, preceding the Utaoy, 
JUopoiua. Vide The first Book of seleeted Church-Music published by 
John Barnard, Lond. 1641. fol. 83. 91. 

s ■ ■ ■ "- ^^ 

us when we call up-on thee. Pkiut. Indue thy mmifters 

"^^T ^ TT 

with righteoufiies. Answ. And make thy cho-ien peo-ple 



joyfuU. Priist. O Lorde (ave thy pe-ple, Answ. And 


"^ » ■ 

bldTe thyne inheritannce. Panrr. Give peace in our tyme 


O Lord $ Answ. Becaufe there is none other that fighteth 

■ ♦ ♦ ■- 

for us, but onely thou O God. Pnnrr. O God make dene 


cor hertes witmn us, Answ. And take not thine Ho - ly 




Spi-iit from ut. Puirr. The Lord be with you. Answ. And 

jiftor tie ColUa 
'.fir the daj^ tkefi 

wyth thy fpifit Priwt. Ut as pray, ^^fi^^:— 

p it,, , u ^JJ^ ^ 

God, which arte audhor of peace and lover of Concorde, 


in know - ledge of wnom ftandeth our eternal life, whole 

iervice u perfe^ fredom : Defend us thy humble (enrauntes in 

all aflaultes of our enemies, that we furely trufting in thy defence, 

• maye not finre the power of any adveriariet : Through the might 






and of Je - fu Chrift oure Lorde. Answ. A - men. 


LoKDE our heavenlye fii-ther, al-migh-de 

and everlyvyng God, which has fafely brought us to the begynnyng 
of thys daye : defend us in the fame wyth thy myghtye power, and 
graunt that this day we fall into no iynne, neither runne into any 
kinde of daunger, but that all oore doynges may be ordred by thy 
govemaunce, to do alwayes that is righteous in thy fight : 

Through Je • fus Chrift our Lorde. Answ. A - men. 

And thos^saith the book^endeth Mattyns. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXIII. 




TkB Even-song, as it stood in the first Htnrgy of 
Edward VI. is noted in like manner. The versicles 
and responses, which are here called suffrages, cor- 
respond very nearly with the form of singing them 
at this day. 

The hymn Benedicite, and the Athanasian Greed, 
which are occasionally snng in the morning service, 
appear also in this work of Marheck with music of 
his composing. 

In the Communion service occurs, first the Introite, 
which is thus intonated >— 




■ ■ ■ ■-•- 

LBSSEO it tint man that hath not walked in the coonfaile 

of the ungodlye : nor ftande in the waye of fynnen, and 


hath not fyt in the featcof the lconiefuU,Bathi«ieligbt b, &c. 
Then the Eyrie, intonated in the key of F fa cr : — 






oftDi hare mer-cy Qp-on as. iij. Chrift 

have mer-cy np-on ot. i^. Lord have mer-cy np-on ut. 

The Gloria in excelcis and Creed are composed as 
melodies, as are also the Offertories to the number 
of fifteen: The common and proper prefaces for 
Christmas, Easter, and Ascension days, and for 
Whit-8undays and Trinity Sundays, follow next in 
order, and after them the Sauctus.* 



o L T, Ho - ly, 

Ho - ly Lorde God of boftet. 


■I I I 

Heaven and earth are foil of thy glo-ry. Oianna in the higheft. 


Liano is he that commeth in the name of the Lorde : 




Glo-ry to the, O Lorde, in the higheft. 

The prayer for the whole state of Christ's church, 
which has since been altered into a prayer for the 
whole state of Christ's church mUitant here on earth, 
with the last clause, is intonated in A rb, a fifth 

* The SAUcnrs is pari of the eommunion office ; neyerthelett In 
CaChednls, on Sundays and high festtTals It b constantly song at the end 
of morning prayer, andbefore that part of the serrioe which is read hy 
the Episteller aod Gospeller while they are making their approach to the 
oonubonioD table. 

above D sol re, the final note of the Sanctus. Then 
follows a prayer for the blessing of the Holy Spirit 
on the elements, with the intonation of the last 
clause, versicles, and responses, the Lord's prayer, 
Agnus Dei, Post-communions, and a thanksgiving ; 
wUch several parts of the service are either wholly 
omitted, or greatly altered in the liturgy of Elizabeth. 
These are chiefly noted as melodies. Marbeck's 
book contains also an office at the burial of the 
dead, which differs greatly from that now in use. 

The objections of particular persons, and the censure 
of the thirty-two commissioners in the Reformatio 
Legum Ecclesiasticarum against curious singing had 
made it necessary that the new service should be 
plain and edifying. In order that it should be so, 
this of Marbeck was framed according to the model 
of the Greek and Latin churches, and agreeable to 
that tonal melody, which the ancient fathers of the 
church have celebnU;ed as completely adequate to all 
the ends of prayer, praise, thanksgiving, and every 
other mode of religious worship. 

The interval between the framing the first liturgy 
of Edward VI. and the setting it to musical notes, 
was but a year at most. It appears that at this time, 
besides an establishment of household musicians, con- 
sisting of singers and players on sundry different 
instruments, there was also one of gentlemen and 
children of the royal chapel, which had subsisted in 
succession from the time of Edward IV. The fol- 
lowing is a list of both, with the salaries or stipends 
of the several officers as it stood in the reign of 
Edward VI :— f 

MuBmoNS and Platsbs. 
Benedict Browne 


{ in No. 16, every of them 
TrumpeterB. -{ 

Fee 24 

B. d. 
6 8 

having by the yere > 
— 68. 8d. - - f 


( Je24 

/Philq» Van Welder 
\ Peter Van Welder 

Fee 889 6 8 

■ 1 

Fee 40 



eat V 

( William Moore 
( Bernard de Ponte 

{Thomas Kent - 
Thomas Bowde 

John Sevemeoke 

Sagbottain ( 6 having iS24 6e. 8d 
number 6, < the yeere, and one 

whereof ( £86 lOs. 
Vyalls in ?6at£d088.4d.theyeere, ") 
number 8, < and one at £20, and V - 
whereof ( anoliher at £18 6s. ) 
Bagpiper. Richard Woodward - 
Minstrellee (7 at £18 6a. apeece - 
hi nnmber9,-{ I at £24 66.8d. 
whereof (lat£3 6s.8d. 
DromsladesJ T Robert Bruer, Master drummer 
in number 8, < Alexander Pencax 
whereof (JohnHodgkin 

(Oliver Rampona 
Pier Gnye . - - 

C John Hejrwoode 
-J Anthony de Chounte 
( Robert bowman 













Fee 158 8 4 

Fee 220 15 

Players on 
the flutes. 

Players on 





Fee 127 Id 




































t Vide extract firom the Liber Niger Domtu Regit at page t71, et seq. 
t DavMUASB, Idem quod DauMMBa, Hinah. 

Digitized by 





^the 4 brethren Venetians, "^ 
viz., John, Anthonye Jaa- > 
Musidans I per, and Baptiste - J 
Straungen | Augustine Bassane 
William Trosses 
^William Denivat 
Pi.^^iHi r^f ;^ f «very of Uiem at £3 66. 8d. v 


J Camera 7» £28 6d. 8d. in 

Fee 16 6 8 

Fee 36 10 

Fee 88 

Fee 38 

Fee 26 13 4 

(William Beton > 
Organ-maker f 
William Tresorerl 
Regal-maker j 

- Fee 20 

- Fee 10 

Snmma totalis 

1732 6 

Total number of persons 73 

Master of the 

children, Bi-- 

chard Bowyer 

Ofpioebs of the Chappell. 

fFee - -^ - 
Largesse to the chil- 
dren at high feasts - 
Allowance for break- 
fast for the children 

65 13 4 

'Emery Tuckfield John Kye 
Nich. Archibald John Angel 
William Walker William Huchins 
R. Chamberleyn Robert Phelipps 
W. Gravesend Thomas Birde 
Gentlemen Richard Bowyer Robert Perry 
of the William Barber Thomas Wayte 
chappell R. Richmounte Thomas Talles 
82, every i Nicholas Mellowe Thomas Wright 

of them I John Bendebow Robert Stone" 
7d. ob. William Mawpley J. Shephardb 
a day. George Edwards Wil. Htnnks 
or HuNNis 
Robert Morecock Thomas Manne 
R. Alyeworth Roger Kenton 
T. Pidfreman Lucas Caustell 
^RioHABD Fabbant Edward Addams^ 
2 at 4d. ob. a day either of them 18 13 
5 at 4d. the daye eveiy of them 30 8 4 ^46 
Hugh Williams at 40s. a yeere 


13 9) 

8 4H 


2 1 

Summa totalis 476 15 5 

1782 5 
476 15 


5 Officers of the Chappell 

2209 5 Total of both 

Number of persons 78 
Number of persons 41 


But all the labour and pains that had been bestowed 
in settling a ritual for the protestant service, were 
rendered vain ; and the hopes that had been enter- 
tained of seeing the reformation of religion perfected, 
were defeated by the death of the king in 1553, and 
the succession to the throne of the lady Mary, from 
whose bigotry and natural gloominess of temper the 
protestants had every thing to fear. It is sufBciently 
known that this event was attended not only whh 
an immediate recognition of the papal authority, but 
with the restoration of the Romish ritual, and that 
the zeal of this princess to undo all that had been 
done in the preceding reigns of her father and 
brother, was indefatigable. In particular she seems 
to have sedulously laboured the re-establishment of 
the Romish choral service, and directed the repub- 
lication of a great number of Latin service-books, 

among which were the Primer, Manual, Breviary 
and others, in Usum Sarum, which were reprinted 
at London by Grafton, Wayland, and other of the 
old printers, with the musical notes, for the use 
of her chapel.* 


The accession of Elizabeth to the throne in 1558, 
was followed by an act of parliament, entitled an 
Act for the uniformity of the common prayer and 
service in the church, and administration of the 
sacntments, which, after reciting that at the death 
of Edward VI. there remained one uniform order of 
common service and prayer, which had been set forth 
and authorized by an act of the parliament holden 
in the 5th and 6th years of his reign, and that the 
same had been repealed by an act of parliament in 
the first year of queen Miary, to the great decay of 
the due honour of Gk)d, and discomfort to the pro- 
fessors of the trueth of Ohristes religion. Doth enact 

* That the said statute of repeal, and every thing 
*• therein contained, only concerning the saide booke 
'and service, (fee. shall be void. And that all 
'ministers shall be bounden to say and use the 
' Mattens, Evensong, celebration of the Lord's sup- 
' per, and administration of the sacraments in such 
' order and form as is mentioned in the said booke 
' so authorized by parliament in the fifth and sixth 
*yere of the reign of king Edward VI. with one 
' alteration or addition of certaine less<fns to be used 

* on every Sunday in the yere, and the forme of the 
'Letanie altered and corrected, and two sentences 
' onely added in the deliverie of the sacrament to the 
' communicants, and none other.* 

By this statute the second liturgy of Edward VI 
with a few variations, was restored; but here we 
may note that correction of the litany which is re- 
ferred to by the statute, for it indicates a temper 
less irascible than that which actuated the first re- 
formers In the litany of Henry VIII. continued in 
both the liturgies of Edward, is contained the fol- 
lowing prayer : ' From all sedition and privy con- 
' spiracy,^<wi the tyrcmny of the bishop of Rome 
^and alt his detestable enormities; from all false 
'doctrine and heresy, from hardness of heart, and 
' contempt of thy word and commandment. Good 
' Lord deliver us ;' taken, with a very small variation, 
from this in the litany of the Lutherans, 'Ut ab 
' hostium tuorum, Turc», et Papse blasphemiis, c«de 
' et libidinibus clementer nos conservare digneris.*! 

The correction above-mentioned consisted in the 
recision of so much of the prayer for deliverance 
from sedition, (fee. as related to the bishop of Rome 
and all his detestable enormities, as they are termed, 
and the addition of the words rebellion and schism, 
which are now a part of the prayer. 

It is said of Elizabeth, that being a lover of state 

* It U worthy of remark, that notwithstanding the ftindamental dif- 
ference In religion and the form of public worship in the two reigns, it 
appears by a record now in the possession of the Antiquarian Society, 
that with the variety of only a very few names, the list of Mary's chuiel 
establishment was the same with that above given of her brother 

t In Psalrood. sive cant, sacra, vet. Eccles. select, per Luc. Losaium 

Digitized by 





and magnificence, she was secretly a friend, though 
not to the doctrines,^ yet to the pomp and splendor 
of the Romish religion, and consequently to the 
ancient form of worship ; and from principles of 
policy she might wish that the difference between 
the reformed and the Romish service might be as 
little as possible ;t the effects of this disposition 
were visible in the reluctance with which she gave 
up the use of images and prayers for the dead, and 
the behaviour of those of the Romish communion, 
who made no scruple of attending the service of a 
church which had wrested the supremacy out of the 
hands of the pope.t 

At the beginning of her reign, those divines 
who had fled from the persecution under Mary, to 
Francfort, and other parts of Germany, and to 
Geneva, and had contracted a dislike to the disci- 
pline established in England, together with some of 
the principal courtiers, made some faint attempts 
towards a revival of the opposition to choral service ; 
they insisted that the psalms of David in metre, set 
to plain and easy melodies, were sufficient for the 
purposes of edification ; and for this they appealed 
to the authority of Calvin, and the practice of the 
churches under his direction. But the queen, and 
those to whom she had committed the care of re- 
vising the liturgy, thought that the foreign divines 
had already m^dled more in these matters than 

* NtrertheleM she saemi to haye entertained some oplnioni, whkh 
nofne of the refonned chnrchet would ever aeqnieece to. Wben one of 
her chaphdne, Mr. Alexander NoweU dean of St. Paul's, had spoken lets 
reverently in a sermon preached before her, of the sign of the cross than 
she liked, she called akmd to him from her closet window, oommandioc 
him to retire tram that ungodly digression, and return to his text. And 
when !one of her divines, on Oood Friday, anno 1565, had preached 
a sermon to defonce of the real presence, she openly gave him tliaiiks 
for liis pains and piety. Heylto^s History of the Reformation, EUs. 
pag. 124. It seems that when she gare that shrewd answer to a Popish 
priest, who preased her very hud to declare her opinion tonclitog the 
prssenee of Christ to the sacrament : — 

Twas Ood the word that spake it, 
He took the bread and brake it; 
And what the word did make it ; 
That I believe, and take it. 
ahe had either not settled, or was too wise to declare, her opinfcm 
touching the doctrine of transubstantiatinn. 

t It is cert^ she had a orudflx to her chiq)el. See a letter from 

Sandys, bishop of Worcester, to Peter Martyr, expressing his i 
at it. Bum. Refonn. III. S89. 291. and Records to book VI. No. 61. 
HeyUn says that it remained there for some years, till it was broken to 
pieces by Patch the fool, no wiser man daring to undertake such a des- 
perate service, at the solicitation of Sir Frands Knolles, a near relation 
of the queen. Heylto's Hist, of the Reformation, Elix. nag. 124. Neai 
goes much flarttier, and says ' that the altar was fUmished with ridi 

* plate, with two gilt candlesticks, with lighted candles, and a massv 

* crucifix in the midst, and that the service was sung not only with 
' organs, but with the artificial music of comets, sacbuts, ftc. on solemn 
' liestivals. That the ceremonies observed by the knights of the garter 
' to their adoration towards the alter, which had been abolished by 
' Edward VI. and revived by oueen Mary, were retatoed. That, to 
'short, the service performed u the queen's chapel, and to sundry 

* cathedrals, was so splendid and showy, that foreigners could not dia- 
*tinguisb it from the Roman, except that it was performed in tlie 

* English tongue.' By this method, ne adds, most of the Popish laity 
were deceived Into conformitv, and came regularly to church for nine 
or ten years, till the pope, bdng out of aU hopes of an accommodation, 
forbad them, by excommunicating the queen, and laying the whole 
kingdom under an toterdict. Hist, of the Puritans, vol. I. page 156. 

t This fact is rather Invidiously mentioned by Neal, to the passage 
eited from blm in the preceding note; the authority (br it is a letter 
from the queen to Sir Francis Walsyngham, dated 11. Aug. 1570, to wliich 
ahe says of the Roman Catholics, * that they did ordinarily resort from 
' the begtoning <^ her reign to all open places to the churches, and to 
'dirine services in the church, without contradiction or shew of mis* 

* liktofr:' to the same purpose Sir Edward Coke, to a charge of his at 
Norwich assises, asserted that for the first ten years of queen Blixabeth's 
reign the Roman Catholics came frequently to church ; and in his speech 
agatost Garnet, and other conspirators, he affirmed this upon his own 
Imowledge. giving an tostanoe thereof in Bedtogfleld, Corowallia, and 
•eretal others of the Romish penuasion. ColliiBr's fiodesiast. Hist. 
ToL (I. pag. 486. 

became them; the common prayer of her brother 
had been once altered to please Calvin, Bucer, 
Fagius, and others of them, and she seemed de- 
termined to make no more concessions, at least to 
that side, and therefore insisted on the retention of 
the solemn church service. 

The declaration of her will and pleasure in this 
respect is contained in the forty-ninth of those in- 
junctions concerning the clergy and laity of this 
realm, which were published by her in the first year 
of her reign, a. d. 1659 ; they were pnnted first by 
Jugge and Oawood, and are to be found in Sparrow's 
Collection of Articles, Injunctions, and Canons, in 
quarto, 1684. That above referred to, entitled ' for 
'continuance of syngynge in the church,' is in the 
words following : — 

'Item, becaufe in dyvers colkgiate, and alfo fbme 

* parifhe churches, there hath been ly vynges appoynted 

* for the mayntenaunce of menne and chyldren, to uic 
'fyngyngc in the churche, by meanes whereof the 

* lawdable fcyence of mulicke hath ben had in eftima- 

* tiouy and preferved in knowledge : The queenes 
' majelUe, neyther meanynge in any wife the decaye ot 

* any thynge that myght conveniently tende to the ufe 
' and continuance of the faide fcience, neyther to have 

* the fame in any parte fo abuied in the churche, that 
' thereby the common prayer (houlde be the worie 
' underlbnde of the hearers : Wylleth and conmiandeth 

* that fyrft no alteration be made of fuch aflignementes 

* of ly vyngc as heretofore hath been appointed to the 

* ufe of fyngynge or mufycke in the churche, but that 
' the fame fo remayne. And that there bee a modefte 
' and deyftyn^ fong fo ufed in all partes of the com- 
' mon prayers in the churche, that the fame may be as 
' playnely underfbmded as yf it were read without 
' fyngyng. And yet neverthelefle for the comforting 
' of fuch as delite in muficke, it may be permy tted that 

* in the begynninge or in thend of common prayers, 
' either at momynge or evenynge, there may be funge 

* an hynme or fuch lyke fbnge, to the prayfe of Al- 
' mighty God, in the befl forte of melodye and muficke 
'that may be convenienty devyfcd, havynge refpe^ 
' that the fentencc of the hynime may bee underfunded 

* and perceyved.* 

And yet, notwithstanding this express declaration 
of the queen's pleasure with regard to continuance of 
singing in the church, about three years after the 
publishing these her injunctions, six articles, tending 
to a farther reformation of the liturgy, were presented 
to the lower house of convocation, the last whereof 
was that the use of organs be removed from churches ; 
which, after great debate, were so near being carried, 
that the rejection of them was owing to a single vote, 
and that, too, by the proxy of an absent member. § 
Bishop Burnet has given from Strype, but without 
a direction where they are to be found, the heads of 
another proposal for a reformation, wherein it is in- 
sisted that organs and curious singing should be 

In the resolution which queen Elizabeth maintained 
to continue the solemn musical service in the church, 

f Bum. Hist. Reform, part III. psg SOS. 

Digitized by 

Ibid. 804. 




Book XIL 

it ifl sapposed she was confirmed by Parker, whom 
she had then ktely promoted to the see of Canterbury, 
a man of great learning and abilities, and, as it 
happened, eminently skilled in music. Strype, in 
his life of this prelate, says he had been taught in 
his youth to sing by one Love, a priest, and also by 
one Manthorp, clerk of St. Stephen's in Norwich. 
In his retirement from the persecution under queen 
Mary he translated into English verse the whole 
book of the psalms of David. In the foundation of 
his college at Stoke in Suffolk is a provision for 
queristers. He had a considerable hand in revising 
the liturgy of queen Elizabeth. Some of the particu- 
lars above related afford ground for a conjecture that 
Parker's affection to music might co-operate with his 
zeal for the church, and induce him to join with 
Elizabeth in her endeavours to reform the choral 
service, and consequently that its re-establishment 
was in some degree owing to him. 

By the passing of the act of uniformity of the first 
of Eliz. cap 2, Uie conmion prayer and communion 
service were restored by such words of reference to 
the usage in her brother Edward's time, as would 
wdl warrant the use of that music which Marbeck 
had adapted to them ; for which reason, and because 
it had been printed under the sanction of royal au- 
thority, the Booke of Conmion Praier noted by John 
Marbecke, was considered as the general formula of 
choral service : and to the end that the whole should 
be uniform and consistent, it is directed by the rubric 
of Elizabeth's litur^, that in such places where they 
do sing, those portions of scripture whidi constitute 
the lessons for the day, as also the epistles and gos- 
pels, shall be sung in a plain tune, after the manner 
of distinct reading ; the meaning whereof seems to be, 
that they should be uttered in a kind of monotony, 
with a reference to the dominant or key-note of the 
service, which for the most part lay in C fa tit, that 
being nearly the mean tone of a tenor voice : and most 
of the printed collections of services give as well the 
intonation of the lessons, as the melodies of the hymns 
and evangelical songs. • 

The settlement of religion, and the perfecting of 
the reformation, as it was of the utmost importance 
to the peace of the kingdom, and coincided with the 
queen's opinion, so was it the first great object of her 
attention. She succeeded to the crown on the seven- 
teenth day of November, in the year 1558 ; on the 
twenty-eighth of April, 1559, the bill for the uni- 
formity of the common prayer passed into a law, and 
was to take effect on the twenty-fourth day of June 
then next Hitherto the Romish office was permitted 
to continue, the Latin mass-book remained, and the 
priests celebrated divine service for the most part as 
they had done in the time of queen Mary, during 
which interval were great and earnest disputes 
between the Protestant and Romish clergy touching 
the English service-book. It seems that the queen 
was so eager to hear the reformed service, that she 
anticipated its restoration; for whereas the act re- 
quired that it should take place throughout the 
kingdom on St John the Baptist's day, service in 
English was performed in her chapel on Sundav, May 

the second,* which was but four days after the use of 
it was enacted. 

The liturg^r of queen Elizabeth was printed in the 
first year of its establishment with this title, ' The 
' Boke of common prayer and administration of the 
' sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the 
' church of England ;' and the license contained in 
the rubrics, which declare that it may be said or sung, 
and direct that in choirs and places where they sing, 
the anthem shall follow certain parts of the service, 
is a plain intimation that this form of divine worship 
was calculated as well for choral as parochial service. 
The queen's injunctions, and also the act of uniformity, 
amounted to a tacit recognition of a solemn chond 
service; and under the authority of these, that of 
Marbeck was sung in the several choirs throughout 
the kingdom, but it was soon found that this formula, 
excellent as it was in its kind, was not adequate to all 
the purposes of framing it In short, it was mere 
melody ; the people, whose ears had been accustomed, 
as the homily above-cited expresses it, to piping, 
singing, chanting, and playing on the organs, could 
but ill brook the loss of those incentives to devotion ; 
and in the comparison, which they could not but make 
between the pomp and splendour of the old form of 
worship, and the plainness and simplicity of the new, 
they were not a little disposed to prefer the former ; 
the consideration whereof was probably the motive to 
the publication in the year 1560 of a musical service 
with this title, * Certaine notes set forth in foure and 
' three parts, to be song at the morning, communion, 
' and evening praier, very necessarie for the church 

* of Christe to be frequented and used : and unto them 
' added divers godly praiers and psalmes in the like 

* forme to the honor and praise of God. Imprinted 
' at London, over Aldersgate, beneatii S. Martins, by 
' John Day, 1560.' 

It does not appear by this book that any innovation 
was made in the service as formerly set to musical 
notes by Marbeck, and there is good reason to sup- 
pose that the supplications, responses, and method 
of intonating the Psalms, remained the same as he 
composed them. But it is to be remarked, that al- 
though the litany made a part of king Edward's first 
liturgy ,t Marbedc had omitted or purposely forborne 
to set musical notes to it ; and this is the rather to be 
wondered at, seeing that it was the ancient practice of 
the church, founded on the example of St Gregory 
himself, to sing it ; this omission however was soon 
supplied by the composer, whoever he was, of the 

* Stnrpe, In his Annalt. toL I. pag. 191, tayt the twelfth of May ; but 
In thU he mutt be miitafcen, he haTing befbxe, via., pag. 77, aaid that the 
bill pasted April the twenty-eighth. Br a piasaage In the same YOlume 
of the Anoalt, page 194. it seems that the practice of singing jMalros in 
churches had iu rise a few months after, for he says ' On the day of 

* this month, September, {ISUf] Xtegan the true morning prayer at St. 

* Antholin's, London, the bell beginning to ring at flye, when a psaln 
' was sung alter the Geneva Cuhlon, all the congregation, men, women, 
< and boys singing together.' 

Bishop Juel, In a letter written In March, 1560, seems to allude to this 

fact; his words are, *the singinc of psalms was begun in one church In 
* London, and did quickly spreaa itself, not only through the dty, but In 
*the neighbouring places: sometimes at St. Paul's Ctou there will be 
*6000 people singing together.' Vide Burnet Hist. Reform, part IIL 
pag. 290. The foreton protestants had distinguished themselTes by this 
practiee some years before. Roger Ascham, in a letter fhirn Augusta In 
Germany, dated 14 Maii, 1551, aays * three or four thousand, singing at 
a time in one church of that dty is but a trifle.' Aschun's Works, 
published by James Bennet, 4to. pag. 882. 
t See the twentyoeoond of kfaig Edward's Injunctions. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OXV. 



litany in the book above described, and afterwards by 
Tallis, who composed the litany blown by his name, 
which, by reason of its snperior excellence, is the only 
one of many that have been made, that is used at this 
day. The great difference between Day's first book 
and that of Marbeck appears to be this. In Marbeck*s 
the whole of the service was set to mnsic of one single 
part, whereas in that published by Day, the offices in 
eeneral were composed in fonr parts ; the following 
IS the order in which they stand, Venite eznltemns, 
Te Demn landamns, Benedictos Dominns, the Letanie, 
the Lorde's Praier ; the Commxmion office, containing 
the Kyries after the commandments, Gloria in ezoelsis, 
Nicene Creed, Sanctns, the blessing of the minister 
upon the people. 

The offices in the order of evening prayer set to 
mnsic are only the Magnificat and Nnnc dimittis. 

Besides these, the book contains sundry prayers and 
anthems, composed also in four parts, in many of which 
this particular is remarkable, diat the bass part is set ' 
for (^dren. 

The book also gives the names of many of those 
that composed the music ; but it is to be observed 
that the litany has no name to it, neither does it in 
the least correspond with the litany of Tallis, so that 
we mav suppose that he had not then set that office 
to music. Besides the name of Tallis, which occurs 
first at the end of the prayer ' Heare the voice and 
' prayer of thy servants,' <fec. we have these that follow, 
^omas Cawston, M. [for Master] Johnson, Oakland, 
Shepard ; and near the end of the book is inserted an 
In Nomine of Master Tavemer, the bass part for 

Five years after this, was published another col- 
lection of offices, with musical notes, with the follow- 
ing title, * Momyng and Evenyng prayer and Com- 
'munion set forthe in foure partes, to be song in 
* churches, both for men and children, with dy vers 
' other godly prayers and anthems of sundry men's 
' doynges. Imprinted at London by John Day, 1565.' 
The names of musicians that occur in this latter 
collection are Thomas Cawston, Heath, Robert Has- 
leton. Knight, Johnson, Tallis, Oakland, and Shepard. 
Each of these works must be considered as a noble 
acquisition to the science of music ; and had but the 
dK>ught of printing them in score also occurred to 
those who directed the publication, the world had 
reaped the benefit of their good intentions even at 
this day; but being published as they are in separate 
parts, me consequence was that they could not long 
be kept together; and the books are now so dispersed, 
that it is a question whether a complete set of all the 
parts of either of these two collections is now to be 
found : and a farther misfortune is, that few persons 
are sufficiently skilled in music to see the evil of 
separating the parts of music books, or to attempt 
the retrieving them when once scattered abroad ; on 
the contrary, many learned men have taken a single 
part for the whole of a musical work, and have 
thought themselves happy in the possession of a book 
of far less value than a mutilated statue. A single 
part of the Cantiones of Tallis and Bird, with tiie 
word Discantus at the top of the title-page, to dis- 

tinguish it from the Superius, Medius, Bassus, and 
other parts, was in the possession of the late Dr. 
Ward, Gresham professor of rhetoric; and he, though 
one of the best grammarians of his time, mistook 
that for part of the title, and has given it accordingly. 
In like manner, Ames, a man of singular industry 
and intelligence in matters that relate to printing, 
having in his possession the Morning and Evening 
Prayer of 1565, above mentioned, has described it in 
his Typ<^Taphical Antiquities by the title of the 
Common Prayer with musical notes Secundus Contra- 
tenor, never imagining that these two latter words 
were no part of the title, and that he had only one 
fourth part of a work which appeared to him to be 

Nevertheless the public were great gainers by the 
setting forth of the two collections of church-music 
above mentioned in print, one advantage whereof was, 
that the compositions therein contained were, by 
means of the press, secured against that corruption 
which inevitably attends the multiplication of copies 
of books by writing; and although it may be said 
of ancient manuscripts in general, that they are far 
more correctly and beautifully written than any since 
the invention of printing, it is easy to see that the 
increase of written copies must necessarily have been 
the propagation of error ; and the fact is, that the 
ancient church-services, which before this time had 
been usually copied by monks and singing-men for 
the use of their respective churches, were, till they 
were corrected, and the text fixed by printed copies, 
so fuU of errors as to be scarce fit for use. 


Thus was the solemn choral service established on 
a legal foundation, and the people not only acquiesced 
in it, but thought it a happy temperature between 
the extremes of superstition and fanaticism ; but the 
disciplinarian controversy, which had its rise in the 
preceding reign, and had been set on foot at Franc- 
fort and Geneva, whither many able divines had 
fled to avoid persecution, was pushed with great 
vehemence by some, who insisted on a farther re- 
formation in matters of religion than had as yet taken 
place ; these were the men called Puritans, of whom 
the leader at that time was one Thomas Cartwright 

This man, a bachelor of Divinity, a fellow of 
Trinity college, Cambridge, and Lady Margaret's 
professor in that university, in his public lectures, 
read in the year 1570, had objected to the doctrine 
and discipline of the church. Against the tenets of 
Cartwright, Dr. Whitgift, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury, preached ; Cartwright challenged the 
doctor to a public disputation, which the latter refused 
unless he had the queen's licence for it ; he however 
offered a private conference with him in writing, 
which the other declining, Whitgift collected from 
his lectures some of the most exceptionable pro- 
positions, and sent them to the queen, upon which 
Cartwright was deprived of his fellowship, and 
expelled the university. He then went abroad, 
and became minister to the English merchants at 

Digitized by 




Boor XIL 

Antwerp, and afterwards at Middlebnrg ; in his 
absence the Puritans had drawn up a book entitled 
An Admonition to the Parliament, containing an 
enumeration of their grievances, the authors whereof, 
two Puritan ministers, Mr. Field and Mr. Wilcox, 
were committed to Newgate ; soon after this, Cart- 
wright returned, and drew up a second admonition,* 
upon which a controversy ensued, wherein Cartwright 
maintained that the holy scriptures * were not only 

* a standard of doctrine, but of discipline and govem- 

* ment, and that the church of Chnst in all ages was 
' to be regulated by them.* 

Whitgifb on the other hand asserted, that though 
the holy scriptures are a perfect rule of faith, they 
were not designed as a standard of church discipline 
or government; but that the forms of these are 
changeable, and may be accommodated to the dvil 
government we live under: That the apostolical 
government was adapted to the church in its infancy, 
and under persecution, but was to be enlarged and 
altered as the church grew to maturity, and had the 
civil magistrate on its side. 

In the course of this dispute, objections were made 
to the liturgy, and to the form and manner of cathe- 
dral service, particularly against 'the tossing the 
psalms from one side to Uie other,' a sarcastical 
expression which Cartwright frequently uses, with 
the intermingling of organs. Whitgift had defended 
this practice by the example of the primitive Chris- 
tians, and upon the general principle that the church 
had a power to decree rites and ceremonies agreeably 
to the twentieth article of the church of l^gland; 
and here the dispute rested for some time;f but 

■ Pallar seema to be mitUken in hU aMertfcm thmt Cartwright drew 
up the first admonition ; Neal aaoribea it to the two perwna above- 
named: both admonitions were rejected hj the parliament; but the 
Puritans met with such fkTour from some of the members, that upon 
the dissolution of it, they presumed to erect a presbytenr at Wanda- 
worth in Surrej; this was in 157S, and fhrai hence the origin of 
nonconformist or dissenting meetktg-houses hi this kingdom is to be 
computed. Vide Fuller's Church out. of Britain, Cent. XVI. book is. 
pag. 108. 

t It appears that Cartwright prosecuted this dispute many years after 
his return tnm abroad ; and that In September, 1590, he was oonyened 

oath ex officio, was committed to the FieR [Collier Eccl. Hist. toL f I. 
62G.1 but was afterwards pardoned, and retired to an hospital at Warwick, 
of which he was master, and liyed in friendship with the archbishop ever 
after. [lb. 640.] Life of Hooker, 14. Nay, It is said that he changed his 
opinion, and sorely lamented the unnecessary troubles he had caused 
in the church by (he schism which he had been the great fomenter of. 
Blogr. Brit. vol. VI. part II. pas. 4258. note KKK. 

Contemporary with Cartwright was Robert Brown, a man descended 
of a good frunily in Rutlandshire, and a distant relation of the lord 
treasurer Burleigh ; this man, though bred in Bennet college, Cambridge, 
entertaining a oOsUke to the doctrine and discipline of ue established 
church, left England, and Joined Cartwright's congregatlan at Middle- 
burg, and, being a man of bold temper and turbulent disposition, 
laboured with all his might to widen the breach that Cartwright bad 
made between the Puritans and the church, and to multiply the reasons 
against conformity ; to this end he contended that church government 
was antichrlstian, that the rites of the church of England were super- 
stitious, and lu Uturgy a mixture of popery and paganism : a summary 
of his doctrines, which are said to be the same in effect with those of 
the Donatlsts, is cont^ned in a book printed by him at Middlebnrg, 
intitled a Treatise of Reformation, of which many copies were dispersed 
in England. 

Returning hither soon after the publication of his book, Brown, 
together wlUi one Richard Harrison, a countnr schooUmaster, associated 
himself with some Dutchmen of the Anabaptut sect, and be^ a formal 
schism, in which he succeeded so well, that many separate congregations 
were set up in divers parts of the kingdom ; at length his behaviour 
drew on him the censures of the church, which brought him to a partial 
recantaHon of his opinions, and procured him a benefice in Northampton- 
shire ; but he soon after relapsed, and in an advanced age died in North- 
ampton gaol, to which prison he had been committed for a breach of the 
pesice, not being able to find sureties for his keeping it. Fuller, who was 
acquainted with him, and had heard him preach, gives the following 
circumstantial relation of the causes and manner of bis commitment 
and death. 

* As for his death in the prison of Northampton manjr years after, in 

it was afterwards revived by Walter Travers, the 
lecturer at the Temple, a friend of Cartwright; and 
a formal examination and refutation of his tenets was 
undertaken by the learned and excellent Hooker, who 
at that time was Master of the Temple. 

In the Ecclesiastical Polity, the objections of 
Cartwright and his adherents against f£e doctrine 
and discipline of the established church, are occa- 
sionally inserted in the margin of the book, but, 
which seems a strange omission in the publishers of 
it, without any reference to the particular book of 
Cartwright, to which it was an answer, or any in- 
timation that he was the oppugner of Cartwright, 
other than the letters T. C. the initials of his Christian 
and surname, which are added to the several passages 
cited by Hooker. 

The objections against singing in general, and 
also l^inst antiphonal singing, are to this purpose : 
'From whencesoever the practice [of antiphonal 

* singing] came, it cannot be good, considering that 
'when it is granted that it is lawfull for all the 
'people to praise Qod by singing the Psalms of 
' David, this ought not to be restrained to those few 
' of the congregation who are retained in the service 
' of the church for the sole purpose of singing ; and 
' where it is lawfull both with heart and voice to 
' sing the whole psalm, there it is not meet that they 
' should sing but the one half with their heart and 
'voice, and the other with their heart only. For 
'where they may both with heart and voice sing, 
' there the heart is not enough ; and therefore, besides 
'the incommoding which cometh this way, in that 
' being tossed after this sort, men cannot understand 
' what is sung ; those other two inconveniences come 
' of this form of singing, and therefore it is banished 
'in all reformed diurches. And elsewhere, The 
'singing of psalms by course, and side after side, 
' although it be very ancient, yet it is not commendable, 

< the reign of king Charles, anno 16S0, it nothing related to those opinions 
' he did, or hb followers do maintain, for, as I am credibly informed, 

* being by the constable of the parish, who dianced also to be his god> 

* son, somewhat roughly and rudely required the payment of a rate, he 
' hapned in passion to strike him. The constable not taking it patiently 

* as a casti^ition fjrom a god-fether, but In anger, as an aflfh>nt to his 

< office, complained to Sir Rowland St. John, a neighbouring Justice of 

* the peace, and Brown is brought before him. The knight of himself 
*was prone rather to pity and pardon than punish his passion, but 

* Brown's behaviour was so stubborn, that be appeared obstinatelv 
'ambitious of a prison, as desirous after long absence to renew hu 

< fruniUaritv with bis ancient acquaintance. His mittimus is made, and 

* a cart with a feather-bed provided to carry him, he himself being too 
'infirroe (above eighty) to goe, too unweldie to ride, and no friend so 
' fevourabie as to purchase for him a more oomly conveyance. To North- 
'ampton jayle he is sent, where soon after he sickned, died, and was 
' buried in a neighbouring churchvard ; and it is no hurt to wish that his 
' bad opinions had been interred with him.' Church Hist. Cent XVI. 
book ix. page 168. 

The same author rdates that he boasted he had been committed to 
thirty-two prisons, some of them to dark, that in them he was not able 
to see his hand at noon-day. 

The opinions which Brown had propagated were those which dis- 
tifiguished that religious sect, who after him were called Brownists. Not 
onW Fuller and Collier, but Neal also r epr esent him as a man of an idle 
and dissolute life, in no respect reseroblfaig either Cartwright or Travers, 
who dissented upon principle, and appear both, to have been very 
learned and pious men. These men wtrre the first of those who opposed 
the liturgy, and were the occasion of those admirable arguments of 
Hooker in defence of church music, which here follow. 

There is a passage in one of Howel's letters which seems to indicate 
that the tenets of Brown were grown very odious at the time when the 
former wrote, which for the singularity of it take in his own words :— 

' Difierence in opinion mav work a disaffection in me, but not a detes- 

* tatlon ; I rather pitty than hate Turk or Infidell. for they are the same 

* metall, and bear the same stamp as I do, though the inscriptions diibr: 
' If I hate any It is those schismatics that puxxle the sweet peace of our 
' church, so that I could be content to see an Anabaptist go to hell on 

* a Brownist's back.' Familiar Letters of James Howel, 1678, vol. I. 
sect. 6. Letter xxxlL To Sir Ed. B. Knt. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OXV. 



' and is so much the more to be snspected, for that 
'the Devil hath gone about to get it bo great 
* authority, partly by deriving it from Ignatius time, 
'and partly in making the world believe that this 
' came from heaven, and that the angels were heard 
' to sing after this sort, which as it is a mere &ble, 
' so is it confuted by historiogra^ers, whereof some 
' ascribe the beginning of this to Damasus, some other 
' unto Flavianus and Diodorus.* 

These are the principal arguments brought in 
proof of the unlawfulness and impropriety of choral 
antiphonal singing in the worship of Gkxl ; in answer 
to which it may be said, that its lawfulness, propriety, 
and conduciveness to the ends of edification, have 
been asserted by a great number of men, each as 
fitly qualified to determine on a subject of this nature 
as the ablest of their opponents. But the merits of 
the controversy will beet appear from that defence 
of the practice in question contained in the Eccle- 
siastical Polity, of our countryman Hooker, who with 
his usual temper, learning, eloquence, and sagacity, has 
exhibited first a very fine eulogium on music itself, 
and afterwards a defence of that particular appli- 
cation of it to divine service, which our national 
church had recognized, and which it concerned him 
to vindicate. 

And first as to music in general, and its efficacy in 
the exciting of devout afifections, he uses these words : — 

' Touching musical harmony, whether by instru- 
' ment or by voice, it being but of high and low in 
' sounds, a due proportionable disposition, such not- 
'withstanding is the force thereof, and so pleasing 
' effects it hath in that very part of man which is 
'most divine, that some have been thereby induced 
' to think that the soul itself by nature is, or hath in 
'it harmony. A thing which delighteth all ages, 
' and beseemeth all states ; a thing as seasonable in 
' grief as in joy ; as decent, being added unto actions 
'of greatest weight and solemnity, as being used 
' when men most sequester themselves from action : 
'the reason hereof is an admirable facility which 
'music hath to express and represent to the mind 
'more inwardly than any other sensible mean, the 
'very standing, rising, and falling, the very steps 
' and inflections every way, the turns and varieties of 
' all passions whereunto the mind is subject ; yea, so 
' to imitate them, that whether it resemble unto us 
' the same state wherein our minds already are, or 
' a clean contrary, we are not more contentedly by 
' the one confirmed, than changed and led away by 
' the other. In harmony the very image and character 
' even of virtue and vice is perceived, the mind de- 
' lighted with their resemblances, and brought, by 
' having them often iterated, into a love of the things 
' themselves ; for which cause there is nothing more 
'contagious and pestilent than some kinds of har- 
'mony, than some nothing more strong and potent 
' unto good. And that there is such a difference of 
' one kind from another we need no proof but oui 
' own experience, inasmuch as we are at the hearing 
• of some more inclined unto sorrow and heaviness, 
' of some more mollified and softened in mind ; one 
' kind apter to stay and settle us, another to move 

' and stir our affections. There is that draweth to 
' a marvellous grave and sober mediocrity ; there is 
' also that carrieth as it were into ecstasies, filling the 
'mind with an heavenly joy, and for the time in 
' a manner severing it from the body. So that al- 
' though we lay altogether aside the consideration of 

* ditty or matter, the very harmony of sounds being 
'framed in due sort, and carried from the ear to 
' the spiritual faculties of our souls, is, by a native 
' puissance and efficacy, greatly available to bring to 
' a perfect temper whatsoever is there troubled ; apt 
' as well to quicken the spirits, as to allay that which 
'is too eager; sovereign against melancholy and 
' despair ; forceable to draw forth tears. of devotion, 
' if the mind be such as can yield them ; able both to 
' move and to moderate all affections. The prophet 
' David having therefore singular knowledge, not in 
' poetry alone, but in music also, judged them both 
' to be things most necessary for the house of God, 
' left behind him to that purpose a number of divinely 
' indicted poems ; and was farther the author of add- 
' ing unto poetry, melody in public prayer, melody 
' both vocal and instrumental for the raising up of 
' men's hearts, and the sweetening of their affections 
' towards God. In which considerations the church 
' of Christ doth likewise at this present day retain it 
' as an ornament to God's service, and an help to our 
' own devotion. They which, under pretence of the 
' law ceremonial abrogated, require the abrogation of 
' instrumental music, approving nevertheless the use 
' of vocal melody to remain, must shew some reason 
' wherefore the one should be thought a legal cere- 
' mony and not the other. In church music curiosity 
' and ostentation of art, wanton, or light, or unsuitable 
' harmony, such as only pleaseth the ear, and doth 

* not naturally serve to the very kind and degree of 
' those impressions, which the matter that goeUi with 
' it leaveth or is apt to leave in men's minds, doth 
' rather blemish and disgrace that we do, than add 
' either beauty or furtherance unto it. On the other 
' side, these faults prevented the force and efficacy of 
' the thing itself, when it drowneth not utterly, but 
' fitly suiteth with matter altogether sounding to the 
' praise of God, is in truth most admirable, and doth 
' much edify, if not the understanding, because it 
' teacheth not, yet surely the affection, because there- 
' in it worketh much. They must have hearts very 
' dry and tough, from whom the melody of the psalms 
' doth not some time draw that wherein a mind re- 
' ligiously affected, delighteth.' * 

And to the objection against antiphonal singing, 
' that the Devil hath gone about to get it authority,' 
he thus answers : — 

'Whosoever were the author, whatsoever the 
' time, whencesoever the example of beginning this 
' custome in the church of Christ ; sith we are wont 

* to suspect things only .before tryal, and afterwards 

* either to approve them as good, or if we find them 
' evil, accordingly to judge of them ; their counsel 
' must need seem very unseasonable, who advise men 
' now to suspect that wherewith the world hath had 
'by their own account, twelve hundred years ac- 

• EocL Polity, book V. sect. 88. 

Digitized by 




Boor XU. 

quaintance and upwards; enongh to take away 
suspicion and jealousie. Men know by this time, 
if ever they will know, whether it be good or eviJ 
which hath been so long retained. As for the 
Devil, which way it should greatly benefit him to 
have this manner of singing psalms accounted an 
invention of Ignatius, or an imitation of the angels 
of heaven, we do not well understand. But we 
very well see in them who thus plead, a wonderful 
celerity of discourse. For perceiving at the first, 
but only some cause of suspicion, and fear lest it 
should be evil, they are presently in one and the 
selfsame breath resolved that what beginning soever 
it had, there is no possibility it should be good. 
The potent arguments which did thus suddenly 
break in upon and overcome them, are First, that 
it is not unlawful for the people, all jointly to 
praise God in singing of psalms. Secondly, that 
they are not any where forbidden by the law of 
GK>d to sing every verse of the whole psalm both 
with heart and voice quite and dean through- 
out Thirdly, that it cannot be understood what is 
sung after our manner. Of which three, forasmuch 
as lawfulness to sing one way, proveth not another 
way inconvenient ; the former two are true all^a- 
tions, but they lack strength to accomplish their 
desire ; the third so strong that it might persuade 
if the truth thereof were not doubtful Ajid shall 
this enforce us to banish a thing which all Christian 
churches in the world have received ? a thing which 
to many ages have held : a thing which the most 
approved councils and laws have so oftentimes 
ratified; a thing which was never found to have 
any inconvenience in it; a thing which always 
heretofore the best men and wisest govemours of 
God's people did think they never could commend 
enough ; a thing which as Basil was persuaded did 
both strengthen the meditation of those holy words 
which are uttered in that sort, and serve also to 
make attentive, and to raise up the hearts of men ; 
a thing whereunto Gbd*8 people of old did resort 
with hope and thirst ; that thereby, especially their 
souls might be edified; a thing which filleth the 
mind with comfort and heavemy delight, stirreth 
up fragrant desires and affections correspondent 
unto that which the words contain; allayeth all 
kind of base and earthly cogitations, banisheth and 
driveth away those evil secret su^estions which 
our invisible enemy is always apt to minister, 
watereth the heart to the end that it may fructify, 
maketh the virtuous, in trouble full of magnanimity 
and courage, serveth as a most approved remedy 
against all doleful and heavy accidents which be- 
fall men in this present life. To conclude, so 
fitly accordeth with the apostle's own exhortation, 
Speak to yourselves in psalms and hynms and 
spiritual songs, making melody and singing to the 
Lord in your hearts ;" that surely there is more 
cause to fear lest the want thereof be a maim, than 
the use a blemish to the service of Gbd.'* 
As to the merits of this controversy, every one is 
at liberty to judge ; and if any shall doubt at the 

• EccU PoUty, book V. Met. 39. 

lawfulness and expediency of choral music after con- 
sidering the arguments on both sides, there is little - 
hope of their b^g reconcUed to it till an abler ad- 
vocate than Hooker shall arise in its defence. 

The form and manner of divine service being thus 
far adjusted, an establishment of a chapel seemed to 
follow as a matter of course, the settlement whereof 
was attended with but very little difficulty. As 
those gentlemen of the chapel who had served under 
Edward VL continued in their stations notwith- 
standing the revival of the mass, so when the Romish 
service was abrogated, and the English liturgy re- 
stored, they manifested a disposition to submit to 
those who seemed to be better judges of religious 
matters than themselves; and notwithstanding that 
in the time of queen Mary all persons engaged in the 
chapel service must, at least in appearance, have been 
papists, we find not that any of them objected to the 
reformed service : this at least is certain, that both 
Tallis and Bird, the former of whom had set the 
music to many Latin motets, and the latter made 
sundry masses and other compositions for queen 
Mary's chapel, contmued in the service of Elizabeth, 
the one tiU the time of his death, and the other 
during the whole of her reign, and the greater part 
of that of her successor, he dying in 1623. 

For the state of queen Elizabeth's chapel we are 
in a great measure to seek : it is certain that Tallis 
and Bird were organists of it, and that Richard 
Bowyer was upon her accession to the crown con- 
tinued one of the gentlemen of her chapel, who 
dying, Richard Edwards was appointed master of 
the children. This person, who has been mentioned 
in a former part of this work, was a native of 
Somersetshire, and a scholar of Oorpus Christi col- 
lege in Oxford, under George Etherid^e, and at the 
time of its foundation was made semor student of 
Christ Church college, being then twenty-four years 
of age. Wood, in the AUien. Oxon. has given a 
curious account of the representation of a comedy of 
his writing, entitled Puemon and Ardte, before 
queen Elizabeth, in the hall of Christ Church collie, 
and of the queen's behaviour on the occasion. Ed- 
wards died on the thirty-first day of October, 1596 ; 
and the fifteenth of November in the same year 
William Hunnis, a gentleman of the chapel, and who 
had been in that station during the two preceding 
reigns, was appointed his successor ; this person died 
on the sixth day of June, 1597, and was succeeded by 
Dr. Nathaniel Giles, of whom an account will hereafter 

I given. 


It will now be thought time to enquire into the 
rise and progprees of pesdmody in England ; nor will 
it be said that we were very remiss when it is known 
how short the interval was, between the publication 
of the French version and ours by Stemhold and 
Hopkins, who as having been feuow-labourers in 
this work of Reformation, are so yoked together, 
that hardly any one mentions them asunder. 

Thomas Stemhold is said to have been a native of 
Hampshire. Where he received the rudiments of 

Digitized by 


Chap. OXVL 



literature is not known, but Wood says that he 
resided some time in the muversity of Oxford, and 
that he left it without the honour of a d^pree. By 
some interest that he had at court, he was preferred 
to the office of groom of the robes to Henry VIIL 
which he discharged so well, that he became a per- 
sonal fiEtvourite of the king, who by his will left him 
a leg^y of an hundred marks. Upon the decease 
of the king, Stemhold was continued in the same 
employment by his successor,; and having leisure 
to pursue his studies, he acquired some d^ree of 
esteem about the court for his vein in poetry and 
other trivial learning. He was a man of a very reli- 
gious turn of mind, in his morals irreproachable, and 
an adherent to the principles of the reformation, and 
being offended with the amorous and immodest 
songs, which were then the usual entertainment of 
persons about the court, he undertook to translate 
the Psalms of David into English metre, but ho died 
without completing the work. His will was proved 
the twelfUi day of September, anno 1549; he is 
therein styled Groom of his Majesty's robes, and 
it thereby appears that he died seised of lands to 
a considerable value in Hampshire and in the county 
of OomwalL 

Fifty-one of the Psalms were all that Sternhold 
lived to versify, and these were first printed by 
Edward Whitchurch, and published anno 1549, with 
the following title: 'All such Psalmes of David 
'as Thomas Stemholde, late grome of the kinges 
'majestyes robes did in his lyfe-tyme drawe into 
' Englyshe metre.' The book is dedicated to king 
Edward VI. by the author, and was therefore pro- 
bably prepared by him for the press. In the aedi- 
cation it %» mid that the hng toohpleatiure in 
hearing these Psalms suna to mm. Wood is mis- 
taken m saying that Stemhold caused musical notes 
to be set to his Psalms ; they were published in 1549 
and 1552, without notes; and the first edition of 
the Psalms with notes is that of 1562, mentioned 

Ames takes notice of another work of the same 
author, entitled * Certayne chapters of the Proverbs 
'of Solomon drawen into metre;* this also was 
a posthumous publication, it being printed anno 1551, 
two years after Stemhold's decease.! 

Contemporary with Stemhold was John Hopkins, 
originally a school-master, a man rather more esteemed 
for his poetical talents than his coadjutor : he turned 

« It is woTthT of remark that both In France and En^and the Pialina 
were first translated into vulgar metre by laymen, and, which is very 
singular, by courtiers. Marot was of the bed-chamber to Francis I. and 
Stemhold groom of the robes to Henry VIII and Bdward VI ; their 
respeetlTe translations were not completed by themselTes, and yet they 
tianslafeed nearly an equal number of paalms, that Is to say, Marot fifty, 
sod Stemhold fifty-one. 

t In the same Tear was published * Certain Psalmes diosen out of the 
' Psalmes of David, commonly called vii penytentiall Psalmes, drawen 

* into Bnglyshe meter by Sir Thomas Wyat, Knyght, wbereunto is added 

* a prologe of the auet<ne before every Psalme, renr pleasant and profett- 
' able to the godly reader. Imprinted at London, in Paules churcnyarde, 

* at the sygne of the Stane, by Thomas Raynald and John Harryngt(Hi, 

* com pivrll^to ad imprimendum solum, MDXLIX. The last day of 

* December.' 

And in 1550, ' Certayne Psalmes chosen out of the Psslter of David, 

* and drawen ftirth into Snglysh meter by William Hunnis, servant to 

* the rygfat honorable Syr William Harbexde, knight. Newly collected 
*and unprinted. Imprynted at London in Aidersgate stiete, by the 

wydowe of John Herforde for John Harrington, the veare of our IioM 
' M D and L. Cum privOegio ad imprimendum solum/ 

into metre fifty-eight of the Psalms, which are dis- 
tinguished by the initial letters of his name. Bishop 
Tanner styles him, 'Poeta, ut ea ferebant tempera, 
eximius ;' and at the end of the Latin commendivtory 
verses prefixed to Fox's Acts and Monuments, are 
some stanzas of his that fully justify this character. 

William Whittyngham had also a hand in this 
version of the Pstdms ; he was a man of great learn- 
ing, and one of those English divines that resided 
abroad during the persecution under queen Mary; 
preferring the order and discipline of the Genevan 
church to that of Francfort, whither he first fled ; 
he chose the latter city for the place of his abode, 
and became a £ftvourite of Oalvin, from whom he 
received ordination. He assisted in the translation 
of the Bible by CSoverdale, Goodman and others, and 
translated into English metre those Psalms, in number 
only five, which in our version bear the initials of 
his name; among these is the hundred and nineteenth, 
which is full as long as twenty of the others. He 
also versified the Decalogue, and the prayer imme- 
diately after it, and very probably the Lord's Prayer, 
the Creed, and the hymn Veni Creator, all which 
follow the singing psalms in our version. He was 
afterwards, by the £ivour of Robert earl of Leicester, 
promoted to the deanerv of Durham; and might, 
if he had made the best of his interest, have succeeded 
Sir William Cecil, afterwards Lord Burleigh, in the 
employment of secretary of state. Wood, who has 
raked together many particulars concerning him, 
relates that he caused the image of St Cuthbert, in 
the cathedral church of Durham, to be broke to 
pieces, and that he de&ced many ancient monuments 
in that church.! 

The letter IN. is also prefixed to twenty-seven 
of the Psalms in our English version; this is in- 
tended to denote Thomas Norton, of Sharpenhoe in 
Bedfordshire, a barrister, and, in Wood's phrase, 
a forward and bus^ Calvinist in the beginning of 
queen Elizabeth's reign, a man then accounted eminent 
for his poetry and making of tragedies. Of hia 
merit in which kind of writing he has left us no 
proofs excepting the three first acts of a tragedy, at 
first printed wiUi the title of Ferrex and Porrex, but 
better known by that of Qorbuduc, which it now 
bears, the latter two acts whereof were written by 
Thomas Sackville, lord Buckhurst earl of Dorset, 
lord high treasurer in the reign of James I. and the 
fbunder of the present Dorset family. This per- 
formance is highly commended by Sir Philip Si&ey 
in his Defence of Poesy, and is too well known to 
need a more particular character. 

Robert Wisdome translated into metre the twenty- 
fifth psalm, and wrote also that prayer in metre at 
the end of our version, the first stanza whereof is : — 

* Preserve ub Lord by thy dear word, 

* From Pope and iHirk defend us Lord, 

* Which both would thrust out of his throne 

* Our Lord Jesus Christ thy deare son.' 

For which he has been ridiculed by the fiicetious 
bishop Corbet and others, though Wood gives him 
the character of a good Latin and English poet for 

t Athen. Ozon. coL 196. 

Digitized by 




Book XIL 

his time. He adds, that he had been in exile in 
queen Mary*8 reign ; that he was rector of Sett- 
rington in Yorkshire, and also archdeacon of Ely, 
and had been nominated to a bishoprick in Ireland, 
temp. Edward VI. and that he died 1568. 

The 70, 104, 112, 113, 122, 125, and 134 Psalms 
are distinjaniished by the initials W. K. These 
derufteWilUamXeshef a Scotch divine. SeeWartorCs 
History of English Poetry, Vol, III. pM. 418, in 
note. Psahn 136 has the leUers T. C., iutfor the 
name of this person n^ are to seek. 

The first publication of a complete version of the 
Psalms was by John Day, in 1562, it bears this 
title: *The whole booke of Psalmes, collected into 

* English metre by T. Stemhold, J. Hopkins, and 
'others, conferred with the Ebrue; with apt notes 
to sing them withall.'* 

* Another Tenlon of the PMlms, and that a complete one, but rery 
little known, to extant, the work of archbtohop Parker during hto exile. 
In the dianr of that prelate printed ttom hto own roahnaeript, in Stirpe'a 
life cf archmshop Parker to the following memorandum :— * And still thto 
'6 Aug. [hto birth day] An. Dom. 1557, 1 peratot in the tame oonatancj 

* miholden by the grace and goodneia of my Lord and Saviour Jetua 

* Christ, by whose inspiration I have flntohed the book of Psalma turned 

* faito Tulgar Terse.' 

Strype says, * What became of the Psalms I know not ; ' nererthelesa 
it seems that they were printed, and that with the following title :— *The 

* whole Psalter translated into Engltoh Metre, which eontayneth an 

* hundreth and fifty Psalmes. *' Quoniam omnto terre Deus : Psalllte 
" sapienter— Psal. 47. Imprinted at London by John Dare, dwelling orer 
*< Aldersgate beneath 8. Martyn's." without a date. In a copy of thto 
book, Tery richly bound, which was bought at the sale of the late Mr. 
West's library, to a memorandum on a spare leaf in the band-writing of 
Dr. White Kennet, bishop of Peterborough, purporting that the arch- 
bishop printed this book of Psalms, and that though he forbore to publish 
it with hto name, he suffered hto wife to present the book fUrly bound to 
several of the nobility ; Dr. Kennet therefore conjectures that the very 
book in which this memorandum to made, to one of the copies so pre- 
sented ; and gives for a reason that he himself presented a like copy to 
the wife of archbtohop Wake, wherein Margaret Parker in her own name 
and hand dedicates the book to a noble lady. Signed Wh. Peterb^ 

After the preface, which to in metre, and directs the singing of the 
paalros dtotinctly and audibly, to a dectoration of the virtue of pMlms in 
metre, and the self-same directions flroro St. Athanasius for the choice of 
psalms for particular occasions, as are prefixed to the version of Stemhohi 
and Hopkins, and the rest, and at the conclusion of each psalm to 
a collect. They are printed without music save that at the end are 
eight tunes in four parts, Meane, Contnitenor, Tenor, and Basse, which, 
acreeably to the practice of the Romtoh church, are composed in the 
eight eeclesiastieal tones, the tenor being the plain-«ong. It to said by 
Strype that Parker in the course of his education had been instructed in 
the practice of singing by two several persons, the one named Love, 
a priest, the other one Manthorp, clerk of St. Stephen's In Norwich, of 
the harshness of both which masters he felt so much, that he could 
never forget it. Hto affection to music in hto mature age may be Inferred 
tnm the provision made by him in the foundation of a school in the 
college of Stoke, in the county of Suffolk, of which he was dean ; in 
which the scholan, besides grammar, and other studies of humanity, 
were taught to sing and play on the organ and other instruments : and 
also from the statutes of the same college, framed by himself, the last 
whereof to in these words : ' Item, to be found in the collie henceforth 

* a number of quertoters, to the number of eight or ten or more, as may 

* be bom conveniently of the stock, to have sufHclent meat, drink, brotli, 

* and learning. Of which said quertoters, after their breasts be changed, 

* we win the most apt of wit and capacity be helpen with exhibition of 
'forty shillings, fbur marks, or three pounds a-pieoe to be students in 
' some college in Cambridge. The exhibition to be ei^oyed but six vean.' 

And that he had some skill hi music appears bv the following eharae- 
tertotie of the eccl es iaa t ical tones, prefixed to the eight tunes above- 

The nature of the eyght tunes 

1 . The firil to meeke : devout to fee, 

2. The fecond fad : in majefty. 

3. The third doth rage : and roughly brayth, 

4. The fourth doth ^wne : and flattry pUyth, 

5. The fifth deligth : and laugheth the more, 

6. The fixt bewayleth : itweepeth full forcy 

7. The (eventh tredeth ftoute : in froward race 

8. The eighte goeth milde : in modeil pace. 

The Tenor of theTe partes be for the people when they will 
fjrng alone, the other partes put for the greater queers, or to 
(uche at will (yng or play them privately. 

It to conjectured that the Psalms thus transtoted, with tunes adapted 
to toem, were intended by the author to be sung in cathedrals, for at the 

Notwithstanding some of these persons are cele- 
brated for their learning, it is to be presumed that 
they followed the method of Marot, and rendered 
the Hebrew into English through the mediam of 
a prose translation : the original motive to this 
undertaking wa^not solely the introduction of psalm- 
singing into the English protestant churches ; it had 
also for its object the exclusion of that ribaldry 
which was the entertainment of the common people, 
and the furnishing them with such songs as might 
not only tend to reform their manners, but inspire 
them with sentiments of devotion and godliness ; and 
indeed nothing less than this can be inferred from 
that declaration of the design of setting them forth, 
contained in the title-page of our common version, 
and which has been continued in all the printed 
copies from the time of its first publication to this 
day : ' Set forth and allowed to be sung in churches 
'of the people together, before and after evening 
' prayer, as also before and after sermon ; and more- 

* over in private houses, for their godly solace and 
' comfort, laying apart idl ungodly songs and ballads, 
'which tend only to the nourishment of vice and 

* corrupting of youth/ 

There is good reason to believe that the design of 
the reformers of our church was in a gpreat measure 
answered by the publication of the Psalms in this 
manner; to facilitate the use of them they were 

time when they were turned into verse, the church were put to great 
shifts, the compositions to Engltoh words t>eing at that time too few to 
ftimtoh out a musical service; and thto to the more probable firom the 
directions given by the archbtohop for singing many of them by the 
rectors and the qtuer alternately. Who we are to understand yij the 
reotors it to hard to aay, there being no such officer at thto time in any 
cathedral in thto kingdom. If the word were of the singular number it 
might be interpreted chanter. These directions seem to indicate that 
till some time after queen Elisabeth's accession, the form and method of 
ohoral service was not settled, nor that dtotinction made between the 
singers on the dean's side and that of the chanter, which at thto dajr to 
observed in all cathedrato. 

Archbtohop Parker's version of the Psalms may be deemed a great 
typographical curiosity, Inaamuch as it seems to have never been pub- 
lished, otherwise than by being presented to hto friends, it to therefore 
not to be wondered that it never fell in the wav either of Strype, who 
wrote hto life, or of Mr. Ames, that dilUgent collector of typographical 
antiquities. As to the book itself, the merits of it may be Judged of by 
the following version of Psalm xxiiL extracted from it :— 

The Lord fo good : who gevech me food 

My (hepeheard it and guide : 
How can I want: or fu&r fcant 

Whan he defendth my fide. 

To feede my neede: he will me lead, 

In paftures greene and htx 
He forth brought me in liberde. 

To waters delicate. 

My foule and hart : he did convert, 

To me he (heweth the path t 
Of right wifeneis: in holines, 

HU name fuch vertue hath. 

Yea though I go : through Death hys wo 

Hto vaale and fhadow wyde : 
I feare no dart : wyth me thou art, 

With (bfifand rod to guide. 

Thou flialt provydc : a table wyde, 

For me agaynft theyr fpite t 
With oyle my head : thou hail befpred, 

My cup to fully dight. 

Thy goodneft yet : and mercy great. 

Will kepe me all my dayes : 
In houfe to dwell : in reft full well, 

Wyth God I hope alwayet. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXVL 



printed * with apt notes to sing tliem withall ;'* and 
from thenceforth the practice of psahn-sing^ng hecame 
the common exercise of such devout persons as at- 
tended to the exhortation ofthe apostle ; * if any was 

* af&icted, he prayed ; if merry, he sang psalms.' 

To enquire into the merits of this our translation 
might seem an invidious task, were it not that the 
subject has employed the pens of some very good 
judges of English poesy, whose sentiments are col- 
lected in a subsequent page : it may here suffice to 

* To the eariier imprestions of the PmIiim in metre wm prefixed 
ft treatise, said to be made bjr St. Athanatiiu, concerning the uie and 
▼irtues of the Psalms, wherein, among many other, are the following 
directions for the choice of psalms for particular occasions and exigencies. 

* If thou wouldst at any time describe a blessed man, who is he. and 

* what thing maketh him so to be: thou hast the 1, S2, 41, 112, 128 

' If that thoa seest that erill men lay snares for thee, and therefore 

* desiitet God's eares to hears thy praiers, sing the 5 psalme. 

* If so again thou wilt sing in giving thanks to God for the p r o sp ero u s 
' gathering of thy Antes, use the 8 psalme. 

* If thou desirest to know who is a citixen of heaven, sing the 15 

* psalme. 

' If thine enemies cluster against thee, and go about with their bloody 

* hand to destroy thee, go not thou about by man's helpe to roTenge it, 

* for al mens Judgmenu are not trustie, but require God to be Judge, Ibr 

* he alone is Judge, and say the 26, 85, 48 psalmes. 

' If they presse more ftereelie on thee, though they be in numbers like 

* an armed noast, fear them not which thus reject thee, as though thou 

* wert not annointed and elect by God, but sing the 27 psalme. 

* If they be Tet so impudent that they Unr wait against thee, to that it 

* is not lawfoll for thee to hare any Tocatlon by them, regard them not, 

* but sing to God the 48 psalme. 

*If thou beholdest such as be baptised, and so deliTered from the 

* corruption of their birth, praise thou the bountifull grace of God, and 

* sing the 82 psalme. 

* If thou delightest to sing amongst many, call together righteous men 
of godlie life, and sing the ii pealme. 

* If thou seest how wicked men do much wickednesse, and that yet 

* simple folke praise such, when thou wilt admonish any man not to 

* follow them, to bee like unto them, because they shall be shdirtly rooted 

* out and destroid : speake unto thyselfe and to others the 87 psalme. 

* If thou wouldst call upon the blind world for their wrong confidenoe 

* of their brute sacrifices, and shew them what sacrifice God most hath 

* reouired of them, sing the 50 psalme. 

* If thou hast suflfcred fiUse accusation before the king, and seest the 
' divel to triumph thereat, go aside and say the 52 psalme. 

■ If they whidh persecute thee with accusations would betray thee, as 

* :he Phariseis did Jesns, and as the aliens did David, discomfort not 

* thyselfe therewith, but shig in good hope to God, the 54, 69, 57 psalmes. 

' If thou wilt rebuke Painims and heretiks, for that they have not the 
' knowledge of God in them, thou maist have an understanding to sing 
' to God the 86, 115 psalmes. 

* If thou art elect out of low degree, especially before others to some 

* vocation to serve thy brethren, advanoe not thyselfe too high against 

* them in thfaie own power, but give God his glorie who did chuse thee, 
' and sing thou the 145 psalme.' 

The effects of these directions may be judged of by the propensity of 
the people, manifested in sundry .mstances to the exercise of psidm- 

The Protestants who fled fhmi the persecution of the duke de Alva in 
Flanders, were mostly woollen manufacturers. Upon their arrival in 
£ngUmd they settled in Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, Wiltshire, and 
a few other counties, where they distinguished themselves bv their Ioto 
of Psalmody. 'Would I were a weaver,' savs Sir John Falstaff, [in 
Henry IV. part I. the flrst edition] * I could sing psalms or any thing.' 

As the singing of psalms supposes some degree of skill in music, it 
was natural for those who were able to do it to recreate themselTes with 
vocal music of another kind ; and accordingly so early as the reign of 
James I. the people of these counties were, as thcnr are at this day, 
expert In the singing of catches and songs in parts. Ben Jonson, in the 
Silent Woman, makes Cutberd tell Morose that the parson ' caught his 
' cold by sitting up late, and singing catches with Clothworkers ;' and the 
old Gloucestershire three part song. ' The stones that built George Ridler's 

* oTen,' is well known in that and the adjacent counties. 

And to speak of the common people in general, it may be remembered 
that the reading of the book of Martyrs, and the singing of psalms were 
the exercises of such persons of either sex, as being advanced in years, 
were desirous to be thought good christiuu ; and this not merely in 
country towns, villages and hamlets, where a general simplicity of man- 
ners, and perhaps the exhortations of the minister might be supposed to 
conduce to it, but in cities and great towns, and even in London itself; 
and the time is not yet out of the memory of a few persons now living, 
when a passenger on a Sunday evening txom St. Paul's to Aldgate, would 
have heard the fsmllSes in most of the houses in his way occupied in the 
sinchig of Psalms. 

'In the year 1646, king Charles I. being in the hands of the Scots, 
' a Scotch minister preached boldly before the king at Newcastle, and 
' after this sermon called for the fifty-second psalm, which begins, " Why 
*' dost thou tyraikt boast thyself, thy wicked works to praise." His mi^esty 

* thereupon stood up, and called for the fifty-sixth psalm, which begins, 
*' Have mercy Lord on me I pray, fbr men would me devour." The 

* people waived the minister's psalm, and sung that which the Ung called 
Tcr/ Whitelocke's Memorials, 234. 

say, that so far as it tends to fix the meaning of 
sundry words, now for no very good reasons become 
obsolete, or exhibits the state of English poetry at 
the period when it was composed, it is one of those 
valuable monuments of literary antiquity which none 
but the superficially learned would be content to 
want But it seems these considerations were not 
of foree sufficient to restrain those in authority from 
complying with that humour in mankind which 
disposes tiiem to change, though from better to the 
worse ; and accordingly such alterations have at dif- 
ferent times been miade in the common metrical 
translations of the singing Psalms, as have frustrated 
the hopes of those who wished for one more elegant 
and less liable to exception. 

Thus much mav suffice for a general account of 
the introduction of psalmody into this kingdom, and 
the effects it wrought on the national manners ; the 
order and course of this history naturally lead to an 
enquiry concerning the melodies to which the Psalms 
are, and usually have been sung, no less particular 
than that already made with respect to the French 

Stemhold's Psalms were first printed in the year 
1549 ; and the whole version, as completed by Hop- 
kins and others, in 1562, with this title : 'The 
'whole booke of Psalmes collected into English 
'metre by T. Stemhold, J. Hopkins, and others, 
'conferred with the Ebrue, with apt notes to sing 
* them withall.* By these apt notes we are to under- 
stand the tunes, to the number of about forty, which 
are to be found in that and many subsequent im- 
pressions, of one part only, and in general suited to 
the pitch and compass of a tenor voice, but most ex- 
cellent indeed for the sweetness and gravity of their 
melodv; and because the number of tunes thus 
published was less than that of the Psalms, directions 
were given in cases where the metre and general im- 
port of the words allowed of it, to sing sundry of 
them to one tune. 

The same method was observed in the several 
editions of the Psalms published during the reign of 
queen Elizabeth, particularly in those of the years 
1564, and 1577, which it is to be remarked are not 
coeval with any of the editions of the Common Prayer, 
to which they are usually annexed, for which no 
better reason can here be assigned than that the 
singing psalms were never considered as part of the 
liturgy ; and the exclusive privilege of printing the 
Common Prayer was then, as it is now, enjoyed by 
different persons. Nor do we meet with any im- 
pression of the Psalms suited, either in the type or 
size of the volume, to either of the impressions of the 
liturgy of Edward the Sixth, published in 1549 
and 1552. In short, it seems that the practice of 
publishing the singing psalms by way of appendix 
to the Book of Common Prayer, had its rise at the 
beginning of the reign of queen Elizabeth ; for in 
1562 that method was observed, and again in 1564 
and 1577, but with such circumstances of diversity as 
require particular notice. 

And first it is to be remarked that in 1576, though 
by a mistake of Jugge the printer, the year in &e 

Digitized by 





Book. XIL 

title-page is 1676, the litargy was for the first time 
printed in a very small octavo size ; to this are an- 
nexed Psalms of David in metre by Sternhold, Hop- 
kins, and others, 'with apte notes to sing them 
withall,' imprinted by the Canons John Daye, cum 
privilegio, 1577. 

The publication of the Psalms in this manner 
supposed that the people, at least the better sort of 
them, could read ; and by parity of reason it might 
be said that the addition of musical notes to the 
words implied an opinion in the publishers that they 
also could sing ; but that they in fact did not think 
so at the time now spoken of, is most evident &om 
•the pains they were at in collecting together the 
general rudiments of song, which in the editions of 
1564 and 1577, and in no other, together with the 
scale of music, are prefixed by way of introduction 
to the singing Psalms. Who it was in particular 
that drew up these rudiments, is as little known as 
the autiiors of the tunes themselves ; they bear ihe 
title of * A short Introduction into the Science of 
' Musicke, made for such as are desirous to have the 

* knowledge thereof for the singing of the Psalmes.' 

As to the Introduction into the Science of Musicke, 
or, as it is called in the running tiUe, ' The intro- 
duction to learn to sing,* it is not to be found in any 
of the impressions of the Common Prayer subsequent 
to that in 1577, which is the more to be wondered 
at, seeing the author, whoever he was, was so well 
persuaded of its efiScacy as to assert, that ' by means 

* thereof every man might in a few dayes, yea in 

* a few houres, easily witibout all payne, and that also 
'without all ayde or helpe of any other teacher, 
' attain to a sufficient knowledge to singe any psalmic 

* contayned in the booke, or any other such playne 
'and easy songes.' In which opinion the event 
shewed huu to be grossly mistaken, as indeed, with- 
out the gift of prophesy, might have been foretold by 
any one who should have refiected on the labour and 
pains that are required to make any one a singer by 
notes to whom the elements of music are unknown ; 
for in the year 1607 there came out an edition of the 
Psalms with the same tunes in musical notes as were 
contained in t^ former, with not only more par- 
ticular directions for the sol-fidng, but widi the 
syllables actually interposed between the notes : this 
was in effect giving up all hope of instructing the 
people ia the practice of singing, inasmuch as what^ 
ever they were enabled to do by means of this as- 
sistance, they did by rote. 

Who w&s the publisher of this edition of 1607 
does not appear ; die title mentions only in general 
that it was imprinted for the company of stationers ; 
the reasons for annexing the syllables to the notes 
are given at large in «a anonymous preface to the 
reader, which is as follows : — 

* Thou ihalt underftand (gentle reader) that I have 

* (for the helpe of thofe that are dcfirous to Icame to 

* fing) cauied a new print of note to be made, with 

* letters to be joyned to every note, whereby thou 
'maieft know how to call every note by his right 

* name, fo that with a very little diligence (as thou art 
' caught in the introdufUon printed heretofore in the 

' Pialmes) thou maieft the more eafily, by the viewing 
'of thefe letters, come to the knowledge of periefib 
' folfayeng : whereby thou maieil fing tlie Pfalmes the 

* more fpeedilie and eafilie : the letters be theie, U for 

* Ut, R for Re, M for Mi, F for Fa, S for Sol, L for 

* La. Thus where you fee any letter joyned by the 
' note, you may eafilie call him by his right name, as 

* by thde two examples you may the better perceive : — 







aO PC I -' 


-S-0 ^-^ 


* Thus I commit thee unto him that liveth for ever, 
•who grant that we foig with our hearts unto the 
' glorie of his holy name. Amen.' 

And to exemplify the rule above given, every note 
of the several tunes contained in diis edition has the 
adjunct of a letter to ascertain the sol-faing, as men- 
tioned in the above preface. 

After the publication of this edition in 1607, it 
seems that the company of stationers, or whoever 
else had the care of supplving the public with copies 
of the singing-psahnes, tkought it best to leave the 
rude and unlearned to themsdves, for in none of the 
subsequent impressions do we meet widi either the 
introduction to music, or the anonymous preface, or, 
in a word, any directions for attaining to sing by 


Great has been the diversity of opinions con- 
cerning the merit of this our old English translation. 
Wood, in the account given by him of Stemhold, 
says that so much of it as he wrote is truly admirable ; 
and there are others, who reflecting on the general 
end of such a work, and the absolute necessity of 
adapting it to the capacities of the common people, 
have not hesitated to say that, bad as it may be in 
some respects, it would at this time be extremely 
difficult to make a translation that upon the whole 
should be better. Others have gone so for as to 
assert the poetical excellence of this version, and, 
taking advantage of some of those very sublime pas- 
sages in the original, which are tolerably rendered, 
but which perhaps no translation could possibly 
spoil, have defied its enemies to equal it.* On the 
other hand, the general poverty of the style, the 
meanness of the images, and, above all, the awkward* 
ness of the versification, have induced many serious 
persons to wish that we were fiiirly rid of a work, 
that in their opinion, tends lees to promote religion 
than to disgrace that reformation of it, which is 

* See a defence of the book of Pealms collected into Bngliah metxe by 
Thomae Bterahold, John Hopkins, and othen, &c. by bUhop Beveddgv. 


Digitized by 


Chap. OXVIL 



jnsdy esteemed one of the greatest blessings of this 

Another, l^nt a very different class of men from 
those above enumerated, the wits, as they style them- 
selves, have been very liberal in their censure of the 
English version of the Psalms. Scarce ever are the 
names of Stemhold and Hopkins mentioned by any of 
them but for the purpose of ridicule. Fuller alone, of 
all witty men the best natured, and who never exer- 
cises his facetious talent to the injury of any one, has 
given an impartial character of them and their works, 
and recommended a revision of the whole translation 
against all attempts to introduce a better in its stead.* 
His advice was followed, though not till many years 
after his decease, for in an impression of the Psalms 
of Stemhold and Hopkins, printed in 1696, we find 
the version accommodated to the language of the times, 
by the substitution of well-known words and familiar 
modes of expression in the room of such as were be- 
come obsolete, or not intelligible to the generality of 
the common people. But as the poet, whoever he 
was, was at all events to mend the version, its con- 
formity with the original, if peradventure he could 
read it» could be with him but a secondary consider- 
ation. Neither does it seem that he was enough ac- 
quainted with the Engligh language to know that in 
ue alteration of an old word for a new, the exchange 
is not always of the worse for the bett^. Heame has 
given some shrewd instances of this kind in the Glos- 
sary to his Robert of Glouee0ter,t and very many 
more mi^t be produced; however the first essay 
towards an emendation met with so little opposition 
from the people, that almost every succeeding im- 
presdon of the PMms was varied to the phrase of 
the day ; and it is not impossible but that in time, 
and by imperceptible degrees, the whole version may 
be so innovsted.. as scarcely to retain a single stanza 
of the original, and yet be termed the work of its 
primitive authors. 

A history of the several innovations in the metrical 
version of David's Psalms is not necessary in this place. 
It may suffice to remark, that in the first impression of 
the whole there is a variation from the text of Stem- 
hold in the first stanza of the first psalm, which in the 
two editions of 1549 and 1552 reads thus : — 

The nun it Ueft that hath not gon« 

By wicked re<ie aftray, ^ 

lie fat in chayre of peftylence, 
Nor walkte in fynners waye. 

And that the edition of 1562 stood unaltered till 1683, 
as appears by Gby^s copy i^rinted at Oxford in folio 
that year. In 1696 many different readings are found, 
the occasion whereof is said to be this ; about that time 
Mr. Nahum Tate and Dr. Nicholas Brady published 
a new version of part of the book of Psalms as a spe- 
cimen of tint version of the whole which was after- 
wards printed in 1696. In this essay of theirs they, 
in the opinion of many persons, had so much the ad- 
vantage of Stemhold and Hopkins, that the company; 
of stationers, who are possessed of the sole privil^^ 

* Chmeh Hitt of Britain, cent. XVI. book tIL pag. 406. 
t Vocib. behet, rede. 

of printing the Psalms, took the alarm, and found 
themselves under a necessity of meliorating the version 
of the latter, and for this purpose some person endued 
with the faculty of rhyming was employed by them 
in that very year 1696, to correct the versification as 
he should think proper ; and since that time it has 
been still farther varied, as appears by the edition of 
1726, but with little regard to the Hebrew text, at 
the pleasure of the persons from time to time intmsted 
with the care of the publication. 

The effects of these sveral essays towards a re- 
formation of the singing psalms are visible in the 
version now in common use, which being a hetero- 
geneous commixture of old and new words and 
phrases, is but little approved of by those who con- 
sider integrity of style as part of the merit of every 
literary composition, and the result is, that the 
primitive version is now become a subject of mere 
curiosity. The translation of the Psalms into metre 
was the work of men as well qualified for the under- 
taking as any that the times they lived in could 
furnish ; most of those which Norton versified, par- 
ticularly psalms 109. 116, 139, 141, 145 ; and 104, 
119, and 137 by Whittyngham, with a very small 
allowance for the times, must be deemed good, if not 
excellent poetry ; and if we compare the whole work 
with the productions of those days, it will seem that 
Puller has not greatly erred in saying, that match 
these verses for their ages, they shall go abreast with 
the best poems of those times. 

With respect to the version as it stands accom- 
modated to the language of the present times, it may 
be said, that whatever is become of the sense, the 
versification is in some instances mended ; that the 
unmeaning monosyllable eke, a wretched contrivance 
to preserve an equality in the measure of different 
verses,' is totally expunged ; that many tmly obsolete 
words, such as hest for command^ mell for meddle^ 
pight for pitched, Sam for Precept, and many others 
that have gradually receded from their places in 
our language, are reprobated; that many passages 
wherein the Divine Being and his actions are re- 
presented by images that derogate from his majesty, 
as where he is said to hndis the wicked with a macey 
the weapon of a giant, are rendered less exceptionable 
than before; and where he is expostulated with in 
ludicrous terms, as in the following passage : — 

Why dooft withdraw thy hand aback, 

And hide it in thy lappe, 
O pluck it out and be not flack 

To give thy ibes a rappe.:^ 

and this,which for its meanness is not to be defended : — 

For why their hearts were nothing bent 
To him [God] nor to his trade. § 

And where an expression of ridicule is too strongly 
pointed to justify the use of it in an address to God, 
as is this : — 

Confound them that apply, 

And ieeke to worke me flxame, 
And at my harme do laugh, and cry 
So, foy there goeth the game.|| 

X Psalm Ixzir. verae 12. f Psalm IxxviiL verse 37. 
I Psalm Ixx. verse 8. 

Digitized by 




Book XII. 

And where the rhymes are ill sorted like these : — 

Nor how he did commit their fruits 

Unto the caterpiller, 
And all the labour of their lands 

He gave to the graflioppcr.* 

And these others : — 

remembered \ lord \ remember \ 
offended t j world J j ever§ j 

In these several instances the present reading is to 
be preferred, but, after all, what a late author haa 
said of certain of his own works, may with equal 
truth and propriety be applied to the language of 
the modem singing-psalms. ' It not only is such as 

* in the present times is not uttered, but was never 
' uttered in times past ; and if I judge aright, will 
' never be uttered in times future : it having too 
' much of the language of old times to be fit for the 

* present ; too much of the present to have been fit 
' for the old, and too much> of both to be fit for any 
' time to come.' 

There is extant a metrical translation of the Psalms 
by James I. which was printed, together with the 
Common Prayer and Psalter, in 1636, upon the 
resolution taken by Charles I. to establish the liturgy 
in Scotland; some doubt has arisen whether this 
version was ever completed; but, unless credit be 
denied to the assertion of a king, the whole must 
be allowed to be the work of the reputed author, for 
in the printed copy, opposite the title-page is the 
following declaration concerning it : — 
* Charles R. 
'Having caused this translation of thePsalmes 
' (whereof our late dear father was author) to be 
' perused, and it being found exactly and truly 
'done, We do hereby authorize the same to 
' be imprinted according to the patent granted 
' thereupon, and do allow them to be sung in 
' all the churches of our dominions, recommend- 
* ing them to all our good subjects for that effect' 
The Psalms have been either totally or partially 
versified by sundry persons, as namely. Sir Philip 
Sidney, Christopher Hatton, H. Dodd, Dr. Henry 
King, bishop of Chichester, Miles Smith, Dr. Samuel 
Woodford, John Milton, William Barton, Dr. Simon 
Ford, Sir Eichard Blackmore, Dr. John Patrick, Mr. 
Addison, Mr. Archdeacon Daniel, Dr. Joseph Trapp, 
Dr. Walter Harte, Dr. Broome, and many others, 
learned and ingenious men, whose translations are 
either published separately, or lie dispersed in col- 
lections of a miscellaneous nature. There are also 
extant two paraphrases of the Psalms, the one by 
Mr. George Sandys, the other by Sir John Denham. 
The foregoing account respects solely the poetry 
of the English Psalms, and from thence we are 
naturally led to an enquiry concerning the melodies 
to which they now are, and usually have been sung. 
Mention has already been made of certain of these, 
and that they were first published in the version of 
the Psalms by Stemhold and Hopkins, in the year 
1562, by the name of apt notes to sing them withal, 
but as many of them have been altered and sophis- 

• Psalm IxxTiU. Terse 4«* 
I Vi&lm IxxxiiL ver. ult. 

t Psalm xiiL verse 1. 
} Psalm cxix. verse 49. 

ticated, a few of them are here given as they stand 
in that edition, with the numbers of the psalms to 
which they are appropriated : — 


. [ i, ii=f ^^S 


THE man is blest that hath not bent, to wicked 




=H 11^.-^^-^— ff- 

rede his eare : Nor led his life as sinners do, nor sat 

-H 1 1- 


in scomers chaire. But in the law of Grod the Lor d. 



doth set his whole delight: And in that lawe doth 





ex - er - cise himself both day and night. 


THERE is no God, as foolish men affirme in their 


mad moode : Their dnfls are all corrupt and vayn, not 

FP ^ ^=^== F 




one of them doth good. The Lord beheld from heaven 




high, the whole race of mankind : and saw not one 

f^-^Hl-^r±gi? ^> i c £ 

that sought indeed, the liv-ing God to finde. 

PSALM xvni. 







O God my strength and fortitude, of force I must 

love thee: Thou art my castle and defence in my 

Wf= h .:^=.ui-l-l> ! T t: 

ne-ces-si-tie. My God my rocke, in whome I trust, 

ih 1 1 u=^ i^ i t f 

the worker of my wealth : My re-fnge, buckler, and 



my shield, The homo of all ray health. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXVII. 






:t: ^P^=;^=^^ 

LORD, give thy Judgments to the king, therein 


TT Y ^ 



instract him well : And with his sonne, that princely 


- y e » ^ » ■ » » e A - 


thing, Lord, let thy justice dwell. That he may goveme 

HI A I 1 ' t I 'I ^-T-H-T 

uprightly, and rule thy folke a-right ; And so defend 

^ I i A i— T ^ ^ d |[ 

through e - qui - ty, the poor that have no might. 



NOW Is-ra-el may say and that tniely, If that 




the Lord had not our cause maintayned. If that the 




Lord had not our right susteined. When all the world 



:=^=^^ — T i M If 

a-gainst us furiously, made their uprores, and sayd 


we should all dye. 

Besides the tunes to the psalms, there are others 
appropriated to the hymns and eyangelical songs, 
such as Veni Creator, The humble Suit of a Sinner, 
Benedictus, Te Deum, The Song of the three 
Children, Magnificat, Nunc dimittis, Quicunque vult, 
or the Athanasian Creed, the Lamentation of a Sinner, 
the Lord's Prayer, the Decalogue, the Complaint of 
a Sinner, and Robert Wisdome's Prayer, * Preserve 
us Lord by thy dear word ; ' all which are versified 
and have a place in our collection of singing psalms. 

The want of bars, which are a late invention,* 
might make it somewhat difficult to sing these tunes 
in time, and the rather as no sign of the mood ever 
occurs at the head of the first stave ; but in general 
the metre is a sufficient guide. 

With respect to the authors of those original 
melodies, published in the more early impressions 
of the version of Stemhold and Hopkins, we are 

* The use of ban U not to be traced higher than the time when the 
EAglish translation of Adrian le Roy's book on the Tablature was 
publist^, Tiz., the rear 1574; and It was some time after that, before 
the use of bars became general. To come nearer to the point, Barnard's 
Cathedral Music, printed in 1641, is without bars; but bsisaretobe 
fimnd throughout in the Ayres and Dialogues of Henry Lawes published 
in 1653, ftom whence it may be conjectured that we owe to Lawes this 

somewhat to seek ; it is probable that in so important 
a service as this seemed to be, the aid of the ablest 
professors of music was called in, and who were the 
most eminent of that time is easily known ; but 
before we proceed to an enumeration of these, it is 
necessary to mention that some of the original 
melodies were indisputably the work of foreigners : 
the tunes to the hundredth, and to the eighty-first 
psalms are precisely the same with those that answer 
to the hunckedth, and eighty-first in the psalms of 
Goudimel and of Claude le J eune ; aud many of the 
rest are supposed to have come to us from the Low 
Countries. It is said that Dr. Pepusch was wont to 
assert that the hundredth psalm -tune was composed 
by Douland ; but in this he was misunderstood, for 
he could hardly be ignorant of the fact just above- 
mentioned ; nor that in some collections, particularly 
in that of Ravenscroft, printed in 1633, this is called 
the French hundredth psalm-tune ; and therefore he 
might mean to say, not that the melody, but that the 
harmony was of Douland's composition, which is true. 
But if the insertion of this tune in the French col- 
lections be not of itself evidence, a comparison of the 
time when it first appeared in print in England, with 
that of Douland's birth, will go near to put an end to the 
question, and shew that he could hardly be the author 
of it In the prefece to a work entitled * A Pil- 
grimes Solace,' publbhed by Douland himself in 
1612, he tells his reader that he is entered into the 
fiftieth year of his age, and consequently that he was 
bom in 1563 : now the tune in question appears in 
that collection of the singing-psalms above-mentioned 
to have been published m 1577, when he could not 
be much more than fourteen years old ; and if, as 
there is reason to suppose, the tune is more ancient 
than 1577, the difference, whatever it be, will leave 
him still younger. 

Of the musicians that flourished in this country 
about 1562, the year in which the English version 
of the Psalms with the musical notes first made its 
appearance, the principal were Dr. Christopher Tye, 
Marbeck, Tallis, Bird, Shephard, Parsons, and Wil- 
liam Mundy, all men of eminent skill and abilities, 
and, at least for the time, adherents to the doctrines 
of the reformation. 

There is no absolute certainty to be expected in 
this matter, but the reason above given is a ground 
for conjecture that these persons, or some of them, 
were the original composers of such of the melodies 
to the English version of the l^salms as were not 
taken from foreign collections ; it now remains to 
speak of those persons who at different times com- 
posed the harmony to those melodies, and thereby 
fitted them for the performance of such as sung with 
the understanding. 

The first, for aught that appears to the contrary, 
who attempted a work of this kind, seems to have 
been William Damon, of the queen's chapel, a man 
of eminence in his profession, and who as such has 
a place in the Bibliotheca of bishop Tanner. He it 
seems had been importuned by a friend to compose 
parts to the common church psalm-tunes ; and having 
frequent occasion to resort to the house of this person, 

Digitized by 





he 80 far complied with his request, as while he was 
there to compose one or more of the tunes at a time, 
till the whole was completed, intending thereby 
nothing more than to render them fit for tue private 
use of him who had first moved him to the under- 
taking. Nevertheless this friend, without the privity 
of the author, thought fit to publish them with the 
following title : — * The Psalmes of David in Eng- 
' lish meter, with notes of foure partes set unto them 
' by Guilielmo Daman for John Boll,* to the use of 

* the godly Christians for recreating themselves, in- 
' stede of fond and unseemely ballades.' 1579. 

It seems that neither the novelty of this work, nor 
the reputation of its author, which, if we may credit 
another and better friend of his than the former, was 
very great, were sufficient to recommend it : on the 
contrary, he had the mortification to see it neglected. 
For this reason he was induced to undertake the 
labour of recomposing parts, to the number of four, 
to the ancient church-melodies, as well those adapted 
to the hymns and spiritual songs, as the tunes to 
which the psalms were ordisiarily sung. And this 
he completed in so excellent a manner, says the 
publisher, 'that by comparison of these and the 
' former, the reader may by triall see that the auctor 
' could not receive in his art audi a note of disgrace 

* by his friend's oversight before, but that now the 
'same is taken away, and his worthy knowledge 
' much more graced by this second tcavule.' But the 
care of publishing the Psalms thus again composed, 
devolved to anower friend of the author, William 
Swayne, who in the year 1591 gave them to the 
world, and dedicated them to the lord treasutrer 
Burleigh. It is not impossible that either Damon 
himself, or his friend Swayne might buy up, or cause 
to be destroyed what copies of the former impression 
could be got at, for at this day the book is not to be 
found. This of 1591 bears the title of * The former 
' booke of the music of Mr. William Damon, late one 

* of her Majesties musicians, conteyning all the tunes 
' of David's Psalmes as they are ordinarily soung in 

* the church, most excellently by him composed into 
' 4 parts ; in which sett the tenor singeth the church- 
' tune. Publi^ed for the recreation of such as de- 

* lighte in* musicke, by W. Swayne, Gent. Printed 

* for T. Este, the assign^ of W. Byrd, 1591.' 

The same person also published at the same time 
with the same title, ' The second booke of the musicke 
' of M. William I^mon, containing all the tunas of 
' David's Psalms, differing from the former in respect 
' that the highest part singeth the church-tune.' 

The tunes contained in each of these collections 
are neither more nor less than those in the earlier 
impressions of the Psalms, that is to say, exdnsive of 
the hymns and spiritual songs, they are about forfy 
in number ; the author has however managed, by the 
repetition of the words and notes, to make each tune 
near as long again as it stands in the original ; by 
which contrivance it should seem that he intended 
them rather for private practice than the service of 
the church ; which perhaps is the reason that none 

* Called in the vtetace Citezen and Goldsmith of London : thU penon 
oould not be Dr. Boll, who at this time was but aiztoen yeara m age. 
Ward's Lives of Oresh. Prof. pag. 208, in not. 

of them are to be found in any of those collections of 
the Psalms in parts composed by different authors, 
which began to appear about this time. 

By the relation herein before given of the first 
publication of the Psalms in metre with musical 
notes, and the several melodies herein inserted, it 
appears that the original music to the English Psalms 
was of that unisonous kind, in which only a popular 
congregation are supposed able to join. But the 
science had received such considerable improvements 
about the beginning of the seventeenth century, and 
the people by that time were so much accustomed to 
symphoniac harmony, that a facility in singing was 
no longer a recommendation of church tunes. 

At this time cathedral and collegiate churches, 
and above all, the royal chapels, were the principal 
seminaries of musicians. The simplicity and par- 
simony that distinguished the theatrical represent- 
ations afforded no temptation to men of that pro- 
fession to deviate from the original design of their 
education or employment, by lending their assistance 
to the stage ; the consequence hereof was, that for 
the most part they were men of a devout and serious 
turn of mind, with leisure to study, and a disposition 
to employ their skill in celebrating the praises of 
their Maker. 

It was natural for men of this character to reflect 
that as much attention at least was due to the music 
of the church as had been shown to that of the 
chamber; the latter had derived great advantages 
from the use of symphoniac harmony ; whereas tho 
former had been at a stand for near half a centur}*^ ; 
and though it might be a question with some, 
whether die singing of the Psalms in parts was not 
in effect an exclusion of the majority of every con- 
gregation in the kingdom from that part of divine 
service ; it is to be noted that neither the law Qor 
the rubric of our liturgy gives any directions in what 
manner the Psalms of David are to be sung in divine 
service; and that they had the example of foreign 
churches, particularly that of Geneva, between which 
and our own there was then a better understanding 
than is likely ever to be again, to authorize the 

In short, with a view to promote the practice of 
psalmody, as well in churches as in private houses, 
the most eminent musicians of queen Elizabeth's 
time undertook and completed a collection of the 
ancient church-tunes, composed in four parts, and in 
counterpoint In the execution of which purpose 
it is plain that they had the example of Goudimel 
and Claude le Jeune in view ; and that their design 
was not an elaborate display of their own invention, 
in such an artificial commixture of parts, as should 
render these compositions the admiration of the pro- 
foundly learned in the science, but an addition of 
such plain and simple harmony to the common 
church-tunes, as might delight and edify those for 
whose benefit they were originally composed; and 
hence arose the practice, which in many country 
churches prevails even at this day, of singing tho 
Psalms, not by the whole of the congregation, but 
by a few select persons sufficiently skilled in music 
to sing each by himself, the part assigned him. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXVIL 



The names of those puhlio-spiritod persons who first 
nndertook the work of composing the psolm-tunes in 
parts, is preserved in a collection, of which it is here 
meant to give more than a superficial account, as 
well on the score of its antiquity, as of its merit, 
namely, ' The whole booke of Psalmes, with their 
wonted tunes as they are sung in churches, com- 
posed into foure parts by X sondry authors ; im- 
printed at London by Thomas Est, 1594/ These 
authors were John Bouland, E. Blancks, E. Hooper, 
J. Farmer, R Allison, G. Kirby, W. Cobbold, 
E. Johnson, and G. Famaby, who in the title page 
are said to have ' so laboured in this worke that the 
' unskilful by small practice may attaine to sing 
' that part which is fittest for their voice.** 

The book is very neatly printed in the size and 
form of a small octavo, with a dedication by the 
printer Thomas Est, to Sir John Puckering, knight, 
lord keeper of the great seal of England, wherein we 
are told, ' that in the booke the church-tunes are 
'carefully corrected, and other short tunes added, 
' which are sung in London, and most places of this 
* realme.* 

The former publications consisting, as already has 
been mentioned, of the primitive melodies, and those 
to the amount of forty only, gave but one tune to 
divers psalms ; this of Est appears to be as copious . 
as need be wished, and to contain at least as many 
tunes as there are psalms, all of which are in four 
parts, in a pitch for and with the proper cliffs to 
denote the cantus, altus, tenor, and bass, as usual 
in such compositions. It is to be observed, that 
throughout the book the church-tune, as it is called, 
holds the place of the tenor ; and as the structure of 
the compositions is plain counterpoint, the additional 
parts are merely auxiliary to that, which for very 
good reasons is and ought to be deemed the principal. 
It may here be proper to remark, that although in 
these tunes the church-tune is strictly adher^ to, 
80 far as relates to the progression of the notes, yet 
here for the first time we meet with an innovation, 
by the substituting semitones for whole tones in 
almost every instance where the close is made by an 
ascent to the final note ; or, in other words, in form- 
ing the cadence the authors have made use of the 
sharp seventh of the key ; which is the more to be 
wondered at, because in vocal compositions of a much 
later date than this, we find the contrary practice to 
prevail ; for though the coming at the close by a 
whole tone below be extremely offensive to a nice 
ear, and there seems to be a kind of necessity for the 
use of the acute signature to the note below the 
cadence, yet it seems that the ancient composers, who 
by the way made not so free with this character as 
their successors, particularly the composers of instru- 
mental music, left this matter to the singer, trusting 
that his ear would direct him in the utterance to 
prefer the half to the whole tone. 

But these compositions, however excellent m 

* In the titlft-pagtt Est is described as dwelling in Aldengate-street, 
at the sign af the Black Horse. He therein styles himself the assign^ 
nf William Bird, who with TaUis, as before observed, had a Joint patent 
from qnecu Elizabeth for the sole printing of music. Tallis died first, 
and this patent, the first of the kind, survived to Bird, who probably ior 
A valuable consideration might assign it to Est. 

themselves, were not intended for those alone whose 
skill in the art would enable them to sing with pro- 
priety ; they were, though elegant, simple ; in short, 
suited to the capacities of the unlearned and the 
rude, who sung them thea just as the unlearned 
and the rude of this day do. 

If then it was found by experience that the com- 
mon ear was not a sufficient guide to the true singing 
of the ancient melodies, it was very natural for those 
who in the task they had undertj^en of composing 
parts to them, were led to the revisal of the originals 
by the insertion of the character above-mentioned, to 
rectify an abuse in the exercise of psalm-singing, 
which the authors were not aware of, and consequently 
had not provided against 

About five years after the publication of die Psalms 
by Est, there aj^^eared a collection in folio, entitled, 
' The Psalmes of David in meter, the plaine song 
' beinge the common tune to be sung and plaide upon 
' the lute, orpharion, citteme, or baae vioU, severally 
' or altogether, the singing part to be either t^or or 
' treble to the instrument, according to the nature of 
*the voyce; or for foure voyces, with tenne short 
' tunes in the end, to which for the most part all the 
' psalmes may be usually sung, for the use of such as 
* are of mean skill, and whose leysure least servetii 
' to practize. By Richard Allison, Gent, practitioner 
'in the art of musicke, and are to be sold at his 
' house in the Dukes place neere Aldgate. Printed 
' by William Barley, Uie assign^ of Thomas Morley, 
' 1599, cum privilegio regisd majestatis.' 

The above book is dedicated ' to the right honour- 
' able and most virtuous lady the lady Anne (3oun- 
'tesse of Warwicke.' Immediately following the 
dedication are three copies of verses, die first by John 
Douland, bachelor of musicke ; the second a sonnet 
by William Leighton, esquire, afterwards Sir William 
Leighton, and the third by John Welton, all in co»- 
mendation of the author and his most excellent 
woike. This collection being intended chiefly for 
chamber practice, the four parts are sp disposed in 
the page, as that four persons sitting round a table 
may sing out of the same book ; and it is observable 
that the author has made the plain-song or church- 
tune the cantus piurt, which part being intended as 
well for the lute or cittern, as the voice, is given 
also in those characters called the tablature, which 
are peculiar to those instruments. 

There are no original melodies in this collection : 
the author confining himself to the church-tunes, has 
taken those of the hymns and spiritual songs and 
psalms as they occur in the earlier editions of the 
version by 8temhold and Hopkins. 

To this collection of Allison succeeded another in 
1621, with the title of ' The whole book of Psalmes 
' with the hymnes evangelicall and songs spiritnaU, 
' composed into four parts by sundry authors, to such 
' severall tunes as have beeno and are usually sung 
*in England, Scodand, Wales, Germany, Italy, 
' France, and the Netherlands. By Thomas B«« 
'venscroft. Bachelor of Musicke,' in which is in* 
serted the following list of the names of the authors 
who composed the tunes of the psalms into four 

Digitized by 




Book XII. 

parts : 'Thomas Tallis, John Douland, doctor of 
•Muflicke,* Thomas Morley, bachelor of Musicke, 

* Giles Farnaby, bachelor of Musicke, Thomas Tom- 

* kins, bachelor of Musicke, John Tomkins, bachelor 
' of Musicke, Martin Pierson, bachelor of Musicke, 
' William Parsons, Edmund Hooper, George Kirby, 
'Edward Blancks, Richard Allison, John Farmer, 
'Michael Cavendish, John Bennet, Robert Palmer, 
'John Milton, Simon Stubbs, William Cranford, 
'William Harrison, and Thomas Ravenscroft the 
' compiler.' 

In this collection, as in that of Est, the common 
church-tune is the tenor part, which for distinction 
sake, and to shew its pre-eminence over the rest, is 
here in many instances called the tenor or plain- 
song, and not unfrequently tenor or faburden.f Some 
of the tunes in the former collection, as that to the 
sixth psalm by George Kirby, that to the eighteenth 
by WilKam Cobbold, and that to the forty-first by 
Edward Blancks, are continued in this ; but the far 
greater part are composed anew, and many tunes are 
added, the melodies whereof are not to be found in 
any other collection; and here we have the origin 
of a practice respecting the names of our copimon 
church tunes, that prevails among us to this day, 
namely the distinguishing them by the name or 
adjunct of a particular city, as Canterbury, York, 
Rochester, and many others. It was much about 
the time of the publication of this book that king 
Charles I. was prevailed on by the clergy to attempt 
the establishment of the liturgy in Scotland ; and 
perhaps it was with a view to humour the people 
of that kingdom that some of these new-composed 
tunes were called by the names of Dumferling, 
Dundee, and Glasgow. 

Among the new composed tunes in this collection, 
that is to say such as have new or original melodies, 
the composition of the author whose name they bear, 
is that well-known one called York-tune, as also 
another called Norwich-tune, to both whereof is 
prefixed the name of John Milton ; this person was 
no other than the father of our great poet of that 
name. The tune above spoken of called York-tune, 
occurs in four several places in Ravenscroft*s book, 
for it is given to the twenty-seventh, sixty-sixth, and 
one hundred and thirty-eighth psalms, and also to 
a prayer to the Holy Ghost, among the spiritual 
songs at the end of Uie book ; but it is remarkable 
that the Author has chosen to vary the progression of 
the notes of one of the parts in the repetition of the 
tune; for the medius, as it stands to the words of 
the one hundred and thirty -eighth psalm, and of the 
prayer above-mentioned, is very different from the 
same part applied to those of the twenty-seventh 
and sixty-sixth. 

Although the name of Tallis, to dignify the work, 
stands at the head of the list of the persons who 
composed the tunes in this collection, the only com- 
position of his that occurs in it is a canon of two 
parts in one, to the words ' Praise the Lord, ye 

* In the Fasti Oxon. it ft noted that Douland was admitted to a 
bachelor't degree at Oxford, 8 July 1588, but it does not appear that he 
"WM ever created doctor. 

t Of the term F ABtru>xv, see an explanation In page 250 of this work. 

'Gentiles;* and many of the* tunes in Allison's col- 
lection are taken into this. Ravenscroft was a man 
of great knowledge in his profession, and has disco- 
vered little less judgment in selecting the tunes than 
the authors did in composing them^ 

Ravenscroffs book was again published in 1633, 
and having passed many editions, it became the 
manual of psalm-singers throughout the kingdom; 
and though an incredible number of collections of 
this kind have from time to time been published, the 
compilations of those illiterate and conceited fellows 
who call themselves singing-masters and lovers of 
psalmody, and of divine music, yet even at this day 
he is deemed a happy man in many places, who is 
master of a genuine copy of Ravenscroft's psalms. 

The design of publishing the Psalms in the man- 
ner above related was undoubtedly to preserve the 
ancient church-tunes ; but notwithstanding the care 
that was taken in this respect, the same misfortune 
attended them as had formerly befallen the eccle- 
siastical tones ; and to this divers causes contributed, 
for first, notwithstanding the pains that had been 
taken by the publication of the Introduction into 
the Science of Musike, prefixed to the earlier copies 
of the Psalms in metre, to instruct the common 
people in the practice of singing, these instructions 
were in fact intelligible to very few except the mi- 
nister and parish clerk, for we grossly mistake the 
matter if we suppose that at that time of day many 
of the congregation besides, could understand them. 
In consequence of this general ignorance, the know- 
ledge of music was not so disseminated among them 
but that the poor and ruder sort fell into the usual 
mistake of flat for sharp and sharp for flat. 

Another cause that contributed to the comiption 
and consequent disuse of the church tunes, was the 
little care taken in the turbulent and distracted times 
immediately following the accession of Charles I. 
to appoint such persons for parish-clerks as were 
capable of discharging the duty of the office. The 
ninety-first of the canons, made in the year 1603, 
had provided that parish-clerks should be sufficient 
in reading and writing, and also of competent skill 
in singing; but it is well known that instead of 
rendering obedience to canons, those who at that 
time were uppermost denied their efficacy. Nay, in 
cases where a reason for the omission of a thing was 
wanting, it was thought a good one to say that the 
doing it was enjoined by the authority of the church. 

The recognition of the office of a parish-clerk by 
the church, and its relation to psalmody, naturally 
lead us to enquire into the nature of that function, 

t It is in this collection of Ravenscroft that we first meet with the 
tunes to which the Psalms are now most commonly sung in the parish 
churches of this kingdom, for excepting those to the eighty.first, 
hundredth, and hundred and nineteenth psalms, the ancient melodies 
have given place to others of a newer and much inferior composition. 
The names of these new tunes, to give them in alphabetical order, 
are, Bath and Wells or Glastonbury, Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury, 
Chichester, Christ's hospital, Ely, Exeter, Gloucester, Hereford, Lincoln, 
Litchfield and Coventrr, London, Norwich, Oxford, Peterborough, 
Rochester, Salisbury, Winchester, Windsor or Eaton, Worcester, Wol- 
verhampton ; and, to give what are styled northern tunes, iu the same 
order, they are Carlisle, Chester, Durham, Manchester. Southwell, and 
York. The Scottish tunes are Abbey-tune, Duke's. Dumferling, Dundee, 
Glasgow, Kings and Martyrs ; and the Welch, St. Asaph, Bangor, St. 
David's, Landaff, and Ludlow : so that the antiquity of these may be 
traced back to the year 1621. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OXVIL 



and the origin of the corporation of parish-clerks 
which has long existed in London.* Anciently 
parish-clerks were real clerks, but of the poorer sort; 
and of these every minister had at least one, to assist 
tinder him in the celebration of divine offices. By 
a constitution of Boniface archbishop of Canterbury, 
A. D. 1261, 45 Hen. III. it is ordained that the 
officer for the holy water shall be a poor clerk ; and 
hence a poor clerk officiating under the minister is 
by the Canonists termed Aquflsbajnlus, a water-bearer. 
In the Register of archbishop Courtney the term 
occurs; and notwithstanding he was maintained by 
the parishioners, he was appointed to the office by 
the minister ; and this right of appointment, founded 
on the custom of the realm, is there declared, and 
has in many instances been recognized by the common 
law. The offices in which the clerk was anciently 
exercised must be supposed to have respected the 
church-service, as the carrying and sprinkling holy 
water unquestionably did ; and we are farther told 
that they were wont to attend great funerals, going 
before the hearse, and singing, with their surplices 
hanging on their arms, till they came to the church. 
Nevertheless we find that in the next century after 
making the above constitution, they were employed 
in ministring to the recreation, and, it may perhaps 
be said, in the instruction of the common people, by 
the exhibition of theatrical spectacles ; and as touch- 
ing these it seems here necessary to be somewhat 

And first we are to know that in the infancy of 
the English drama, the people, instead of theatrical 
ehows, were wont to be entertained with the re- 
presentation of scripture histories, or of some remark- 
able events taken from the legends of saints, martyrs, 
and confessors; and this fact is related by Fitz- 
Stephen, in his description of the city of London, 
printed in the later editions of Stow's Survey, in 
these words : * Lundonia pro spectaculis theatralibus, 

* pro ludis scenicis, ludos habet sanctiores, repre- 
' sentationes miraculorum, qusa sancti Confessores 
^ operati sunt, sen representationes Passionum, quibus 
' claruit constantia Martjrrum.* 

The same author, speaking of the Wells near 
London, says that on the north side thereof is a well 
called Clarks-Well ; and Stow, assigning the reason 
for this appellation, furnishes us with a curious fact 
relating to the parish-clerks of London, the subject 
of the present enquiry; his words are these: 'Clarks- 
' well took its name of the parish-clerks in London, 
' who of old time were accustomed there yearly to 
'assemble, and to play some large history of holy 

* scripture for example, of later time, to wit, in the 
' year 1390, the 14th of Richard the Second, I read 

* that the parish-clerks in London on the 18th of 

* July plaid Enterludes at Skinners-well near unto 

* Clarks-well, which play continued three days to- 

* gether, the king, queen, and nobles being present 

* Also in the year 1409, the tenth of Henry the 
'Fourth, they played a play at the Skinners-well, 

• The office eeenu to have spmng out of that of Deaeont, for in the earUf 
oge$ of Cristianily the Deacon* exercised the functions thereof t helping the 
Priest in divine service. The subdeaeons gave out the Psalms. Weever's 
Fun. Mon. 127, from the Summa Angeliea Litera D. 

* which lasted eight days, and was of matter from the 
' creation of the world ; there were to see the same 
'most part of the nobles and gentiles in England.* f 

It is to be remarked that Fitz- Stephen does not 
speak of the acting of histories as a new thing, for 
the passage occurs in his account of the sports and 
pastimes in common use among the people in his 
time ; and therefore the antiquity of these spectacles 
may with good reason be extended as far back as to 
the time of the Conquest Of this kind of drama 
there are no specimens extant so ancient as the re- 
presentation first above spoken of, but there are others 
in being, of somewhat less antiquity, from which we 
are enabled to form a judgment of their nature and 

The anonymous author of a dialogue on old plays 
and old players, printed in the year 1699, speaks of 
a manuscript in the Cotton library, intitled in the 
printed catalogue 'A collection of Plays in old 
' English Metre ;':( and conjectures that this may be 
the very play which Stow says was acted by the 
parish-clerks in t^e reign of Henry IV. and took up 
eight days in the representation; and it must be 
confessed that the conjecture of the author above- 
mentioned seems to be well warranted. By the 
character and language of the book it seems to be 
upwards of three hundred years old : it begins with 
a general prologue, giving the arguments of forty 
pageants or gesticulations, which are as so many 
several acts or scenes representing all the histories 
of both Testaments, from the creation to the choosing 
of St. Matthias to be an apostle. The stories of the 
New Testament are more largely related, viz., the 
Annunciation, Nativity, Visitation, the Passion of our 
Lord, his Resurrection, and Ascension, and the choice 
of St Matthias. After which is also represented 
the Assumption and Last Judgment. The style of 
these compositions is as simple and artless as can be 
supposed ; nothing can be more so than the following 
dialogue : — 


But hufband of a thyng pray yon moft mekely, 
I have knowing that your cofyn Elifabeth with childe is, 
That it pleafe yow to go to her haftyly : 
If ought we myght comfort her it were to me biys. 

A Goddys fake it ihe with child, fhe ? 
Than will hir huiband 21achary be mery ; 
In Monune they dwelle, ^r hencee (b mot yt be 
In the city of Juda, I know it verily 5 
It is hence I trowe myles two a fifty, 
We are like to be wery or we come of the fame 5 
I wole with a good wyll bleflyd wyff Mary 
Now go we forth then in Goddys name, &c. 

A little before the Resurrection. 

Nunc dormient milites et veniet anima Ghristi de 

inferno, cum Adam et Eva, Abraham, John Baptist, 

et aliis. 

t Survey of London, 4to. 1603, pag. 15. 

X Sir William Ducdale, In his Antiquities of Warwickshire, pag. 1 16, 
cites It by the title of Ludus Coventrise. The following is the title as it 
stands in the Catalogus Libror. Manuscript. Blblioth. Cotton, pag. 118. 
' VIII. A Collection of Plays In old English Metre, h. e. Dramata sacra, 
'in quibus exhibentur histories veteris et N. Testamenti introductls 
' quasi in scenam personis illic niemoratis, quas secum iuTicem coUo- 

* quentes pro ingenio fingit Poeta videntur olim coram populo, sive ad 
'instruendum sWe ad placendum, k fVatibus mendieantlbus reprse- 

* sentata.' 

Digitized by 




Book XIL 

Come forth Adam and Eve with the, 
And all my fryendcs that herein be 
In paradyfe come forth with me, 

In blyiTe for to dwell : 
The fende of hell that is your foo, 
He ihall be wrappyd and woundyn in woo, 
Fro wo to welth, now (hall ye go. 
With myrth ever mo to mellc. 

I thank the Lord of thy grete grace, 
That now is forgiven my gret trelpace, 
Now fhall we dwell yn blyiTful place. 

The last scene or pageant, whicli represents the 
day of Judgment, begins thus : — 

Surgittt All men aryfe, 
Venite ad judicium^ 
For now is fet the high juftice. 
And hath aflignyd the day of dome; 
Kepe you redyly to this grett aiTyfe, 
Both grett and fmall, all and fum, 
And of your anfwer you now advil'e. 
What yow ihall fay when that yow come, &c« 

Mysteries and moral ites appear to have constituted 
another species of the ancient drama ; the first seem 
to have been representations of the most interesting 
events in the gospel -history ; one of this kind, in- 
titled Candlemas-Day, or the Killing of the Children 
of Israel, is among the Bodleian manuscripts, and 
was bequeathed to the university by Sir Kenelm 
Digby ; the name of its author was Jhan Parfre, and 
it appears to have been composed in the year 1512. 

The subject of this drama is tragical, notwith- 
standing which there are in it several touches of that 
low humour, with which the common people are ever 
delighted ; for in it the poet has introduced a servant 
of iSerod, whom he calls Watkyn the messenger. 
This fellow, who is represented as cruel, and at the 
same time a great coward, gives Herod to understand 
that three strangers, knights, as he calls them, had 
been to make cofl&ns at Bethlehem ; upon which 
Herod swears he will be avenged upon Israel, and 
commands four of his soldiers to slay all the children 
they shall find within two years of age; which 
Watkyn hearing, intreats of Herod first that he may 
be made a knight, and next that he may be permitted 
to join the soldiers, and assist them in the slaughter. 
This request being granted, a pause ensues, the reason 
whereof will be best understood by the following 
stage-direction : Here the knyghts wallce abought the 
place till Mary and Jofeph be convcicd into Egipt. 

Mary and Joseph are then exhorted by an angel 
to fly, and they resolve on it. The speech of Joseph 
concludes thus : — 

Mary, you to do pkafaunce without any' let, 
I fhall brynge forth your afle without more delay, 
Ful foone Mary thereon ye ihall be fett. 
And this litel child that in your wombe lay, 
Take hym in your armys Mary I you pray, 
And of your fwete mylke let him fowke inowe. 
Mawger Herowd and hit grett fray : 
Aad as your fpoufe Mary I iball go with you. 

Thb ferdell of gere I ley upon my bakJce; 
Now I am redv to go from this cuntre. 
All my fmalc inftruments is put in my pakke. 

Now go we hens, Mary it will no better be. 
For drede of Herowd apaas I high me ^ 
Lo now is our geer trufTed both more and lefle, 
Mary for to plefe you with all humylitc, 
I ihall go be^re, and lede forth your affe. 

Et exeunt. 

Then begins the slaughter, represented in the fol- 
lowing dialogue : — 


Herke, ye wyfl^, we be come your hou(hold to vifite, 
Though ye be never Co wrath nor wood, 
With iharpe fwoords that redely wyll byte. 
All your cbyldren within to yean age in our cruel mood 
Thuighe out all Bethleem to kylle and ihed ther yong blood 
As we be bound to the commaundement of the king. 
Who that feith nay, we (hall make a flood 
To renne in the ftreds by ther blood ihedyng. 

Therefor unto us make ye a delyverance 
Of your yong children and that anon; 

Or ells be Mahounde we fhall gere a myichaunce. 
Our iharpe fwerds thurgh your bodies ihall goon. 

Thcrfor be ware for we wyll not leve oon 
In all this cuntre that ihall us eicape, 
I ihall rather flee them ererych oon. 
And make them to lye and mowe like an ape. 


Fye on you traitors of cruel tormentrye, 
Wiche with your fwerds of mortall violens^— 


Our young children that can no focoure but crie, 
Wyll fle and devour in ther innocens. 


Ye falfe traitors unto God ye do grete oflTcns 
To flee and morder yong children that in the cradell flumbcr; 


But we women ihall make ageyns you reiiflens, 
After our power your malyce to encombcr. 

Peas yon folyflie quenys, wha ihuuld you deiende, 
Ageyns us armyd men in this apparaile ? 
We be bold men asd the kyng us ded fende, 
Hedyr into this cuntre to holde with you battaile. 


Fye upon thee coward : of thee I will not feile 
To dubbe thee knyght with my rokke rounde. 
Women be ferie when thei lift to aflGule, 
Suche proude boyes to cafte to the grounde. 

Avannt, ye ikowtys, I deiyc you crerych one, 

For I wole bete you all mylelf alone. 

[Watkyn hie occidet per se.] 


Alas, alas good cofynes, this is a forowfull peyn 
To fe our dere children that be fo yong. 
With theic caytyres thus fodeynly to be flayn ; 
A vengeaunce I aike on them all for this grett wrong. 


And a very myfcheflf mut come them amonge, 
Wherefo ever thei be come or goon. 
For thei have killed my yong fone John. 


GofHppts, a fliamefull deth I aflce upon Herowde our kyng. 
That thus r^-goroufly our chyldren hath flayn. 

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I pray God bryng hym to an ille endyng, 
And in helle pytte to dwelle ever in peyn. 

What ye harlotts ? I have afpied certeyn 
That ye be tratorys to my lord the kyng, 
And therfor I am fure ye fhall have an ille endyng. 

If ye abide, Watkyn, you and I fliall game 
With my diibffe that a To rounde. 

And yf I Teas, thanne have I (hame, 
Tyll thu be fellid down to the grounde. 

And I may gete the within my boande, 
With this ftaffe I ihall make thee lame. 


Yee I come no more ther, be feynt Mahound, 
For if I do, methyiffceth I flull be made tame. 


Abydc, Watkyn, I fliall make thee a knyght. 

Thu make me a knyght ! that were on the newe 
fiut for fhame my trouthe I you plight, 
I (hud bete your bak and fide tyll it were blewe. 
But be my god Mahounde that b fo true, 
My hert bsgynne to fayle and waxeth feynt, 
Or ells be Mahounds blood ye ihuld it rue. 
But ye (hall lofe your goods as traitors atteynt. 

What thu jabell, canft not have do? 
Thu and thi cumpany, flull not depart, 
Tyll of our diftavys ye have take part : 
Therfor ley on gofBppes with a mery hart. 
And lett them not from us goo. 

Here the! ihall bete Watkyn, and the knyghts fhall come to 
refcoe hym, and than thei go to Herowds hous. 

Of Moralities, a species of the drama differing 
from the former, there are many yet extant, the titles 
whereof may be seen in Ames's Typographical An- 
tiquities ; the best known of them are one entitled 
Every Man, Lnstie Juventus, and Hycke Scomer, an 
accnrate analysis of which latter, Dr. Percy has given 
in his Reliqnes of ancient English Poetry, voL L 
pag. 130. 

That such representations as these, namely, his- 
tories, mysteries, and moralities, were frequent, wo 
may judge from the great number of them jet ex- 
tant, and irom the fondness which the people of this 
country have ever manife^d for theatrical enter- 
tainments of all kinds ; and that the parish-clerks of 
all other persons should betake themselves to the 

profession of players, by exhibiting such as these to 
the public, will not be wondered at, when it is re- 
membered that besides themselves, few of the laity, 
excepting the lawyers and physicians, were able to 
read ; and it might be for this reason that even the 
priests themselves undertook to personate a character 
m this kind of drama. 

Of the fraternity of parish-clerks, Strype, in his 
edition of Stowe's Survey, book V. pag. 231, gives 
the following account : * They were a guild or fra- 

* ternity first incorporated by EL Hen. III. known 

* then by the name of the brotherhood of St Nicholas, 
'whose hall was near St Helens by Bishopsgate 
' street, within the gate, at the sign of the Angel, 
' where the parish-clerks had seven alms-houses for 
' poor clerks' widows, as Stow shews. Unto this 
'fraternity men and women of the first quality, 
'ecclesiastical and others, joined themselves, who 
'as they were great lovers of church -music in 
'general, so their beneficence unto parish -clerks 
' in particular is abundantly evident, by some ancient 
' manuscripts at their oonmion hall in Great Wood 
'street, wherein foot-stepe of their great bounty 
'appear by the large gifts and revenues given for 
' the maintenance and encouragement of such as 
' should devote themselves to the study and practice 
' of this noble and divine science, in which the parish- 
' clerks did then excel, singing being their peculiar 
' province. 

'Some certain days in the year they had their 
'public feasts, which they celebrated with singing 
' and music, and then received into their society such 
' persons as delighted in singing, and were studious 
'of it These their meetings and performances 
'were in Guildhall college or chapeL Thus the 
' 27th of September, 1560, on the eve thereof they 
'had even-song, and on the morrow there was a 
' communion ; and after they had retired to Car- 
' penter's-hall to dinner. And May 11, 1562, they 
' kept their communion at the said Guildhall chapel, 
' and received seven persons into their brotherhood, 
' and then repaired to their own hall to dinner, and 
' after dinner a goodly play of the children of West- 
' minster, with waits and regals and singing. 

' King Charles I. renewed their charter, and con- 
' ferred upon them very ample privileges and im- 
' munities, and incorporated them by the style and 
' title of the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of 
' Parish-Clerks, of the city and suburbs of London 
' and the liberties thereof, the city of W'estminster, 
'the borough of Southwark, and the fifteen out- 
' parishes adjacent' 


Thb principles of music, and the precepts of musical 
composition, as taiught in the several countries of 
Europe about the middle of the sixteenth century, 
were uniformly the same ; the same harmonies, the 
same modulations were practised in the compositions 
of the Flemish, the Italian, the German, the French, 
and the English musicians; and nothing character- 

istic of the genius or humour of a particular country 
or province, as was once the case of the Moorish and 
Provencal music, was discernible in the songs of that 
period, except in those of the Scots and Irish, the 
former whereof are in a style so peculiar, as borrow- 
ing very little from art, and yet abounding in that 
sweetness of melody, which it is the business of art 

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Book XIII. 

to cultivate and improve, that we are driven to seek 
for the origin of this kind of music elsewhere than 
in the writings of those authors who have treated on 
the subject in general terms. 

To speak of the Scots music in the first place; 
the common opinion is that it has received a con- 
siderable degree of infusion from the Italians, for 
that David Ricci or Rizzio, a lutenist of Turin, in 
the year 1664, became a favourite of Mary queen of 
Scots, and was retained in her service as a musician ; 
and finding the music of the country of such a kind 
as rendered it susceptible of great improvement, he 
set himself to polish and refine it ; and adopting, as 
far as the rules of his art would allow, that desultory 
melody, which he found to be its characteristic, com- 
posed most of those tunes to which the Scots songs 
have for two centuries past, been commonly sung. 

Against this opinion, which has nothing to support 
it but vulgar tradition, it may be urged that David 
Ricci was not a composer of any kind. The historians 
and others who speak of him represent him as 
a lutenist and a singer ; and Sir James Melvil, who 
was personally acquainted with him, vouchsafes him 
no higher a character than that of a merry fellow, 
and a good musician. * Her majesty,* says he, * had 

* three valets of her chamber, who sang three parts, 
' and wanted a bass to sing the fourth part. There- 

* fore they told her majesty of this man, as one fit 

* to make the fourth in concert. Thus was he drawn 
' in to sing sometimes with the rest ; and afterward 
' when her French secretary retired himself to France, 

* this David obtained the same office.** 

Melvil, in the course of his Memoirs, relates that 
Ricci engrossed the favour of the queen ; that he 
was suspected to be a pensioner of the pope; and 
that by the part he took in all public transactions, he 
gave rise to the troubles of Scotland, and precipitated 
the ruin of his mistress. 

Buchanan is somewhat more particular; the ac- 
count he gives is, that Ricci was born at Turin; 
that his father, an honest but poor man, got a mean 
livelihood by teaching young people the rudiments 
of music. That having no patrimony to leave them, 
he instructed his children of both sexes in music, 
and amongst the rest his son David, who being in 
the prime of his youth, and having a good voice, 
gave hopes of his succeeding in that profession. 
That with a view to advance his fortune, Ricci went 
to the court of the duke of Savoy, then at Nice ; but 
meeting with no encouragement there, found means 
to get himself, admitted into the train of the Count 
de Moretto, then upon the point of setting out on an 
embassy to Scotland. That the Count, soon after 
his arrival in Scotland, having no employment for 
Ricci, dismissed him. The musicians of IViary queen 
of Scots were chiefly such as she had brought with 
her from France, on the death of the king her hus- 
band; and with these, as Buchanan relates, Ricci 
ingratiated himself by singing and playing among 
them, till he was taken notice of by the queen, soon 
after which he was retained in her service as a singer. 
From this station, by means of flattery and the most 

• Memoirs of Sir Jamei Melvil of Halhlll, 8to. Lond. 1752, pag. 107. 

abject arts of insinuation, he rose to the highest 
degree of favour and confidence; and being appointed 
her secretary for French affairs, became absorbed in 
the intrigues of the court, in the management whereof 
he behaved with such arrogance and contempt, even 
of his superiors, as rendered him odious to dl about 
him.f The rest of his history is well known; he 
grew rich, and his insolence drawing on him the 
hatred of the Scottish nobility, he was on the ninth 
day of March, in the year 1666, dragged from the 
presence of the queen into an outer chamber of the 
palace, and there slain. 

In such an employment as Ricci had, and with all 
that variety of business in which he must be supposed 
to have been engaged, actuated by an ambitious and 
intriguing spirit, that lefl him neither inclination nor 
opportunities for study, can it be thought that the 
reformation or improvement of the Scots music was 
his care, or indeed that the short interval of two 
years at most, afforded him leisure for any such 
undertaking ? In fact, the origin of those melodies, 
which are the subject of the present enquiry, is to 
be derived from a higher source ; and so far is it 
from being true, that the Scots music has been melio- 
rated by the Italian, that the converse of the propo- 
sition may be assumed ; and, however strange it 
may seem, an Italian writer of great reputation and 
authority has not hesitated to assert that some of the 
finest vocal music that his country can boast of, 
owes its merit in a great measure to its affinity with 
the Scots. 

To account for that singularity of style which 
distinguishes the Scottish melodies, it may be ne- 
cessary to recur to the account given by Giraldus 
Cambrensis of the music of the inhabitants of the 
northern parts of this kingdom, particularly near 
the Humber; and to advert to that passage in the 
ecclesiastical history of Bede, wherein he relates the 
arrival of John the Archchanter from Rome, his 
settlement among the Northumbrians ; and the pro- 
pensity of that people to music ;X whose sequestered 
situation, and tiie little intercourse they must be 
supposed to have held with the adjacent countries, 
will account for the existence of a style in music 
truly original, and which might in process of time 
extend itself to the neighbouring kingdom. § 

t Bachan. Rer. Scotic. Hist. lib. xvii. } See pag. 1S8 of this work. 

< The ancient Scotch tunes seem to consist of the pure diatonic inter- 
vals, without any intermixture of those chromatic notes, as they are 
called, which in the modem system divide the diapason into twelve 
semitones ; and in favour of this notion it may be observed that the 
front row of a harpsichord will give a melody nearly resemblhig that of 
the Scots tunes. But the distinguishing characteristic of the Scots 
music is the firequent and uniform iteiation of the concords, more 
especially the third on the accented part of the bar, to the almost total 
exclusion of the second and the seventh ; of which latter interval it may 
be remarked, that it occurs seldom as a semitone, even where It precedes 
a cadence ; perhaps because there are but few keys in which the final 
note is preceded by a natural semitone ; and this consideration will also 
Aimish the reason whv the Scots tunes so fluently close in a leap from 
the key-note to the fifth above. The particulars above remarked are 
obvious in those two famous tunes Katherine Ogle and Cold and raw, 
which are unquestionably ancient, and in the true Scots style. Tht com- 
ttruetion of the old Scotch tune$ it this, that almost every succeeding em- 
phatical note is a third, a fifth, an octave, or, in short, some note thai is in 
concord with the preceding note. Thirds are ehi^tf need; which are cerf 
pleasing concords. I we the word emphatical to distingtUsh those notes 
which have a stress laid on them in singing the tune, firom the lighter con- 
necting notes, that serve merelg like grammar articles in common speech to 
tack the whole together. 

When we consider how these ancient tunes were first performed, we shall 
see that such harmanieal succession of sounds was natural and even necessary 

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Ohap. OXVIII. 



How long it was that the popular melodies of 
Scotland continued to be propagated by tradition, it 
is not easy to. ascertain, for it does not appear that 
that kingdom ever abounded with skilful musicians ; 
however by the year 1400 the science had made 
such a progress there, that one of its princes, James 
Stuart, the first of his name, and the hundred and 
second in the list of their kings, attained to such 
a proficiency in it, as enabled him to write learnedly 
on music, and in his compositions and performance 
on a variety of instruments, to contend with the 
ablest masters of the time. 

Bale and Dempster, and after them bishop Tanner, 
take notice of this prince in the accounts by them 
severally given of Scottish writers, and ascribe to 
him among other works, a treatise De Musica, and 
Cantilenas Scoticas. 

Buchanan has drawn his character at full, and 
among many other distinguishing particulars, men- 
tions that he was excellently skilled in music, more 
indeed, he adds, than was necessary or fitting for 
a king, for that there was no musical instrument on 
which he could not play so well, as to be able to 
contend with the greatest masters of the art in 
those days.* 

The particulars of his story are related by all 
the Scottish historians, who, as do others, represent 
him as a prince of great endowments, being ignorant 
of no art worthy the knowledge of a gendeman; 
complete in all manly exercises, a good Latin scholar, 
an excellent poet, a wise legislator, a valiant captain, 
and, in a word, an accomplished gentleman and 
a great monarch. Notwithstanding which his amiable 
and resplendent qualities, a conspiracy was formed 
against him in the year 1436, by the earl of Athol, 
and others of his subjects, who broke into his chamber, 
he then being lodged in the Black Friars in Perth, 
and with many cruel wounds slew him in the forty- 
fourth year of his age, and the thirteenth of his 

In the account given of James I. by bishop Tanner 
the brief mention of the Cantilenas Scoticas there 

im tkeir comtrueHon. They were composed to be played on the harp oe- 
cotuptmied by the voice. The harp was strung with wire which gives a 
sound of long eonlinuance, and had no contrivance like thai in the modem 
harpsichord, by which the sound of the preceding could be stopped the momeni 
a succeeding note began. To avoid actual discord it was therefore necessary 
that the succeeding emphatic note should be a chord with the preceding, as 
their sounds must exist at the same time. Hence arose that beauty in those 
tunes that has so long pleased, though men scarce know why. That they were 
originally composed for the harp, and of the most simple kind,~-I mean a 
harp without any half notes, but those in the natur(U scale, and with no 
more than two octaves of strings from C to C, — / conjecture from another 
circumstance, which is, that not one of these tunes really ancient has a single 
arti^Mal note in it ; and that in tunes where it was not convenient for the 
voice to use the middle notes of the harp^ and place thekey in F, therethe B, 
wldch if used should beaBJ?, is always omitted by passing over it with 
a third. 

* ' In miuicis curiosioi erat instructus, quam regem yel deeeat, vel 
' expediat, nullum enim organum erat, ad ptallendl usum, comparatum, 
'quo non ille tarn fcite roodulabatur, ut cum summia iUius letatia 
'magistris contenderet/ Buch. Rer. Scotic. Hist. lib. x. sect. 57. 

In the continuation of the Scotichronicon of Johannes de Fordun, 
[Scotichron. 4 Ueame, vol. IV. pag. 1323,] is a character of James I. 
to the same purpose, but more particular ; and in Hector Boethius is an 
enlogium on him, which is here given in the dialect of the country, fh>m 
the translation of that historian by Ballenden. ' He was well lemit to 
' fedit with the swerd, to Just, to tumay, to worsyl, to syng and dance, 
* was an expert medicinar. richt crafty in playing bsith of lute and harp, 
'and sindry othir instrumentis of musik. He was expert in gramer, 
*onUnr, and poetiy^, and maid sae flowand and sententious venis, appeiit 
'well he was ane natural and borne poete.' 

t Bnch. Rer. Scot. Hist. Ub. x. Holinshed's Hist, of Scotland, 

ascribed to him leaves it in some measure a question, 
whether he was the author of the words, or the 
music, of those Scots songs. That he was a poet 
is agreed by all ; and Major, in his History de Gestis 
Scotorum, and bishop Nicholson,^ mention a poem 
written by him on Joan daughter of the duchess of 
Clarence, afterwards his queen, and two songs of his 
writing, the latter of which is yet extant, and abounds 
with rural humour and pleasantr/:§ but the evidence 
of his composing tunes or melodies is founded on the 
testimony of a well-known Italian author, Alessandro 
Tassoni, who in a book of his writing, entitled 
Pensieri diversi, printed at Venice in 1646, speaking 
of music, and first of the ancient Greek musicians, 
has this remarkable passage : ' We may reckon 
' among the modems, James, king of Scotland, who 
' not only composed sacred poems set to music, but 
'also of himself invented a new, melancholy, and 
'plaintive kind of music, dififerent from all other. 
*In which he has since been imitated by Carlo 

* Gesualdo, prince of Venosa, who in these our times 
' has improved music with new and admirable com- 
' positions.' || 

That the Scots melodies at the time when they 
were originally composed were committed to writing 
there can be no doubt; but it is to be feared that 
there are no genuine copies of any of them now 
remaining, they having for a series of years been 
propagated by tradition, and till lately existed only 
in the memory of the inhabitants of that kingdom. 
Nevertheless they seem not to have been corrupted, 
nor to have received the least tincture from the music 
of other countries, but retain that sweetness, delicacy, 
and native simplicity for which they are distinguished 
and admired. Some curious persons have of late 
years made attempts to recover and reduce them to 
writing ; and such of them as were sufficiently skilled 
in music, by conversation with the Highlanders, and 
the assistance of intelligent people, have been able 
to reduce a great number of ancient Scots melodies 
into musical notes. 

There are many fine Scots airs in the collection 
of songs by the well-known Tom Durfey, entitled 

* Pills to purge Melancholy,* published in the year 
1720, which seem to have suffered very little by 
their passing through the hands of those English 
masters who were concerned in the correction of 
that book; but in the multiplicity of tunes in the 
Scots style that have been published in subsequent 
collections, it is very difficult to distinguish betweeen 
the ancient and modern; those that pretend to be 
possessed of this discriminating faculty assert that 
the following, viz., Katherine Ogie, Muirland Willy, 

} In his Scottish Historical Library, pag. 55. 

f Tanner includes these in his account of his works. Allan Ramsay, 
in his Ever-Oreen, and also in his own poems, has ascribed that hu- 
morous Scots poem, * Christ's Kirk on the Green,' to James I. and in his 
notes on it has feigned some circumstances to give a colour to the 
opinion that he was the author of it ; but bishop Tanner with much 
better reason, gives it to James V. who also was a poet. 

I ' Noi ancora possiamo connumerar tri noetri Jacopo Rk di Scoria, 
< che non pur cose sacre compose in canto, ma ttovb da se stesso una 
' nuoTa, musica lamentevole, e mesta, dififerente da tutte' V altre. Nei 
' che poi h stato iraltato da Carlo Gesualdo, Prencipe di Venosa, che in 
' questa nostra eti hd illustrata anch' egli la musica con nuove mirabili 
Mnvenxioni.' lAb. X. cap. xxilL Angelo Berardi in his Miscellanea 
Musicale, pag 50, acauiesces in this relation, and, without citing his 
authority, giyes it in the very words of Tassoni. 

Digitized by 




Book XIII. 

and Cold and Raw,* are of the highest antiquity, 
and that the Lass of Peatie's Mill, Tweed-side, Mary 
Scot, and Galloway Shiels, though perfectly in the 
Scots vein, bear the signatures of modem com- 

Of the Irish music, as also of the Welch, alike 
remarkable with the Scotch for wildness and irre- 
gularity, but far inferior to it in sweetness of modu- 
lation, little is to be met with in the works of those 
who have written professedly on music. Sir James 
Ware has slightly mentioned it in his Antiquities 
of Ireland, and noted that the Irish harp is ever 
strung with brass wires. The little that has been 
said of the Welsh music is to be found in the 
Gambriae Descriptio of Silvester Giraldus ; :f and 
mention is made of the Irish music, as also of the 
Scotch, in the continuation of the Scotichronicon of 
Johannes De Fordun, lib. 16. cap. 29. The passage is 
curious, as it contains a comparison of the music of 
the three countries with each other, and is in these 
words : — 

'In musicis instrumentis invenio commendabilem 
'gentis istius diligenciam. In quibus, pr» omni 
'nacione quam vidimus, incomparabiliter instructa 
'est Non enim in hiis, ut in Britannicis, quibus 
'assueti sumus, instrumentis tarda et morosa est 
' modulacio, verum velox et praceps, suavis tamen 
'et jocunda sonoritas, miraque in tanta tam pra- 
'cipiti digitorum rapacitate musica proporcio et 
'arte per omnia indempni, inter crispatos modtlos 
' organaque multipliciter intricata, tam suavi velo- 
' citate, tam dispari paritate, tam discorcB concordia 
'consona redditur et completur melodia, seu Dia- 

* ThU last air was wrought into a catch by John Hflton, which may 
be seen in hia Collection of Catches, published in 1652. The initial 
words of It are *Ise gae with thee my Peggy.' This tune was greatly 
admired by queen Mary, the consort of king William ; and she once 
aflVonted Fundi by requesting to have it sung to her, he being present : 
the story is as follows. The queen having a mind one afternoon to be 
entertahied with music, sent to Mr. Gostling, then one of the chapel, 
and afterwards subdean of St. Paul's, to Henry Pureell and Mrs. Arabella 
Hunt, who had a very fine voice, and an admirable hand on the lute, 
with a request to attend her ; they obeyed her oommaads ; Mr. Gostling 
and Mrs. Himt sang several compositions of Purcdl, who accompanied 
them on the harpsichord ; at length the queen beginning to grow tired. 
asked Mrs. Hunt if she could not aing the old Soots ballad * Cold and 
Raw,' Mrs. Hunt answered yes^ and sang it to her lute. Pureell was 
all the while sitting at the harpsichord unemployed, and not a little 
nettled at the queen^s preflerenee of a vulgar bulad to his music ; but 
seeing her miO«>ty delighted with this tune, he determined that she 
should hear it upon another occasion : and accordingly in the next birtli- 

day song, via., that for the year 1692, he composed aa air to the words, 
' May her bright example chace Vice in troops out of the land,' the bass 
whereof is the tune to Cold and Raw ; it is printed in the second part of 

the Orpheus Biitannlcus, and is note for note the same with the Scots 

t About the year 1780, one Alexander Munroe, a native of Sootiand, 
then residing at Paris, published a collection of the best Scotch tunes 
fitted to the German flute, with several divisions and variations, but the 
simplicity of the airs is lost in the attempts of the author to accommodate 
tl^m to the style of Italian music. 

In the year 17SS, \^^Iliam Thompson published a collection ^ Scotch 
songs with the music, entitled Orpheus Caledonius ; the editor was not 
a musician, but a tradesman, and the publication is accordingly ln> 
Judicious and very incorrect. 

Three collections of Soots tunes were made by Mo Oibboa, a 

musician of Edinburgh, and published about twenty years ufo witti 
basses and variations ; and about the same time Mr. Francis Baisanti 
the ilsther of Misa Bazsanti, of Covent>Garden theatre, an ItaUaa, and 
an excellent musician, who had been resident some years in Scotland, 
published a good coUeetion of Scots tunes with basses of his own com- 

t It is said that the Welch mnsie is derived from the Irish. In the 
Chronicle of Wales by Caradoens of Lhancarvan, is a relation to this 
purpose, vis., that Griffith Ap-Conan, king of North Wales, being by 
mother and grandmother an Irishman, and also bora in Ireland, carried 
with liim fh)m thence divers cunning musicians into Wales, who devised 
In a manner all the instrumental music used there, as i4>pears as well by 
the books written of the same, as also by the names of the tunes and 
measures used among them to this day. Vide Sir James Ware's An- 
tiquities of Ireland, published by Walter Harris, Esq. chap. xxv. pag. 184. 

'tessarone seu Diapente cordsQ eoncrcpent, semper 
'tenera Bemol incipiunt, et in Bemol redeunt, ut 
' cuncta sub jocunda sonoritatis dulcedine comple- 
' antur, tam subtiliter moduios intrant et exeunt, sicque 
'subtuso grossioris cordsB sonitu graeilium tinnitus 
'licencius ludunt, latencius deleetant, lasciviusque 
' demulcent, ut pars artis maxima videatur arte velari, 
' tamquam si lata ferat ars depressa pudorem. Hinc 
'accidit, ut ea, qu» subtilins intuentibus, et artis 
'arcfaana decementibus, intemas et ineffabiles com- 
' parent animi dilicias, ea non attendentibus, sed quasi 
'videntibus non videndo, et audiendo non intelli- 
'gentibus, aures pocius onerent quam deleetant, et 
'tam confuso et inordinato strepitu invitis audi- 
'toribus fastidia parant tsediosa. Olim dicebatur, 
' quod Scocia et Wallia Ybemiam in modulis imitari 
' semula nitebantur disciplina. Hibemia quidem tan- 
'tnm duobus et delectatur instrumentis, cithara, 
'viz. et tymphana, Scocia tribus, cytiiera, tympana 
* et choro, Wallia, cythera, tibiis et choro. JSneis 
' quoque utuntur cordis, non de intestinis vel corio 
' factis. Multorum autem opinione hodie Scocia non 
'tantum magistram ssquiparavit Hibemiam, verum 
'eciam in musica pericia longe jam prnvalet et 
'prsBCellit Unde et ibi quasi fontem artis jam 
'requirunt. Hsbc ibi. Venerunt itaque periciores 
'arte ilia de Hibemia et Anglia, et de incom- 
'parabili prsecellencia et magisterio music» artis 
' regise admirantes, eidem prsd ceteris gradum attri- 
' buunt supeilativum. Ceterum quam diu hujus regni 
' orbita volvitur, ejusdem prsedicabilis practifca, lau- 
'dabiliB rectoria, et prsscellens policia accipient 
' prseconii incrementum.' 

Towards the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
the principles of harmony being then generally known, 
and the art of composition arrived to great perfection, 
there appeared a great emulation among the masters 
throughout Europe in their endeavours towards the 
improvement of the science ; and to speak with pre- 
cision on the subject, it seems that the competition 
was chiefly between the Italians and the Germans. 
The former of these, having Palestrina for their 
master, had carried church-music to the highest 
degree of perfection; and in the composition of 
midrigals, for elegance of style, correctness of har- 
mony, and in sweetness and variety of modulation, 
they were hardly equalled by the musicians of any 
country. Nevertheless it may be said that in some 
respects tiie Germans were their rivals, and, in the 
knowledge and use of the organ, their superiors. 
This people began very soon to discover the power 
and excellence of thb noble instrument ; that it was 
particularly adapted to music in consonance; that 
the sounds produced by it, not like those that answer 
to the touch of a string, were unlimited in their 
duration ; that ail tiiose various graces and elegancies 
with which the music of the modems is enriched, 
such as fuguesy imitative and responsive passages, 
various kinds of motion, and others, were no less 
capable of being uttered by the organ, than by 
a numbw of voices in concert ;§ and so excellent 

S Ifilton, who himself played on the organ, diaoovers a Just sense of 
the nature and use of this noble instrument in that passage of his 
TracUte on education where he recommends, after bodily exercise, the 
recreating and composing the travailed spirits of his young disciples 

Digitized by 





were the Germans in this kind of performance on 
the orgui, that towards the dose of the fifteenth 
ceatary, they seem almost to have exhausted its 
power; for in the year 1480, we are told that a 
Grerman, named Bemhard, invented the pedal, therehy 
increasing the harmony of the instrument by the 
addition of a fundamental part 

But notwithstanding the competition above spoken 
of, it seems that as the principles of music were first 
disseminated throughout Europe by the Italians, so 
in all the subsequent improvements in practice they 
seemed to give the rule : to instance in a few par- 
ticulars, the church style was originally formed by 
them; dnunatic music had its rise in Italy; Recitative 
was invented by the Italians; that elegant species 
of vocal composition, the Cantata, was invented by 
Carissimi, an Italian; Thorough-bass was also of 
Italian origin. These considerations determine the 
order and course of the present narration, and will 
lead us, after doing justice to our own country, by ex- 
tending the account of English musicians to about the 
close of the sixteenth century, to exhibit a given series, 
commencing at that period, of Italian musicians; 
interposing, as occasion offers, such eminent men of 
other countries as seem to be entitled to particular 

The history of music as hitherto deduced, is con- 
tinued down to a period, at which the science may 
truly be said to have arrived at great perfection. 
Abroad it continued to be encouraged and to flourish; 
but in this country it was so little regarded, as to 
afford, at least to the professors of it, a ground of 
complaint that music was destitute of patronage, and 
rather declined : the king, James I. was a lover of 
learning and field recreations; and though he had 
8<Hne genius for poetry, he had little relish for either 
music or punting. Indeed, had his love of music 
been ever so great, his own country afforded scarce 
any means of improvement in it ; for we read of no 
eminent Scottish musicians either before or since his 
time. It is true his mother, as she was a very finely 
accomplished woman, was an excellent proficient, and 
during the time she was in France had contracted 
a love for the Italian vocal music ; and it is recorded 
that upon her return to Scotland she took into her 
service David Ricci, a native of Turin, who had 
a very fine baas voice, to assist in the performance of 
madngals for her own private amusement : Ricci 
was slain in the presence of the queen at the timd 
when she was with child of the prince, afterwards 
James I. after which there was perhaps scarce any 
person left in her dominions capable of the office of 
preceptor to a prince in the science of music* 

viCh the MJemn and dlTine hamumlet of music: 'Eithor white th« 
• aMStvl OTganiit pUes hit grave and fattcUd de$eantt in loflif fuguet^ or 
'the whole symphonv with artftil and unimaginable touches adorn and 
'grace the wellatndied chords of some choioe composer.' 
I * Besides James I. of Scotland, we know of no person, s native of that 
co uuti y , who can with propriety be said to have been a musician ; never- 
theleas it is to be obserred that there is extant in the colleetion of the 
antbor of this work, a manuscript-treatise on music, written in tlie 
Seattiah distort, which appears to have been composed by some person 
eminently sldUed in the science. It is of a folio size, and is entitled 
*Tbe Art of Music coUectit out of all ancient Doctouris of Musick.' 
Pr. ' Qwhat is mensural mudck ? ' It contain* the rudiments of musie^ 
and the precepts of composition, with variety of examples, and a formula 
of the tones ; firom which circumstance it Is to be conjectured that it was 
written before the time of the reformation In Scotland. 

With respect to church-music, it is highly pro- 
bable that James adhered to the metrical psalmody 
that had been instituted by Calvin, and adopted by 
many of the reformed churches; and of this his 
version of the Psalms may be looked upon as some 
sort of evidence ; however upon his accession to the 
crown of England he was necessitated to recognize 
the form and mode of public worship established in 
this kingdom. 

Notwithstanding the love which queen Elizabeth 
bore to music, and the affection which she manifested 
for the solemn choral service, it seems that the ser- 
vants of her chapel experienced the effects of that 
Earsimony, which it must be confessed was part of 
er character; they solicited for an increase of 
their wages ; but neither the merits of Bull nor of 
Bird, both of whom she affected to admire, nor of 
Qiles, or many other excellent musicians then in her 
service, were able to procure the least concession 
in their favour. Upon her decease they made the 
like application to her successor, having previously 
engaged some of the lords, of the council to promote 
it The event of their joint solicitation appears by 
an entry in the Cheque-book of the chapel-royal, of 
which the following ia a transcript : — * 

5 December, 1604. 
The Lo. Charles '\ Be it remembered by all that ihall 
Haward high ?- succeed us, that in the year of our Lord 
admirall. J God 1604, and in the second yeare of 

the reign of our most gracious soyereien 
The Lo. Tho. ^ Lord James, the first of that name, by the 
Haward Lo. v grace of God of Great Britaine, France, 
Chamberlaine j and Ireland, king. After a long and 
chargeable sute continued for increase 
The Lo. Harrie "j of wages in the end, by the furtherance 
Haward earle ( of certaine honourable persons named 
of Northamp- Tin the margent, commissioners, and by 
ton / the special favour and help of the right 

worshipfUll doctor Montague, deane of 
The Lo. Cecill '\ the chappel then beinge, and by the 
vicountCram- j' great paynes of Leonard Davies, sub- 
borne J deane, imd of Nathaniel Gyles, then 
master of the children, with other 
TheLo.Knowles \ auntients of the place, the king's most 
treasurer of I excellent majestie of his royall bountye 
hoiishold j and regard, pleased to add to the late 
intertainement of the chappell ten 
pounds per annum to every man : so 
mcreasinge there stipends from tfairtie 
to fortie pounds per annum, and allso 
augmented the twelve childrens allow- 
ance from six pence to ten pence per 
diem. And to the sergeant of the 
vestrie, was then geven increase of 
xl. per annum, as to the gent, and 
the two yeomen and the groome of the 
vestrie, the increase of fewer pence p^ 
diem as to the twelve children. His 
royall majestie ordayninge that these 
several increases should be payd to the 
members of the chapel! and vestrie in 
the nature of bourd wages for ever. 
Now it was diought meete that seeinge 
the intertainement of the chappell was 

** « This is the angmentation allnded to by Bixd in the dedication of his 
Gradnalia. part I, to Henry Howard earl of Northampton, abOTe styled 
Lo, Harrie Haward, earl of Northantpton, and U reewdtd amongH tk4 
imttamee$ c/king James ike Finfe hountg in SUno't Annals, page 1037. 

Digitized by 




£ooK. XIIL 

Cursed be the not augmented of many years by any 
partie that his majesties progenitors kinges and 
taketh this quenes raignin^e before his highnes, 
leafe out of Uiat therefore his kinglie bountie in 
thin book. augmenting the same (as is before 

Amen. shewed) should be recorded, to be had 
ever in remembrance, that thereby not 
onlye wee (men and children now ly ve- 
inge) but all those also which shall 
succeede us in the chappell shuld day- 
lye see cause (in our most devoute 
prayers) humblye to beseech the devine 
majestie to bless his highnes, our gra- 
cious queen Ann, nrince Henrie, and 
all and everye of tnat royal progenie 
with blessings both spirituall and tem- 
poral!, and that from age to aee, and 
everlastynglye. And let us aU praye 
Amen, Amen. 
The names of the Gent, lyveing at the time of this aug- 
mentation graunted : — 

Leonard Davies, Subdean. 
Barthol. Mason ^ 
Antho. Harrison 
Robert Stuckey 
Steven Boughton 
William Lawes 
Antho. Kerbie J^ 
Doctor Bull, Organist 
Nathaniel Gyles, Master of 
the Children 

Jo. Hewlett 
Richard Plumley 
Tho. Goolde 
Peter Wright 
Will. Lawrence 
James Davies 
Jo. Amerjre 
Jo. Baldwin 
Francis Wyborow 
Arthur Cocke 

Thomas Sampson, Clerke of George Woodson 

the Cheque 
Robert Stone 
Will. Byrde 
Rychard Granwell 
Crue Sharp 
Edmund Browne 
Tho. Woodson 
Henrie Eveseede 
Robert Allison 
Jo. Stevens 

Jo. Woodson 
Edmund Shirgoold 
Edmund Hooper. 

The Officers of the vestrie 

then were — 
Ralphe Fletcher, Sergeant 
Jo. Patten ) v^«,o« 
Robert Lewis J Yeomen 
Harrye AUred, Groome. 


The recreations of the court during the reign of 
James I. were altogether of the dramatic kind, con- 
sbting of masques and interludes, in the composing 
and performance whereof the gentlemen, and also the 
children of the chapel, were frequently employed. 
Most of these dramas were written by Ben Jonson,* 
some in the lifetime of Samuel Daniel, laureate or 
court poet; and others after Jonson, succeeded to 
that employment.! 

♦ Speed** Chron. 725. 

t The oflBce of Poet Laureate is well known at this Ume. There are 
no records that ascertain the origin of the institution in tliis kingdom, 
though there are many that recognise it. The following is the best 
account that can here be gi^ren of it. As early as the reign of Henry III. 
who died in the year 1272, there was a court poet, a Frenchman, named 
Henry de Avranches, and otherwise 'Magistro Henrico Versificator/ 
Master Henry the Versifier, who from two several precepts, to be found 
in Madox's History of the Exchequer, is supposed to have had an assisn- 
ment of a hundred shillings a year by way of salary or stipend. Vide 
Hist, of English Poetry by Mr. Thomas Warton, vol. I. pag. 47. 

In the year 134l;Petrarch was crowned with laurel in the capitol by 
the senate of Roma. After that Frederic III. emperor of Germany, gave 
the laurel to Conradus Celtes : and ever since the Counts Palatine of the 
empire have claimed the privilq^ solemnly to invest poets with the bays. 

Chaucer was contemporary with Petrarch, and is supposed to have 

become acquainted with him while abroad. Upon his return to England he 

assumed the title of Poet Laureat ; and, anno 22 Rich. II. obtained a grant 

of an annual allowance of wine, as appears by the following docquet :— 

' Vigesimo secundo anno Ri^utrdi secundi conccssum Oalflrido 

* Chaucer unum dolium Tini per annum durante vitfi, In portu 

* civitatis London, per manus capitaUs plncemae nostri.' Vide 
Poller's Worthies, 27. 

John Kay, in his dedication of the Siege of Rhofi^ to Edward IV. 

The children of James were well instructed in 
music, and particularly in dancing, for their im- 
provement in which latter accomplishment the king 
appears to have been very solicitous. In a letter from 
him to his sons, dated Theobalds, April 1, 1623, now 
among the Harleian manuscripts in the British Mu- 
seum, Numb. 6987. 24, he desires them to keep up 
their dancing privately, * though they whistle and 
' sing to one another for music' 

Prince Charles was a scholar of Goperario, and by 
him had been taught the Viol da gamba ; and though 
Lilly the astrologer in his character of Charles I. con- 
tents himself with saying that the king was not un- 
skilful in music, the fact is, that he had an excellent 
judgment in the science, and was besides an able 
performer on the above instrument. J As to prince 
Henry, it is highly probable that he had the same 
instructor with his brother : of his proficiency little is 
said in the accounts of his life ; but that he was how- 
ever a lover of music, and a patron of men of eminence 
in the science, may be inferred from the following ex- 
tract from the list of his household establishment, as 
contained in the Appendix to the Life of Henry Prince 
of Wales, by Dr. Birch : — 

Dr. Bull Mr. Ford Valentine Sawyer 

Mr. Lupo Mr. Cutting Matthew Johnson 

Mr. Johnson Mr. Stinte Edward Wormall 

M«. Mynors Mr. Heame Thomas Day 

Mr. Jones John Ashby Sig. Angelo. 

A brief declaration of what yearly pensions, and to whom 
his highness did grant the same, payable out of his 
highness's treasure from the time of his creation until 
the first day of November, 1612 : — 

1611 I £. 

June ) To John Bull doc- 

tor of music 
To Robert Johnson - 
To Thomas Lupo - - 
To John Mynors - - 
To Jonas Wrench - - 
To Thomas Day - - 
To Valentine Sawyer - 
To Thomas Cutting! - 
To John Sturte - - - 
To Thomas Ford - - 

To John Ashby - - 
To Edward Wormall 
To Matthias Johnson 
1611 \ To Thomas 





40 1611 I To Thomas ^ 

40 March J Ford one of his I 

40 highness's musicians, >10 

40 bv way of increase to i 

40 his former pension. ) 

40 August. ToJerom ^ 
40 Hearne one of his |-20 

30 highness's musicians, j 

tie poet 
the reigns of Henry VII. and vIII. stylet himself Skelton Laureat. 

At the beginning of the reign of James I. Samnel Daniel was laureat ; 
but though he was a man of abilities, Jonson was employed to write the 
court poems. Upon the death of Daniel, about the year 1619, Jonson 
was appointed his successor, who before this, via., in February 1615, had 
obtained a grant of an annual pension of one hundred marks. 

In the Tear 1630, by letters patent of Charles I. this pension was 
augmented to one hundred pounds per annum, with an additional grant 
of one terse of Canary Spanish wine, to be taken out of tbe king's store 
of wines yearly, and firom time to time remaining at, or in the cellars 
within or belonging to his palace of Whitehall ; and this continues to be 
the establishment in favour of the poet laureate. 

Upon these grants of wine it may be obsenred that the first of the kind 
seems to be that in a pipe-roll Ann. 86 Hen. III. to Richard the king's 
harper, and Beatrice his wife, in these words : * Et in uno dolio vini 

• empto et dato Magistro Ricardo, Citharists regis xl. fol. per Br. Reg. 
' £t in uno dolio empto et dato Beatrici uzori ejusdem Rlcardi.' 

} Playfbrd, who had good opportunities of information, speaking of 
the skill in music of some of our princes, says, ' Nor was his late sacred 

* mi^esty and blessed martyr king Charles the First, behind anv of his 

' predecessors in the Iotc Md promotion of this science, especially in tbe 
* serTiee of Almighty God, and with much seal ho would hear zeverentlv 
'performed, and often appointed the service and anthems himself. 

especially that sharp service composed by Dr William Child, being by 
« his knowledge in music a competent Judge therein ; and would play his 
* part exactly well on the bass-vioU, especially of those incomparable 
« fancies of Mr. Coperario to the organ.' 

f This Thomas Cutting was an excellent performer on the lute. In 
the year 1607 he was in the tervice of the Lady Arabella Stuart, whan 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXIX, 



Before the publication of Morley's Introduction the 
precepts of musical composition were known but to 
few, as existing only in manuscript treatises, which 
being looked upon as inestimable curiosities, were 
transmitted from hand to hand with great caution 
and diffidence ; so that for the most part the general 
precepts of music, and that kind of oral instruction 
which was communicated in the schools belonging to 
cathedral churches, and other seminaries of music, 
were the only foundation for a course of musical 
study ; and those who laboured to excel in the art of 
practical composition were necessitated either to ex- 
tract rules from the works of others, or trust to their 
own powers in the invention of harmony and melody ; 
and hence it appears that Morley's work could not 
but greatly facilitate and improve the practice of 
musical composition. The world had been but a few 
years in possession of Morley*s Introduction before 
Thomas Ravenscroft, an author heretofore mentioned 
as the editor of the psalm-tunes in four parts, thought 
fit to publish a book of his writing with this title : 

* A brief discourse of the true (but neglected) use of 

* charactering the degrees by their Perfection, Imper- 
'fection, and [Diminution in Measurable Musicke 

Christum IV. king of Deninark. begired him of hia mlstreu. Th« 
occasion was probably this : Christian loved the music of the lute, and 
having while in England heard Douland, he obtained permission to take 
him vith him to Denmark ; but Douland, after a few years stay at Co- 
penhagen, imagining himself slighted, returned to England, and left the 
king without a lutenist ; In this distress Christian applied to his siaier 
Ann. the wife of James I. and she, and also her son prince Henry in- 
terceded with the Lady Arabella to part with her servant Cutting, and 
obtained her consent. It seems that Cutting stayed in Denmark but 
little more than four years, for he became a servant to Christian about 
March, 1607, and by the above list it appears that he was in the service 
of prince Henry in June, 1611. The following are the letters on the 
subject, the originals whereof are among the Harleian MSB. in the 
British Museum. See the Catalogue, No. 6966. 42, 43, 44. 
Anna R. 
WeUbeloved cousine Wee greete you hartlye well ; Udo Gal, our deere 
brothers the king of Denmarks gentleman-servant, hath insisted with 
us for the licensing your servant thomas cettings to depart, but not 
without your permission, to our brother's service, and therefore we 
wryte these few lines to you, being assured your H. will make no 
difBcultie to satisfie our pleasure and our deere brother's desires ; and so 
geving you the assurance off our constant favours, with our wishes for 
the conteneuance or convalescence of your helth, expecting your retume, 
we commit your H. to the protection of God. From Whythall, 9 March 

To our most honerable and wellheloved 
cousine the Lady Arabella Stuart. 

Madam, the queenes ma. h^h commaunded me to signifie to your La. 
that shee would have Cutting your La. servant to send to the king of 
Denmark, because he desvred the queene that she would send him one 
that could play upon the lute. I pray your La. to send him back with 
ane answcre as soon as your La. can. I desyre you to commend me to 
my lo. and my la. Shrewsbury, and also not too think me any thing the 
worse scrivenere that I write so ill, but to suspend your judgement till 
you come hither, then you shall find me, as I was ever, 

A Madame Arbelle Your La. loving cousin 

ma Cousine. and assured friend, 


May it please your Highnesse, 

I have received your Hs. letter whearin I am let to understand that 
the queene's majesty is pleased to command Cuttinge my servant for the 
king of Denmark : concerning the which your Highnesse requireth my 
answer to hir Majesty, the which I have accordingly returned by this 
bearer, referring him to hir Modesty's good pleasure and disposition. 
And although I may have some cause to be sorry to have lost the con- 
tentment of a good lute, yet must I confesse that I am right glad to have 
found any occasion whearby to expresse to her Majesty and your High- 
nesse the humble respect which I ow you, and the readinesse of my 
disposition to be conformed to your good pleasures: whearin I have 
placed a great part of the satisfaction which my heart can receive. I 
have according lo your Hs. direction signified unto my uncle and aunt of 
Shrewsbury your Hs. gratious vouchsafeing to remember them, who with 
all duty present theyr most humble thancks, and say they will ever pray 
for your Hs. most happy prosperity: and yet my uncle saith that he 
carrieth the same splene m his heart towards your Hs. that he hath ever 
done. And so praying to the Almighty for your Hs. felicity I humbly 
cease. From Sheffeild the 1 5th of March, 1607. 

Your Hs. most humble and dutiftill 

To the Prince his Highnesse. Aebslla Stuart. 

' against the common practice and custome of these 

* times.* Quarto, 1614.* 

The author of this book had been educated in St. 
Paul's choir, under Master Edward Pearce, and was 
not only a good musician, but a man of considerable 
learning in his faculty ; the drift of it is to revive the 
use of those proportions, which, because of their 
intricacy, had long been discontinued. To justify 
this attempt, he cites the authority of Franchinus, 
Glareanus, and Morley ; of which latter he says that 
he declared himself loth to break the common practice 
or received custom, yet if any would change that, he 
would be the first that would follow. 

This declaration of Morley naturally leads to the 
question whether, even at the time of his writing his 
Introduction, any change for the better could have 
been possibly efiFected ; since he himself has expressly 
said, that of the many authors who had written on 
mensurable music, and particularly on those branches 
of it, mood, time, and prolation, with their several 
varieties, hardly any two of them can be said to tell 
the same tale. 

Upon the whole, proportion is a subject of mere 
speculation ; and as to practice, there seems to be no 
conceivable kind of proportion, but in the present 
method of notation may be signified or charactered 
without regarding those distinctions of perfection, 
imperfection, and diminution of mood, time, and pro- 
lation, which this author labours to revive. 

To this discourse of Kavenscroft are added ex- 
amples to illustrate his precepts, expressed in the 
harmony of four voices, concerning the * Pleasure of 

* five usual recreations : 1. Hunting ; 2. Hawking ; 

* 3. Dancing ; 4. Drinking ; 5. Enamouring.' f 

In the year 1603, Thomas Robinson published a 
book entitled 'The school of musicke, the perfect 

* method of true fingering the Lute, Pandora, Or- 

* pharion, and Viol da Gamba.* It is a thin folio, 
and merits to be particularly noticed in this place. 
The style of it is remarkably quaint, and it is written, 
as the author expresses it, ' dialoguewise,* betwixt a 
' knight who has children to be taught, and Timo- 

* theus who should teach them.' 

After a general eulogium on music, the author 
proceeds to his directions for playing on the lute, 
beginning with an explanation of that method of no- 
tation peculiar to it, called the Tablature, the precepts 
whereof seem to be nearly the same with those con- 
tained in the book of Adrian le Boy, an account 
whereof has herein before been given. These are 
succeeded by a collection of easy lessons for the lute, 

* In this book it is asserted, on the authority of the' Prsceptiones 
Musices Poeticae seu de Compositione Cantus of Johannes Nucius.'that 
John Dunstable, of whom Morley takes notice, and who is also herein 
before mentioned, invented musical composition in parts; and that 
Franchinus de Colonta invented mensurable music. In this latter name 
Ravenscroft is misuken, for it is to Franco, a scholastic or professor of 
Liege that the honour of this invention is due, though it is almost 
universally ascribed to Johannes de Muris. With regard to the antiquity 
of musical composition in parts, Morley had his doubts about it, and 
declares his inability to trace it much farther back than the time of 
Franchinus, who lived some years after Dunstable; and as to symphoniac 
music in general, there is no conclusive evidence that it existed hefore 
the time of Bede : and it is highly probable that it had its origin in that 
practice of extemporary descant described by Giraldua Cambrensis, and 
mentioned previously in this work. 

t This Thomas Ravenscroft was also the author of a collection of 
songs entitled ' Melismata. Musical Phansies fitting the Court, Citie, 

* and Countrey-Humours, toS, 4, and 5 voyces,' published in the year 1611. 

Digitized by 




Book XLLL 

and these latter by what the author calls rules to 
instruct you to sing, and a few psalm-tunes set 
in Tablature for the viol da gamba. This book of 
Bobinson may be deemed a curiosity, as it tends to 
explain a practice which the masters of the lute have 
ever shewn an unwillingness to divulge. 

In the year 1609 was published a book with this 
tide: 'Pammelia, Musicks Miscellanie, or mixed 
'varietie of pleasant Roundelayes and delightful 
' Catches of 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 parts in one. 
' None so ordinarie as musical, none so musical as not 
' to all very pleasing and acceptable. London, printed 

* by William Barley for R. B. and H. W. and are to 

* be sold at the Spread Eagle at the great North doore. 
'ofPaules.* Quarto. It was again printed by Thomas 
Snodham, for Matthew Lownes and John Browne, 
in 1618. 

This book, the oldest of the kind extant, fully 
answers its title, and contains a great number of fine 
vocal compositions of very great antiquity,* but, 
which is much to be lamented, without the names of 
the authors. Among the Rounds is the song men- 
tioned in the character of Mr. William Hastings, 
written by the first earl of Shaftesbury, and printed 
in Peck's Collection of curious Historical Pieces, 
No. xxxiiL concerning which it is first to be observed, 
that, among numberless other singularities, respecting 
the diet and manner of living of this person , it is in 
the character said that he never wanted a London 
Pudding, and always sang it in with ' My pert eyes 
therein-a ;' absolute nonsense ! which the song itself 
here given will set to rights : — 

A few rounds from this collection are inserted 
by way of example of canons in the unison, in 
chap. LXVII. of this work ; these that follow are of 
the same kind of composition, but to words of a dif- 
ferent import : — 

jHu aJJ-^uj-af^ri^rf 

ORA et la-bo- 




et la-bo-ra, et la-oo - 

. et Ut-bo - ra, et la - do - ra, 

J fi n \ M9 ft zsLi 

I I il zn: 


*^ - • i-a, et la - bo - ra, 


- - ra, et la - 


et la-bo 

et la-bo - ra, et la - bo - ra. 



THERE lyes a PaddiDg in the fire, and 

Whom should I call in O 

i - nam mi - se-ricordi 

am tnam,*? . 

• The words to these compositions are for the most part on suMeets of 
low humour, of which specimeDS are inserted in chap. LXVII., and 
here it may be obsenred that it was formerly a practice with the 
musicians to set the cries of London to music, retafaiing the very musical 
notes of them. In the coUootlon entitled Pammeiia, is a round to the 
cry of New oysters. Have yon any wood to cleave t Orlando Gibbons set 
music of four parts to the Cries in his time, among which is one of m 
play to be acted by the scholars of our town ; Morley set those of the 
MlUiners' Girls in the New Exchange in the Strand, built in the reign of 
James I., and pulled down about thirty years ago : and among others 
equally unknown to the present times, these occur: Italian Falling 
Bands, French Garters, Roman Gloves, Rabatos, a kind of ruffs. Sister's, 
i.e.. Nun's Thread, Sliok-^tones, Poking-sticks, these were made taper, 
and were of use to open and separate the plaiu of those great rufl^ then 
in fashion. In a play called Tarquin ana Lucrece, these cries occur, a 
Marking-stone, Bread and Meat for the poor Prisoners, Rock-Samphire. 

num. In te Do - mi-ne spe - ra-vi, non 

ter - num. 

a Hassoc for your Pew, or a Pesocke to thrust your feet in, Lanthome 
and Candle-light, with many others. 

The cries of London in the time of Charles II. diflbred greatly txom. 
those of the preceding reigns ; that of a Merry new Song, in the set of 
dies designed by Lauron, and engraved by Tempest, is a novelty, as the 
singing of ballads was then but lately become an itinerant profession. 
The ancient printed ballads have this colophon : * Printed by A. B., and 
* are to be sold at the stalls of the Ballad-singers ; ' but Cromwell's ordi- 
nance against strolling fiddlers, printed in Scobel's collection, silenced 
these, and obliged the ballad-aingen to shut up shop. 

Digitized by 


Chat. CXX. 



In the same year was published ' Denteromelia, or 

• the second part of Musick's Melodie, or melodious 
'Mnsicke of pleasant Eoundelaies, E. H. mirth or 
' Freemens Songs,* and such delightful Catches, Qui 
' cancre potest canat, Catch that catch can. London, 
'printed for Thomas Adams, dwelling in Paules 

* church-yard, at the sign of the White Lyon, 1609.' 

In this collection there are comparatively but few 
rounds or catches, it consisting chiefly of songs for 
three voices, in which all the stanzas are sung to the 
same tune like this, which is one of them : — 

WEE bo Sonl-diera three, Par-donez 

WEE be Soul-diere three, Par-donez 

WEE bo Soul-diere three, Par-donez 

moy jo vonz en prie: Late -ly come forth of tho 

moy jo veuz en prie: Lato-ly come forth of the 

moy JO vouz en prie: Late -ly come forth of tho 

« Of thUterm, FsBsnir's Sokos no other interpraUtkm can here 
be ffhren than that of Cotgraye in hia Dlctionanr, where it is naed to ex- 
plam the words Verilay and Round ; and Verilajr is elsewhere, by the 
same author, giren as the signification of the word Vaudxtills, 
a eountry ballad or song, a Roundelay ; from Vaudevlre. a Norman town, 
wbecein Olivier BasseU, the first inventor of this kind of air, dwelt. For 
the meaning of the letters K. H. we are yet to seek. 

low coon-try, with ne-ver a pen-ny of mo-ny. 

low coun-tiy, with ne 

ver a pen-ny of mo-ny. 

Here good fellow I drinke to thee, 

Pardonez moy je vouz en prie : 
To all good fellowes where ever they be. 

With never a penny of mony. 

3. And he that will not pledge me in this, 

Pardonez moy je vouz en prie : 
Payes for the shot what ever it is, 
With never a penny of mony. 

4. Charge it again boy, charge it againe, 

Pardonez moy je vouz en prie : 
As long as there is any incke in thy pen, 
With never a penny of mony. 


Of musicians who flourished in or about the reign 
of James I. not heretofore particularly mentioned^ 
the following is a list, including in it notes of their 
respective publications. 

John Amner, bachelor of music, organist of the 
cathedral church of Ely, and master of the children. 
There are extant of his composition. Sacred Hymns, 
of three, four, five, and six parts, for voices and viols, 
quarto, Lond. 1615 ; and some anthems, the words 
whereof are in Clifford's collection. 

John Attet, gentleman and practitioner in music, 
was the author of a work entitled, ' The first Booke 
' of Ayres of four parts with Tablature for the Lute, 
' so made that all the parts may be plaide together 
' with the lute, or one voyce with the lute and bass 
'violi; Fol. Lond. 1622. 

John Bartlett, gentleman, and practitioner in 
the art of music, was the author of a work with thb 
title, ' A Booke of Ayres with a triplicitie of musicke, 
' whereof the first part is for the lute or Orpharion, 
' and the viol da Gamba, and 4 parts to sing. The 

* second is for trebles to sing to the lute and viole ; 
' the third part is for the lute and one voyce, and tho 

* viole da Gamba.* Fol. Lond. 160G. 

Thomas Brewer, educated in Christ's Hospital 
London, and bred up to the practice of the viol, 
composed many excellent Fantasias for that instni- 
ment, and was the author of sundry rounds and 
catches, printed in Hilton's collection, as also of a 
celebrated song to the words * Turn Amarillis to thy 
swain,' published in the earlier editions of Playford's 
Introduction, in two parts, and in his Musical Com- 
panion, printed in 1673, in three, and thereby spoiled, 
as some of the musicians of that day have not scrupled 
in print to assert 

Thomas Campion was the author of two books of 
Airs, of two, three, and four parts. Wood, in the 
Fasti Oxon. vol. L coL 229, styles him an admired 

Digitized by 




Book XIII. 

poet and musician, adding that Camden mentions 
him together with Spenser, Sidney, and Drayton. 
In Ferabosco's Aires, published in 1G09, are com- 
mendatory verses signed Thomas Campion Dr. of 
Physic ; there are also prefixed to Coriate's Crudities 
certain Latin verses by the person, who is there styled 
Medicinae Doctor. Farther, the entertainment at the 
nuptials of Carr with the lady Frances Howard, ap- 
pears to have been written by Dr. Thomas Campion ; 
there is also in the Bodleian library a book entitled 

* Observations on the Art of English Poesy,* printed 
in 1602, by Thomas Campion, 12mo. Again, there 
is extant a work entitled * Songs bewailing the un- 
' timely death of Prince Henry,' written by Dr. 
Thomas Campion, and set to the viol and lute by 
Coperario. Lond, 1613, folio. The same person was 
also the author of * A new way of making fowre 
' parts in Counterpoint by a most familiar and in- 

* fallible rule,* octavo, printed without a date, but 
dedicated to 'Charles, prince of Great Britaine.** 
This tract, but under the title of the ' Art of Descant, 

* or composing of Musick in parts, with annotations 

* thereon by Mr. Christopher Simpson,* is published 
by way of Appendix to the earlier editions of Play- 
ford's Introduction. Wood mentions a Thomas 
Campion, of Cambridge, incorporated master of arts 
of Oxford, anno 1624, clearly a different person from 
him above-mentioned ; but, which is strange, he does 
not so much as hint that Campion the poet and 
musician was a graduate in any faculty of either 

William Corkinb published * Ayres to sing and 
'play to the Lute and Basse VioU, with Pavins, 
' Galliards, Almaines, and Corantes for the Lyra- 
'VioU. Fol. Lond. 1610.' In 1612 he published 
a second part of this work. 

John Danyel, M.B. of Christ-Church, 1604. He 
was the author of * Songs for the Lute, Viol, and Voice, 

* in folio, Lond. 1606,* and is supposed to be the bro- 
ther of Samuel Daniel, the poet laureate and historian, 
and the publisher of his works in 1623. 

Robert Dowland, son of ^ohn, was the author 
of a work entitled 'A Musical Banquet,* folio, printed 
in 1610. 

Michael Est, bachelor of music, and master of the 
choristers of the cathedral church of Litchfield, was 
the author of sundry collections of Madrigals, and 
other vocal compositions, and of a madrigal of five 
parts, printed in the Triumphs of Oriana. His pub- 
lications are much more numerous than those of any 
author of his time : one of them, entitled ' The sixt 

* Set of Bookes, wherein are Anthemes for Versus, 

* and Chorus of 5 and 6 parts ; apt for Violls and 
' Voices,' is dedicated to Williams, bishop of Lincoln, 
and lord keeper, with an acknowledgement of his be- 
neficence in granting to the author an annuity for his 
life. It seems by the epistle that Est was an absolute 
stranger to the bishop, and that his lordship was 

• The proof of that singular fact that Campion was a doctor in physic, 
and not, as some have imagined, a doctor in music, might be rested on 
the particulars above-mentioned ; but the dedication to this tract fixes it 
beyond doubt : for the author, after declaring himself to be a physician 
by profession, apologizes for his offering ' a worke of musicke to his 
*HighneBsebv the example of Galen,' vho he says became an expert 
musician, and would ' needes apply all the proportions of music to the 
uncertaine motions of the pulse.' 

moved to this act of bounty by the hearing of some 
motetts of Est's composition. It is probable that this 
person was the son of that Thomas Est who first pub- 
lished the Psalms in parts, and other works, assuming 
in many of them the name of Snodham, and the bro- 
ther of one John Est, a barber, famous for his skill on 
the Lyra- Viol. 

John Earsden, together with George Mason com- 
posed the music in a work entitled * The Ayres that 
' were sung and played at Brougham castle m West- 
' moreland, in the King*s entertainment, given by the 
' right honourable the Earle of Cumberland, and his 
' right noble sonne the Lord Clifford.' Fol. Lond. 

Thomas Ford, the name of this person occurs in 
the list already given of Prince Henry's musicians, 
and also in certain letters patent purporting to be a 
grant of pensions or salaries to sundry of the king's 
musicians, 2 Car. I. herein after inserted. He was 
the author of a work entitled ' Musicke of sundre 
' kindes, set forth in two books, the first whereof are 

* Aires for 4 voices to the Lute, Orpherion, or Basse 

* Viol, with a dialogue for two voices, and two basse - 

* viols in parts, tunde the lute-way. The second arc 
' Pavens, Galiards, Almaines, Toies, Jiggs, Thumpes,^ 
' and such like, for two basse Viols the Hera way, so 
' made as the greatest number may serve to play alone, 
' very easy to be performed.' FoL Lond- 1607. The 
same Thomas Ford was the author of some Canons or 
Bounds printed in John Hilton's collection. 

Edmund Hooper, organist of Westminster Abbey, 
and a gentleman of the chapel royal, where he also 
did the duty of organist. He was one of the authors 
of the Psalms in four parts, published in 1594, and 
of sundry anthems in Barnard's Collection. He died 
July 14, 1621. 

Robert Jones seems to have been a voluminous 
composer ; two of the works published by him are 
severally entitled ' A musical Dreame, or the fourth 

* book of Ayres ; the first part for the Lute, two voices, 

* and the Violl da Gamba ; the second part is for the 

* Lute, the Violl, and four voices to sing ; the third 
' part is for one voyce alone, or to the Lute the basse 

* Viol, or to both if you please, whereof two are Italian 
'ayres.' Fol. Lond. 1609. 'The Muses Gardin for 
' delights, or the fift booke of Ayres onely for the 
' Lute, the basse Violl, and the voyce.' FoL Lond. 

Sir William Leiohton, Knight, one of the honor- 
able band of gentlemen pensioners, published in 1614, 
' The Tears or Lamentations of a sorrowful Soul, com- 
' posed with musical ayres and songs both for voices 
and divers instruments.' These are compositions by 
himself and other authors, of whom an account has 
already been given. 

t The word Dmnp, betides sorrow and absence of mind, which are 
the two senses which Dr. Johnson gives of it in his Dictionary, has also 
another, which has escaped him, viz., a melancholy tune; or, as Mr. 
Steevens, in a note on a passage in Romn) and Juliet, act IV. scene v. 
conjectures, an old Italian dance ; and considering the very licentious 
spelling of the time when this collection of Ford was printed, a suspicion 
might arise that the word Thumpe here noted was no other than the 
word Dmnp; but upon looking into the book, an air occurs, viz., the 
eleventh, wherein by a marginal note the performer on the lute is 
directed wherever he meets with one or two points under the letter a, 
which in the Tablature denotes an open string, to Ihump it with the iirst 
or second finger of the left band : the use and effect of this strange 
practice is best known to the performers on the lute. 

Digitized by 


Chai». CXX. 



JoHc« Maynard, a lutenisjt, was the author of a 
work with this title, 'The XII Wonders of the 

* World, set and composed for the violl de gambo, 
' the Inte, and the voyce, to sing the verse, all three 

* jointly, and none several ; also lessons for the lute 
' and base violl to play alone : with some lessons to 

* play Lyra-wayes alone, or if you will to fill up the 

* parts with another violl set lute- way, newly composed 
' by John Maynarti,luteni8t at the famous schoole of St. 

* Julian's in Hertfordshire.* Fol. Lond. 1611. These 
twelve wonders are so many songs exhibiting the 
characters of a courtier, a divine, a soldier, a lawyer, 
a physician, a merchant, a country gentleman, a bache- 
lor, a married man, a wife, a widow, and a maid. 

George Mason, see John Earsden. 

William Meredith, organist of New College, 
Oxon. by Wood in his Hist, et Antiquit. Univ. Oxon. 
lib. II. pag. 157, styled *Vir pius et facultate sua 

* peritissimus,* is there said to have died anno 1637. 

John Mundy, one of the organists of Queen Eliza- 
beth's chapel, and also one of the organists of the 
free chapel of Windsor, was admitted to his bachelors 
degree at Oxford in 1586, and to that of doctor in 
1624. In the place of organist of Windsor he was 
the immediate successor of John Marbeck, of whose 
sufferings for religion, and providential escape from 
the flames, an account has herein before been given.* 
He was deeply skilled in the theory and practice of 
music, and published Songs and Psalms composed 
into three, four, and five parts, Lond. 1594; and was 
also the author of sundry anthems, the words whereof 
are printed in Clifford's Collection ; and of a madrigal 
in the Triumphs of Oriana. He died anno 1630, 
and was buried in the cloister of St. George's chapel 
at Windsor. 

William Mundy. Of this person Wood barely 
makes mention ; he styles him one Will. Mundy, 
a noted musician, a composer of services and anthems, 
but no graduate. However it has been discovered 
that he was a composer as early as the year 1591, 
and was nevertheless the son of the former. In 
certain verses at the end of Baldwin's MS. cited in 
page 469 of this work containing the names of the 
several authors, whose compositions are therein in- 
serted, are these lines : — 

I will begine with White, Shepper, Tye, and TtUis, 
Parfons, Gyles, Mundie th*oulde one of the queenes pAllis 
Mundie yonge, th*ould man*8 Ton - - . . 

The old Mundy of the queen's palace was un- 
doubtedly John, for in the Fasti, vol. I. col. 131, he 
is said to have been in 1586, or afterwards, one of 
the organists of her majesty's chapel; and Mundy 
the young is above expressly said to be the old man's 
son, and there are several compositions in Baldwin's 
MS. with the name Will. Mundie to them. The 
deduction from these particulars is, that William 
Mundy was the son of Dr. John Mundy, one of the 

* Marbeck ii conjectured to have died about the year 1585. He had 
a son named Roger, a canon of Chriit-Chorch, Athen. Oxon. toI. I. col. 
152, and proTOTt of Oriel college, and the first standing or perpetual 
orator of the uniTersity, and who in 1573 was created doctor in physic, 
and aftenruds was appointed first phjrsidan to queen Eliaabetb. He 
died in 1605, and, as Wood conceives, was buried in the church of St. 
OOea without Cripplegate, London, in which parish he died. Fasti Oxon. 
VOL L coL 109. 

organists of queen Elizabeth's palace, or more pro- 
perly of her royal chapel at Whitehall, and also 
organist of the chapel of St. George at Windsor. 
The name Will. Mundy is set to several anthems in 
Barnard's Collection, and, by a mistake, which Dr. 
Aldrich was at the pains of detecting, to that anthem 
of king Henry VIII. before mentioned, * God the 

* maker of all things.' 

Martin Pierson or Pearson, was master of the 
choristers at St. Paul's at the time when John 
Tomkins was organist there ; he took his degree of 
bachelor in his faculty in 1613 ; and in 1630 pub- 
lished a work with this singular title, ' Mottects, or 

* grave Chamber Musique, containing Songs of five 
' parts of severall sorts, some ful, and some verse and 
'chorus, but all fit for voyces and vials, with an 

* organ part ; which for want of organs may be per- 
' formed on Virginals, Base-Lute, Bandora or Irish 
' harpe. Also a mourning Song of sixe parts for the 

* Death of the late Right Honorable Sir Fulke Grevil, 

* Knight, composed according to the rules of art by 

* M. P. batchelor of musique, 1630.' He died about 
the latter end of 1650, being then an inhabitant of 
the parish of St. Gregory, near the said cathedral, 
and was buried at St. Faith's church adjoining. He 
bequeathed to the poor of Marsh, in the parish of 
Dunnington, in the Isle of Ely, an hundred pounds, 
to be laid out in a purchase for their yearly use. 

Francis Pilkinoton, of Lincoln college, Oxford, 
was admitted a bachelor of music anno 1595. He 
was a famous lutenist, and one of the cathedral church 
of Christ in the city of Chester. Wood says he was 
father, or at least near of kin to Thomas Pilkington, 
one of the musicians of queen Henrietta Maria, cel- 
ebrated in the poems of Sir Aston Cokaine. See 
page 493 of this work. He was the author of * The 

* first booke of Songs or Ayres of 4 parts, with 

* Tablature for the lute or Orpherion, with the Violl 
' da Gamba.' Fol. Lond. 1605. 

Philip Bossetbr. This person was the author of 
a work entitled * A booke of Ayres set foorth to be 
'sang to the Lute, Orpherian, and base Violl, by 
' Philip Rosseter, lutenist, and are to be sold at his 

* house in Fleet-street, neere to the Grayhound.' Fol. 
Lond. 1601. In the preface to this book the author 
expresses in a humorous manner his dislike of those 
'who to appeare the more deepe and singular in 
' their judgment, will admit of no musicke but that 

* which is long, intricate, bated with fugue, chained 

* with sycopation, and where the nature of the word 

* is precisely exprest in the note, like the old exploded 
'action in comedies, when if they did pronounce 

* Memini, they would point to the hinder part of 
' their heads; if Video, put their finger in their eye.' 

W^iLLiAM Stonard, orgauist of Christ-Ohurch 
Oxon. and created doctor in music anno 1608. Besides 
certain anthems, the words whereof are in Qiflford's 
Collection, he was the author of some compositions 
communicated by Walter Porter to Dr. John Wilson, 
music-professor at Oxford, to be reposed and kept 
for ever among the archives of the music-school. 
Dr. Stonard was a kinsman either of Dr. Wilson 
or Porter; but Wood's account of him is so am- 

Digitized by 




Book XIIL 

biguously worded, that this circumstance will apply 
to either. 

Nicholas Strogers, an organist temp. James I. ; 
some services of his are to be fonnd in Barnard's 

John Ward was the author of a service and an 
anthem in Barnard's Collection, and also of Madrigals 
to three, four, five, and six voices; and a song 
lamenting the death of Prince Henry, printed in 
1613, and dedicated to Sir Henry Fanshaw, by whom 
he was highly favoured. 

Matthew White, of Christ-Church college, Oxon. 
accumulated doctor in music in 1629 ; the words of 
some anthems composed by him are in Clifford's 
Collection : there was also a Kobert White, an eminent 
church musician, the composer of several anthems in 
Barnard's Collection. Morley celebrates one of this 
name, but whether he means either of these two 
persons, cannot be ascertained. 

About the end of James the First's reign, to speak 
of the progress of it in this country, music received 
a new and very valuable acquisition in the foundation 
of a music lecture in the university of Oxford by 
Dr. WiLUAH Hbtther;* (a Portrait,) the occasion 
was this : he was an intimate friend of the famous 
Camden, who having a few years before his decease 
determined to found a history-lecture in the same 
university, sent his friend Mr. Heyther with the deed 
of endowment properly executed to the vice-chancellor 
Dr. Piers ; this was on the seventeenth day of May, 
1622; and Mr. Heyther having for some years before 
applied himself to the study of music, and signified 
an intention to be honoured with a degree in that 
faculty, he, together with his friend Mr. Orlando 
Gibbons, were suffered to accumulate the degrees both 
of bachelor and doctor in music ; and on t^^t or the 
next day, viz., the eighteenth of May, 1622, they 
were both created doctors.! 

It seems that there was at Oxford a professorship 
or music lecture founded by king Alfred, but how en- 
dowed does not at this distance of time clearly appear, 
and we find it continued till after the Bestoration ; 
for Anthony Wood, in his life, lias given the suc- 
cession of music-lecturers, as he terms them, from the 

* His name of hU own tignatnre in the cheque-boo^ is spelt Hbtthxe, 
notwithstanding which it is fireqoentlj spelt Heather and that even bj 
Camden himselC 

t Bj the Fasti Oxon. vol. I. coL 321, it appears that Wood had 
searched in vain to find out whether Orlando Gibbons had been admitted 
to anv degree in music or not ; but the following letter firom Dr. Piers to 
Camden, in the Collection of Epistles to and from Camden, published by 
Dr. Thomas Smith in 1691, pag. 329, is decisive of the question, and 
proves that Heyther and Gibbons were created doctors on the same day :— 


G. Piersius. G. Camdeno. 

•Worthy Sir, 

'The university returns her humble thanks to you with this letter. 

' We pray for your health and long life, that you may see the fhilts of 

' your bounty. We have made Mr. Heather a doctor in music ; so that 

'now he is no more Master, but Dr. Heather; the like honour for your 

'sake we have conferred upon Mr. Orlando Gibbons, and made him 

' a doctor too, to accompany Dr. Heather. We luve paid Mr. Dr. Hea- 

'ther's charges for his joumev, and likewise given him the Oxford 

* oourtesie, a pair of gloves for himself, and another for his wife. Tour 

* honour is far above all these things. And so desiring the continuance 
' of your loving (kvour to the university, and to me your servant, I take 
'my leave. 

• Oxon, 18 May Yours ever to be commanded, 

'161S. 'William Pisma.' 

' Mr. Whear shall make his oration this term ; and I shall writa 
' to you from time to time what orders the university wiU com- 
*mend unto your wisdom concerning your history-lecture.' 

year 1661 to 1681 ; but by his list of their names it 
does not seem that any of ^em were musiciatte ; and 
perhaps the reading of the old lecture was a matter 
of form, and calculated merely to preserve the station 
of music among the liberal sciences. As to that of 
Dr. Heyther, it was both theoretic and practical, as 
appears by the following account of the circumstances 
of its foundation, extracted from the books of the 
university : — 

' This matter was first moved and proposed in a 
' convocation held the 5th May, 1626, and afterwards 
' agreed upon by the delegates, and published in the 
'convocation-house, as approved by them, together 
'with Dr. Heyther*s orders about it the 16th of 
'November the same yeare; by his deed, bearing 

* date 20 Feb. 2.Cha. I. he gave to the university for 

* ever an annuity or yearly rent charge of 16/. 6*. 8d,, 
' issuing out of divers parcells of land, situate and 
'being within the parish of Chislehurst in Kent, 
' whereof 13Z. 6«. Srf. is to be employed in the music- 

* master's wages, out of which he is to repair the 
' instruments and find strings ; and the other 3/. is to 

* be employed upon one that shall read the theory of 
'music once every term, or oftner, and make an 
' English music-lecture at the Act time. Unto which 
' 3t Dr. Heyther requiring the ancient stipend of 40*. 
'that was wont yearly to be given to the ordinary 
'reader of music, to be added, or some other sum 
' equivalent thereunto, the university thereupon agreed 
' in a convocation that the old stipend of the morall 
' philosophie reader, which was 45«., should be con- 
' tinned to the music-reader, and so by that addition 
'he hath SI. 5s. yearly for his wages.* f The first 
professor under this endowment was Richard 
Nicholson, bachelor of music, and organist of Mag- 
dalen College. 

The right of electing the professor is in the vice- 
chancellor, the dean of Christ-Church, the president 
of Magdalen College, the warden of New College, 
and the president of St. John's. 

It further appears by the university books, that 
Dr. Heyther's professor was required to hold a 
musical praxis in the music-school evenr Thursday 
afternoon, between the hours of one and three, except 
during the time of Lent ; to promote which he gave 
to the university an harpsicon, a chest of viols,§ and 
divers music-books both printed and written. 

It is highly probable that Dr. Heyther was moved 
to this act of beneficence by Camden, who having been 
a chorister at Magdalen college, Oxford, may be sup- 
posed to have retained a love for music ; || and that 
Camden had a great ascendant over him, might be 
inferred from the intimate friendship that subsisted 
between them for many years. They had both em- 
ployments that obliged them to a residence in West- 
minster; for Camden was master of Westminster 

t This stipend was afterwards augmented by Nathaniel Lord Crew, 
Ushop of Durham. 

§ A Ckbst or set of Viols consisted of six viols, which were generally 
two basses, two tenors, and two trebles, each with six strings; they 
were the instruments to which those compositions called Fantasias were 
adapted. A more particular description of a chest of viols will be given 

R 3$ hit WiU publiaked tn the Appendix to Ifeamee collection of 
Diecoureet written bjf eminent antigmaries, he givee sis pounds to tht 
tinging men of the Collegiate Church of Westminster. 

Digitized by 





school, and Heyther a gentleman of the king's chapel. 
In townrthey lived in the same honse ; and when in 
1609 a pestilential disease having reached the honse 
next to Camden and himself, Camden was seized with 
It, he retired to the house of his friend Heyther at 
Chislehnrst, and by the help of Dr. Gifford, his 
physician, was cured. But of the friendly regard 
which Camden entertained for Dr. Heyther, he gave 
ample testimony, by appointing him executor of his 
will ; and in the deed executed by Camden on the 
nineteenth day of March, 1621-2, containing the en- 
dowment of his history-lecture at Oxford, the grant 
thereby made of the manor of Bexly in Kent, is 
subjected to a proviso that the profits of the said 
manor, estimated at 400/. a year, should be enjoyed 
by Mr. William Heyther, his heirs and executors, for 
the term of ninety-nine years, to commence from the 
death of Mr. Camden, he and they paying to the 
history professor 140/. per annum ; at the expiration 
of which term the estate was to vest in the university. 
Biog. Brit. Camden, 133, in note. 

It has been doubted whether Heyther had any 
skill in music or not, but it appears that he was of the 
choir at Westminster, and that on the twenty-seventh 
day of March, 1G15, he was sworn a gentleman of the 
royal chapel. Farther, it appears by the Fasti Oxon. 
that on the fifth day of July, 1622, a public dis- 
putation was proposed, but omitted to be held between 
him and Dr. Nathaniel Giles on the following ques- 
tions: 1. Whether discords may be allowed in 
music? Affirm. 2. Whether any artificial instru- 
ment can so fully and tnily express music as the 
natural voice ? Negat. 3. Whether the practice be 
the more useful part of music, or the theory ? Affirm. 

That he had little or no skill in practical com- 
position may fairly be inferred from a particular 
which Wood says he had been told by one or more 
eminent musicians, his contemporaries, viz., that the 
song of six or more parts, performed in the Act for 
Heyther, was composed by Orlando Gibbons.* 

Dr. Heyther was bom at Harmonds worth, in Mid- 
dlesex ; he died the latter end of July, 1627, and was 
buried on the first of August in the broad or south 
aisle, joining to the choir of Westminster abbey. He 
gave to the hospital in Tothill-Fields, Westminster, 
one hundred pounds, as appears by a list of bene- 
fiactions to the parish of St Margaret in that city, 
printed in the Nem View of London, pag. 339. 

There is now in the music-school at Oxford a 
picture of Dr. Heyther in his gown and cap, with the 
book of madrigals, intitled Musica Transalpina, in 
his hand ; from this picture the portrait of him is 

Orlando Gibbons, (a Portrait^) a native of 
Cambridge, was, as Wood says, accounted one of the 
rarest musicians and organists of his time. On the 
thirty-first day of March, 1604, he was appointed 
organist of the chapels royal in the room of Arthur 
Cock : some of his lessons are to be found in the col- 
lection herein before spoken of, intitled Parthenia. 

• A mairascript eopy of the exercise for Dr. Heyther't degree has 
been found, with the name of Orlando Gibbona to it. It is an anthem 
for eight Toleea, taken fhnn the forty*seTenth Psalm, and appears to be 
the rery same composition with the anthem of Orlando Gibbons to the 
words * O clap your hands together, all ye people,' printed in Dr. Boyce's 
Cathedral Mnsle, vol. II. pag. 59. 

He published Madrigals of five parts for Voices 
and Viols. Loud. 1612.t But the most excellent of 
his works are his compositions for the church, namely, 
services and anthems, of which there are many extant 
in the cathedral books. One of the most celebrated 
of his anthems is his Hosanna, one of the most perfect 
models for composition in the church-style of any 
now existing ; and indeed the general characteristic 
of his music is fine harmony, unaffected simplicity, 
and unspeakable grandeur. He also composed the 
tunes to the hymns and songs of the church, trans- 
lated by George Withers, as appears by the dedication 
thereof to king James I. ; they are melodies in 
two parts, and in their kind are excellent. It has 
been for some time a question whether Orlando 
Gibbons ever attained to either of those academical 
honours due to persons of eminence in his pro- 
fession ; but it appears most evidently by the letter 
inserted in the preceding article of Dr. Heyther, that 
on the seventeenth, or at farthest the eighteenth of 
May, 1622, he accumulated the degrees of bachelor 
and doctor in his faculty ; as also that this honour was 
conferred on him for the sake of Camden, who was 
his intimate friend. In 1625, being commanded to 
Canterbury to attend the solemnity of the marriage 
of Charles I. and Henrietta of France, upon ^hich 
occasion he had composed the music, he was seized 
with the small-pox, and died on WTiit-Sunday in the 
same year, and was buried in the cathedral church of 
Canterbury; his widow Elizabeth erected a monument 
over his grave with the following inscription : — 

'Orlando Gibbons Cantabrigiee inter Musas et 
' Masicam nato, sacrae R. CapeU© Organistae, Sph«- 
'rarum Harmonic Digitorum: pulsu nmnlo Can- 
' donum complarium quaeque eum non canunt minus 
' qnam canantur conditori ; Viro integerrimo et cnjus 
*vita cum arte suavissimis moribus concordissim^ 

* certavit ad nupt C. R. cum M. B. Dorobem. accito 
' ictuque hen Sanguinis Crudo et crudeli fato extincto, 
' choroque ccelesti transcripto die Pentecostes A. D. N. 

* MDCXXV. Elizabetha conjux septemque ex eo 
' liberorum parens, tanti vix doloris superstes, m»ren- 
' tiBsimo maerentissima. P. vixit A. M. D.* J 

Over his monument is a bust with the arms of 
Gibbons, viz., three scaJops on a bend dexter, over a 
lion rampant 

Dr. Orlando Gibbons left; a son named Christopher, 
an excellent organist, who will be spoken of hereafter. 

He had two brothers, Edward and Ellis, the one 
organist of Bristol, the other of Salisbury. Edward 
was a bachelor of Cambridge, and incorporated at 
Oxon in 1592. Besides being organist of Bristol, he 
was priest-vicar, sub-chanter, and master of the 
choristers in that cathedral. He was sworn a gen- 
tleman of the chapel March 21, 1604, and was master 
to Matthew Lock. In the triumphs of Oriana are two 

\ In the dedieation of the book to Str Christopher Hation, the author 
ttnf$ that they were composed in the house of hts patron ; and that Sir 
Christopher fnmished the words. This person was a collateral descendant 
of the Lord Chancellor Hatton : he died \Zth Sept. 1619, and lies interred 
in St. John Baptisfs, otherwise Jolip's Chapel, in Westminster Abbey, 

X The letters A. M. D. signify Annos, Menses, Dies, they were In- 
tended to have heen placed at a distance from each other and to be filled 
up ; but Mr. Dart, anchor of the antiquities of Canterbury Cathedral, 
has given a translation of the inscription, in which vixit A. M. D. is 
rendered 'he lived 1500.' Wood says he was not quite forty-five when 
he died. 

Digitized by 




Book Xril. 

madrigals the one in dve, the other in six parts, com- 
posed by Ellis Gibbons. Wood styles him the 
admired organist of Salisbury. Of Edward it is said 
that in the time of the rebellion he assisted king 
Charles I. with the sum of one thousand pounds ; for 
which instance of his loyalty he was afterwards very 
severely treated by those in power, who deprived him 
of a considerable estate, and thrust him and three 
grand -children out of his house, though he had then 
numbered more than fourscore years. 

Nathaniel Giles was bom in or near the city of 
Worcester, and took the degree of bachelor in 1685 ; 
he was one of the organists of St. George's chapel at 
Windsor, and master of the boys there. Upon the 
decease of William Hunuis, in 1597, he was appointed 
master of the children of the royal chapel, and was 
afterwards one of the organists of the chapel royal 
to king Charles I. JEe composed many excellent 
services and anthems. In 1607 he supplicated for 
the degree of doctor in his faculty, but for some nn- 
known reason he declined performing the exercise for 
it till the year 1622, when he was admitted to it, at 
which time it was proposed that he should dispute 
with Dr. Heyther upon the certain questions, men- 
tioned in the account above given of Dr. Heyther, 
but it does not appear that the disputation was ever 
held. Dr. Giles died January 24, 1633, aged 
seventy-five, and was buried in one of the aisles ad- 
joining to St. George's Chapel at Windsor, under a 
stone with an inscription to his memory, leaving 
behind him the character of a man noted as well for 
his religious life and conversation, as his excellence 
in his faculty. He lived to see a son of his, named 
Nathaniel, a canon of Windsor and a prebendary of 
Worcester ; and a daughter Margaret diposed of in 
marriage to Sir Herbert Croft, bishop of Hereford: 
she was living in the year 1695. 

Upon the accession of Charles I. to the crown, 
Nicholas Laniere was appointed master of the king's 
music; and in Eymer's Fcedera, tom. XVIII. 
pag. 728, is the following grant in favour of him and 
other musicians, servants of the king : — 

'Charles, by the grace of God, &c. To the 
'treasurer and under-treasurer of our exchequer 
' nowe being, and that hereafter for the tyme shall be, 
'greetinge, WTiereas wee have beene graciously 
' pleased, in consideration of service done, and to be 
' done unto us by sundrie of our musicians, to graunt 

* unto them the severall annuities and yearly pensions 
'hereafter following, (that is to say) to Nicholas 

* Laniere master of our music two hundred poundes 
'yearly for his wages, to Thomas Foord fourscore 
' poundes yearly for his wages, that is, for the place 

* which he formerly held, fortie poundes yearely, and 
' for the place which John Ballard late deceased, held, 
' and now bestowed upon him the said Thomas Foord 

* fortie poundes yearly, to Robert Johnson yearely for 
' wages fortie poundes and for stringes twentie poundes 
' by the yeare, to Thomas Day yearely for his wages 

* fortie poundes and for keeping a boy twenty-fower 
'poundes by the yeare, also to Alfonso Ferabosco, 
'Thomas Lupo, John Laurence, John Kelly, John 
'Cogshall, Robert Taylor, Richard Peering, John 

* Drewe, John Laniere, Edward Wormall, Angelo 
' Notary, and Jonas Wrench, to everie of them fortie 
'poundes a peece yearly for their wages, and to 
' Alfonso Bales and Robert Marshe, to each of them 

* twentie poundes a-peece yearely for their wages, 

'Theis are therefore to will and command you, 
' out of our treasure in the receipt of our exchequer, 
' to cause payment to be made to our said musicians 
'above-mentioned, and to every of them severally 
'and respectively, the said severall annuities and 

* allowances, as well presently upon the sight hereof 
' for one whole year ended at the feast of th' Annun- 

* ciation of the blessed Virgin Mary last past before 
' the date hereof, as alsoe from the feast hitherto, and 
' soe from tyme to tyme hereafter at the fower usual 1 
' feasts or termes of the yeare, (that is to say) at the 

* feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, St 

* Michael, th* Archangell, the birth of our Lord God, 

* and th* Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, 

* by even and equall portions, during their natural! 
' lives, and the lives of everie of them respectively, 
' together with all fees, profitts, commodities, allow- 
' ances and advantages whatsoever to the said places 

* incident and belonging, in as large and ample man- 
^ner as any of our musicians in the same places 

' heretofore have had and enjoyed the same ; and 
'theis presents, or the inrollment thereof, shall be 

* your sufficient warrant and dischardge in this be- 
' halfe. In witnes whereof, &c, 

Witnes ourself at Westminster, the eleaventh day 
of July. 

' Per breve de privato sigillo, &c.* 

Charles Butler, a native of Wycomb in the 
county of Bucks, and a master of arts of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, published a book with this title, 
'The Principles of Musik, in singing and setting: 
'with the twofold use thereof, ecclesiasticall and 
' civil.* quarto, Loud. 1636. The author of this book 
was a person of singular learning and ingenuity, 
which he manifested in sundry other works, enu- 
merated by Wood in the Athen. Oxon. among the 
rest is an English grammar, published in 1633, in 
which he proposes a scheme of regular orthography, 
and makes use of characters, some borrowed from 
the Saxon, and others of his own invention, so sin- 
gular, that we want types to exhibit them. And of 
this imagined improvement of his he appears to have 
been so fond, that all his tracts are printed in like 
manner with his grammar;* the consequence whereof 
has been an almost general disgust of all that he has 
written. His Principles of Music is however a very 
learned, curious, and entertaining book ; and, by the 
help of the advertisement from the printer to the 
reader, prefixed to it, explaining the powers of the 
several characters made use of by him, may be read 
to great advantage, and may be considered as a judi- 
cious supplement to Morley's Introduction. Its con- 
tents are in the general as follows : — 

Lib. I. cap. 1. Of the moodos : these the author 
makes to be five, following in this respect Cassiodorus, 
and ascribing to each a diflferent character and effect ; 

* A specimen of his orthc^praphy is inserted in Dr. Johnson's grammaz 
prefixed to his Dictionary. 

Digitized by 


Chap. OXXI. 



their names are the Doric, Lydian, ^Eolic, Phrygian, 
and Ionic. Cap. 2. Of Singing ; and herein of the 
number, names, tune, and time of the notes, with 
their external adjuncts. Cap. 3. Of Setting, and 
herein of the parts of a song, of melody, harmony, 
intervals, concords, and discords, with the consecution 
of each: Of Ornaments, that is to say. Syncope, 
fugue, and formality. Cap. 4. Of the two ways of 
setting, that is to say, in counterpoint and in discant 

Lib. II. cap. 1. Of instruments and of the voice. 
Of ditty-music, and of mixt music, in which instru- 
ments are associated with the voice. Cap. 2. Of the 
divine use of music. Of the continuance of church- 
music ; of objections against it. Of the special uses 
of divine music, with an apostrophe to our Levites. 
Cap. 3. Of the allowance of civil music, with the 
special uses thereof, and of the objections against it. 

This book abounds with a great variety of curious 
learning relating to music, selected from the best 
writers ancient and modern, among which latter the 
author appears to have held Sethus Calvisius in high 


Our church-music, through the industry of those 
who had set themselves to recover and collect the 
works of such musicians as flourished about the time 
of the Reformation ; and the learning and ingenuity 
of those their successors who had laboured in pro- 
ducing new compositions, was by this time arrived 
at so high a degree of improvement, that it may be 
questioned, not only whether it was not then equal 
to that of any country; but whether it is if not 
even now, so near perfection, as to exclude the 
expectation of ever seeing it rivalled: and it is 
worthy of remark, that in the compositions of Tye, 
Tallis, Bird, Farrant, Gibbons, and some others, all 
that variety of melody, harmony, and fine modulation 
are discoverable, which ignorant people conceive to 
be the effect of modern refinement, for an instance 
whereof we need not seek any farther than to the 
anthem of Dr. Tye, ' I will exalt thee,* which a 
stranger to the music of our church would conceive 
to be a composition of the present day rather than 
of the sixteenth century. The same may be said 
of most of the compositions in the Cantiones Sacne 
of Tallis and Bird, and the Cantiones Sacrarum and 
Gradualia of the latter, which abound with fugues 
of the finest contexture, and such descant, as, in the 
opinion of a very good judge, entitle them to the 
character of angelicd and divine. 

These considerations, aided by the disposition which 
Charles I. had manifested towards the church, and 
the favour shown by him to music and its professors, 
were doubtless the principal inducement to the pub- 
lication in the year 1641, of a noble collection of 
church-music by one John Barnard, a minor canon of 
St. Paul's cathedral, the title whereof is as follows : — 

• The first book of selected Church-music, consist- 
' ing of services and anthems, such as are now used 
' in the cathedral collegiate churches of this kingdom, 

* never before printed, whereby such books as were 

* heretofore with much difi&culty and charges tran- 
' scribed for the use of the quire, are now, to the 
' saving of much labour and expence, published for 
' the general good of all such as shall desire them 
' either for publick or private exercise. Collected 

* out of divers approved authors by John Barnard, 
' one of the Minor Canons of the cathedral church 
' of Saint Paul, London. London, printed by Edward 
' GrifiBn, and are to be sold at the signe of the Three 
' Lutes in Paul's alley. 1641.* 

The contents of this book are services for morn- 
ing and evening, and the communion, preces, and 
responses by Tidlis, Strogers, Bevin, Bird, Orlando 
Gibbons, William Mundy, Parsons, Morley, Dr. Giles, 
Woodson; the Litany by Tallis, and anthems in four, 
five, and six parts, to a great number, by Tallis, 
Hooper, Farrant, Shepheard, Will. Mundy, Gibbons, 
Batten, Dr. Tye, Morley, Hooper, White, Dr. Giles, 
Parsons, Weelkes, Dr. Bull, and Ward : and here it 
may not be amiss to remark, that in this collection 
the anthem '0 God the maker of all things,* is 
ascribed to William Mundy, contrary to the opinion 
that has ever been entertained. It was probably 
this book that set Dr. Aldrich upon an inquiry 
after the fact, which terminated in a full conviction, 
founded upon evidence, that it is a composition of 
Henry VIII. 

The book is dedicated to king Charles I. consider- 
ing which, and the great expence and labour of such 
a publication, it might be conjectured that his majesty 
had liberally contributed towards it; but the contrary 
is so evident from a passage in the preface, where 
the author speaks of the charges of the work as an 
adventurous enterprize, that we are left at a loss 
which to commend most, his zeal, his industry, or 
the liberality of his spirit For not to mention the 
labour and expence of collecting and copying such 
a number of musical compositions as fill a folio 
volume, not only the music, but the letter-press 
tjrpes appear to have been cast on purpose, the latter 
of which are in the character called by writing- 
masters, Secretary; with the initial letters in German 
text of a large size and finely ornamented. 

A few years after the publication of Barnard*s 
Collection, another was printed with this title, *Mu8ica 

* Deo sacra et Ecclesiffi Anglicanse, or music dedicated 

* to the honour and service of God, and to the use 
' of cathedrals and other churches of England, espe- 
'cially the chapel royal of king Charles L' in ten 
books by Thomas Tomkins, bachelor of music, of 
whom an account has before been given.* This work 
consists of a great variety of services of different 
kinds, and anthems from three to ten parts, all of the 
author's own composition, many whereof are in great 

There was great reason to expect that the publi- 
cations above-mentioned would have been followed 

■ See page 507 of this vork. 

f It is much to be lamented that the thought of printing them in score 
did not occur to the publishers of these several collections ; the con- 
sequence is, that, by the loss of part of the book, they at this day can 
scarcely be said to exist. Some years aito diligent search was made for 
a complete set of Barnard's books, and in all the kingdom there was not 
one to be found ; the least imperfect ^as that belonging to the choir of 
Hereford, but in this the boys' parts were dcfectire. 

Digitized by 




Book XIIL 

by others of the like kind not less valuable ; but the 
Puritans, who had long been labouring to abolish the 
liturgy, had now got the reins of government into 
their hands, and all hopes of this kind were frustrated 
by an ordinance which passed the House of Lords 
January 4, 1644, repealing the statutes of Edward 
VI. and Elizabeth, for uniformity in the Common 
Prayer; and ordaining that the book of Common 
Prayer should not from thenceforth be used in any 
church, chapel, or place of public worship within the 
kingdom of England or dominion of Wales ; but that 
the directory for public worship therein set forth, 
should be thenceforth used, pursued, and observed in 
all exercises of the public worship of God.* 

The directory referred to by the above ordinance 
was drawn up by the assembly of divines at West- 
minster,t who were the standing council of the par- 
liament in all matters concerning religion ; the pre- 
face represents the use of the liturgy or service-book 
as * burdensome, and a great hindrance to the preach- 
' ing of the word, and that ignorant and superstitious 
'people had made an idol of common prayer, and, 

* pleasing themselves in their presence at that service, 
'and their lip-labour in bearing a part in it, had 

* thereby hardened themselves in their ignorance and 
'carelessness of saving knowledge and true piety. 
' That the liturgy had been a great means, as on the 
' one hand to make and increase an idle unedifying 
' ministry, which contented itself with set forms made 
' to their hands by others, without putting forth them- 

* selves to exercise the gift of prayer, with which our 
' Lord Jesus Clirist pleaseth to furnish all his servants 
' whom he calleth to that office ; so on the other side it 
' had been, and ever would be, if continued, a matter 
' of endless strife and contention in the church.' 

For these and other reasons contained in the preface, 
which represent the hearing of the word as a much 
more important duty of religion than prayer or 
thanksgiving, the directory establishes a new form of 
divine worship, in which the singing of Psalms is all 
of music that is allowed ; concerning which the fol- 
lowing are the rules : — 

' It is the duty of Christians to praise God pub- 
' lickly by singing of psalms, together in the congre- 

* gation, and also privately in the family. In singing 

* of psalms the voice is to be tuneably and gravely 
' ordered ; but the chief care must be to sing with 
' understanding and with grace in the heart, making 
'melody unto the Lord. That the whole congre- 

* gation may join herein, every one that can read is 
' to have a psalm-book, and all others, not disabled 

* by age or otherwise, are to be exhorted to learn to 

* read. But for the present, where many in the con- 
'gregation cannot read, it is convenient that the 
' minister, or some fit person appointed by him and 
' the other ruling officers, do read the ps^m line by 
' line before the singing thereof.' 

The objection of the Puritans to the use of in- 
strumsiital Music in holy offices is, that it is both 
Jewish and Popish : upon which it may be remarhed 
that the same rtiay respectively be said of one at least 

• Ruthw. part II. vol. II. pa^ 8S9. 

t Pref. to vol. III. of Neal'e Hist, of the Pnritant. 


of the ten Commandments and of the Lord! s Pray e 
and Sir Hdward Deerinffy who had the merit of 
bringing into the House of Commons the Bill for 
the abolition of Episcopacy j in the true spirit of 
his party has asserted in prmt that one single groan 
in the Spirit is worth the Diapason of all the Uhu/rch 
music in the world. See his Declaration and Pe- 
tition to the House of Common», Lond. 1644. The 
Directory seems to have compounded the matter by 
allowing the singing of Pscums, but has left it as 
a question to be agitated in future, whether the use 
of Organs in Divine worship be lawfd or not ; ac- 
cordingly upon the Restoration of the lAturqy and 
the use of Organs in 1660, the l^on-conformists de- 
clared against all instrumental music in Churches, 
and gave occasion to the publication of a discourse 
entitled ' The well-tuned Organ^ iy one Joseph 
Brookband, a Clergyman, 4do, 1660, wherein the 
question is fully discussed and the Affirmative main- 
tained. In 1679, Dr. Edward Wetenhall, then 
Chanter of Christ Church, Dublin, and afterwards 
Bishop ofKilmore and Ross, published a discourse 
of Gifts and Offices, i.e. Prayer, Sinaing and 
Preaching, in the worship of God, 8r(7. wherein the 
usage in the established church with reject to the 
points in question is with great learning and judg- 
ment defended. In 1698, upon the erection of an 
organ in the Parish Church of Tiverton, in the 
dounty of Devon, a sermon was preached by one 
Mr, Jyewie, which produced an anonymous answer 
in 4:to, 1698. This was followed by a discourse 
concerning the rise and antiquity of Cathedral 
Worship, in a letter to a friend first printed in 
1699, and afterwards in a collection of Tracts on 
the growth of Deism and other subjects, 8vo. 1709. 
This discourse includes a very severe censure of the 
practice in question; but was suffered to remain 
without animadversion. In 1700, the learned Mr. 
Henry Dodwell published a treatise concerning the 
lawfulness of mjusic in holy offices, in an octavo 
volume; the preface written by the above Mr. Newte 
is a formal reply to the answer to the sermon ; and 
for upwards of four-score years this controversy, 
which began between Cartright and Hooker^ has 
been at rest. Videfrst note in chap. cxxv. 

Thus was the whole fabric of the liturgy subverted, 
and the study of that kind of harmony rendered use- 
less, which had hitherto been looked upon as a great 
incentive to devotion. That there is a tendency in 
music to excite grave, and even devout, as well as 
lively and mirthful affections, no one can doubt who 
is not an absolute stranger to its efficacy ; and though 
it may perhaps be said that the effects of music are 
mechanical, and that there can be nothing pleasing 
to God in that devotion which follows the involuntary 
operation of sound on the human mind : this is more 
than can be proved ; and the scripture seems to inti- 
mate the contrary. 

The abolition of the liturgy was attended not barely 
with a contempt of those places where it had been 
usually performed ; but by a positive exertion of that 
power which the then remaining reliques of the legis- 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXI. 



latnre had nsurped, the Common Prayer had been de- 
clared by public authority to be a aaperstitious ritual. 
In the opinion of these men it therefore became 
necessary for the promotion of true religion that or- 
gans should be taken down ; that choral music-books 
should be torn and destroyed ; that painted glass win- 
dows should be broken ; that cathedral service should 
be totally abolished, and that those retainers to the 
church whose duty it had been to celebrate its more 
solemn service, should betake themselves to some em- 
ployment less offensive to God than that of singing 
his praises. In consequence of these, which were the 
predominant opinions of those times, collegiate and 
parochial churches were spoiled of their ornaments ; 
monuments were defaced ; sepulchral inscriptions en- 
graven on brass were torn up ; libraries and reposi- 
tories were ransacked for ancient musical service- 
books, and Latin or English, popish or protestant, 
they were deemed equally superstitious and ungodly, 
and as such were committed to the flames or other- 
wise destroyed, and, in short, such havoc and devas- 
tation made, as could only be equalled by that which 
attended the suppression of religious houses under 
Henry VIII. 

The sentiments of these men, who, to express the 
meekness and inoffensiveness of their dispositions, 
bad assumed the name of Puritans, with respect to 
the reverence due to places set apart for. the purpose 
of religious worship, were such as freed them from 
all restraints of common decency : that there is no 
inherent holiness in the stones or timbers that com- 
pose a cathedral or other church ; and that the cere- 
mony of consecration implies nothing more than an 
exemption of the place or thing which is the subject 
of it from vulgar and common use, is agreed by the 
sober and rational kind of mankind; and on the 
minds of such the ceremonies attending the dedi- 
cation of churches have operated accordingly ; but, 
as if there had been a merit in contradicting the 
common sense and opinion of the world, no sooner 
were these men vested with the power, than they 
found the means to level all distinctions of place and 
situation, and to pervert the temples of God to the 
vilest and most profane uses. 

To instance in one particular ; the cathedral church 
of St Paul was turned into horse-quarters for the sol- 
diers of the parliament, saving the choir, which was 
separated by a brick wall from the nave, and con- 
verted into a preaching place, the entrance to which 
was at a door formerly a window on the north side 
eastwards.* Hitherto many of the citizens and others 
were used to resort to hear Dr. Cornelius Burgess, 
who had an assignment of four hundred pounds a 
year out of the revenue of the church, as a reward 
for his sermons, which were usually made up of in- 
vectives against deans, chapters, and singing-men, 
against whom he seemed to entertain a great anti- 
pathy .f The noble Corinthian portico at the west 
end, designed by Jones, was leased out to a man of 
a projecting head, who built in it a number of small 
shops, which were letten by him to haberdashers, 

• Dngdtle't Hbt. of St. Paul's Cathedzal, pag. 17S 
i Athen. Ozon. voL II. coL 847. 

glovers, semsters, as they were then called, or mil- 
liners, and other petty tradesmen, and obtained the 
name of St Paul's Change. 

Of musicians of eminence who flourished in the 
reign of king Charles I. the following are among the 
chief: — 

Richard Deering was descended from an ancient 
family of that name in Kent He was bred up in 
Italy, where he obtained the reputation of a most 
admirable musician. On his return to England, 
he practised for some time, but being straightly 
importuned, he became organist to the monastery of 
English nuns at Brussels; upon the marriage of 
king Charles I. he was appointed organist to his 
consort Henrietta Maria, in which station he con- 
tinued till he was compelled to leave England : he 
took the degree of bachelor of music as a member of 
Christ-Church college, Oxon, in 1610 ; he has left 
of his composition ' Cantiones sacrae quinque vocum, 
' cum basso continue ad Organum.' Antwerp, 1597 ; 
and ' Cantica sacra ad melodiam madrigalium elabo- 
' borata senis vocibus.' Antwerp, 1618. He died in 
the communion of the church of Bome about the year 

John Hingston, a scholar of Orlando Gibbons, J 
was organist to Oliver Cromwell, who as it is said, 
had some affection for music and mu8icians.§ Hing- 
ston was first in the service of Charles I. but for a 
pension of one hundred pounds a year he went over 
to Cromwell, and instructed his daughters in music. 
He bred up under him two boys, whom he taught to 
sing with him Deering*8 Latin songs, which Cromwell 
greatly delighted to hear, and had often performed 
before him at the Cock-pit at Whitehall. He had 
concerts at his own house, at which Cromwell would 

t Anthony Wood, from whose manntcript in the Ashmolcan Museum 
the above account is partly taken, was not able to fill up the blank 
which he left therein for the name of Kingston's master ; but a manu- 
script in the hand-writing of Hingston, now extant, ascertains it. This 
relic is thus inscribed :— ' My Masters Songs in score with some Fanta- 
' zias of 6 i>arts of my own.' The Fantams stand first in the book, and 
are about six in number, some subscribed Jo. Hingston, Jan. 1640, and 
other dates ; the songs are subscribed Orlando Gibbons. Hence it is to 
be inferred that Orlando Gibbons was the master of Hingston : and this 
supposition is corroborated by the following anecdote, communicated by 
one of Kingston's descendants now living, to wit, that the Christian 
name Orlando, for reasons which they have hitherto been ignorant of, 
has in several instances been given to the males of the family. Note, 
that in the MS. above-mentioned one of Gibbons's songs has this memo- 
randum, ' Made for Prince Charles to be sung with 5 voices to his wind 

* instrument.' 

$ There are manv particulars related of Cromwell, which show that he 
was a lover of music : indeed Anthony Wood expressly asserts it in his 
life of himself, pag. 139, and as a proof of It relates the following story .— 
*A. W. had some acquaintance with James Quin, M.A. one of the 
' senior students of Christ Church, and h|ui several times heard him 
' sing with great admiration, His voice was a bass, and he had a great 
' command of it ; t'was very strong, and exceeding trouling, but he 

* wanted skill, and could scarce sing in consort. He had been tum'd out 

* of his student's place by the visitors, but being well acquainted with 

* some great men of those times that loved musick, they introduced him 

* into the company of Oliver Cromwell the protector, who loved a good 
' voiee and instrumental musick well. He heard him sing with very 
' great delight, liquor'd him with sack, and in conclusion said, *' Mr. 
*' Quhi, you have done very well, what shall I do for vouf " To which 
' Quin made answer with great complements, of which he had command, 
' with great grace, '* That your Highness would be pleased to restore me 
" to my student's place ; " which be did accordingly, and so kept it to 
' his dying day.' 

Cromwell waa also fond of the music of the organ, as appears fh>m the 
following remarkable anecdote :— In the grand rebellion, when the organ 
at Magdalen college in Oxford among others was taken down, Cromwell 
ordered it to be carefully conveyed to Hampton-Court, where it was 
placed in the great gallery ; and one of Cromwell's favourite amusements 
was to be entertahied with this instrument at leisure hours. It con- 
tinued there till the Restoration, when it was returned to its original 
owners, and was the same that remained in the choir of that college till 
within these last thirty years. Observations on the Fairy Queen of 
Spenser by Tho. Warton. Lond. 1772, vol. II. pag. 236, in not. 

Digitized by 




Book XIIL 

often be present. In one of these musical entertain- 
ments Sir Roger L'Estrange happened to be a per- 
former, and Sir Roger not leaving the room upon 
Cromwell's coming into it, the Cavaliers gave him the 
name of Oliver's fiddler ; but in a pamphlet entitled 
Truth and Loyalty vindicated, Lond. 1662, he clears 
himself from the imputation which this reproachful 
appellation was intended to fix on him, and relates the 
story in the words following : — 

• Concerning the story of the fiddle, this I suppose 
' might be the rise of it. Being in St. James's park, 
' I heard an organ touched in a little low room of one 

* Mr. Hinckson's ; I went in, and found a private 

* company of five or six persons : they desired me to 
' take up a viole and bear a part, I did so, and that a 

* part too, not much to advance the reputation of my 

* cunning. By and by, without the least colour of a 

* design or expectation, in comes Cromwell. He 

* found us playing, and as I remember so he left us.' 

Hingston was Dr. Blow's first master, though the 
inscription on Blow's monument takes no notice of it, 
but says that he was brought up under Dr. Christopher 
Gibbons. He had a nephew named Peter, educated 
under Purcell, and who was organist of Ipswich, and 
an eminent teacher of music there and in that neigh- 
bourhood. A picture of John Hingston is in the 
music-school, Oxon. 

John Hilton, (a Portrait,) a bachelor in music 
of the university of Cambridge, was organist of the 
church of St. Margaret, Westminster, and also clerk 
of that parish.* He was the author of a madrigal in 
five parts, printed in the Triumphs of Oriana. In 
1627 he published Pa La's for three voices ;t and in 
1652, * A choice Collection of Catches, Rounds, and 
Canons for 3 or 4 voyces,* containing some of the 
most excellent compositions of this kind any where 
extant, many of them by himself, the rest by the most 
eminent of his contemporaries. 

There are extant in the choir-books of many 
cathedrals a morning and evening service of Hilton's 
composition, but they were never printed. He died 
in the time of the usurpation, and was buried in the 
cloister of the abbey-church of Westminster, with the 
solemnity of an anthem sung in the church before his 
corpse was brought out for interment ; an honour 
which he well deserved, for, though not a voluminous 
composer, he was an ingenious and sound musician. 

William Lawbs, the son of Thomas Lawes, a 
vicar-choral of the church of Salisbury, and a native 
of that city, having an early propensity to music, 
was, at the expence of Edward earl of Hertford, 

* These two <^0lce$ may eeem ineompalible^ but upon eeareking the Pariek 
Book* it is found. The antient usage of the Paruh of St. Margaret was 
to elect tun pereone to the qglce of Parish Clerks and one of them to that 
of Organist. Hilton was elected Parish Clerk and Organist in 1628, and 
^ the account of the Churchwardens his salary as Clerk is diarged at 
£6. \3s. id. or ten Marks a year: his salary for qfflciaHng in the latter 
capacity does not appear, ft is supposed that his employment of Oryanist 
ceased in 1644 ; for in that year by an ordinance of Parliament, Organs 
were taken down ; and the church seems to have been without one till offer 
the Restoration, when Father Smith was employed to build that which is 
now in the above churchy and was himself in 1676 elected Orgonitt with 
a salary of £20. a year. It appears by the PoHM Books, that, while the 
church was without an organ, it was the usage there to read, and not to sing 
the singing Psahns. 

f Fa La's are short songs set to music, with a repetition of those 
syllables at the second and fourth line, and sometimes only at the end 
of erery stanza. Morley composed many songs of this kind, hut none 
equal to those of BOton, which are remarkable for the goodness of the 

educated under Coperario. He was first of the choir 
at Chichester, but was called from thence, and on the 
first day of January, 1602, was sworn a gentleman 
of the royal chapel. On the sixth day of May, 1611 
he resigned his place in favour of one Ezekiel Wood, 
and became one of the private musicians to king 
Charles I. Puller says he was respected and beloved 
of all such persons who cast any looks towards virtue 
and honour ; and he seems to have been well worthy 
of their regard : his gratitude and loyalty to his 
master appear in this, that he took up arms for the 
king against the parliament, and though, to exempt 
him from danger, the general. Lord Gerrard, made 
him a commissary, yet the activity of his spirit dis- 
dained that security which was intended for him, 
and at the siege of Chester, in 1645, he lost his life 
by a casual shot The king was so afifected at his 
loss, that it is said he wore a particular mourning 
for him. J 

His compositions were for the most part Pantasias 
for viols and the organ. His brother Henry, in the 
preface to a joint work of theirs, hereunder men- 
tioned, asserts that he composed above thirty several 
sorts of music for voices and instruments, and that 
there was not any instrument in use in his time but 
he composed so aptly to it as if he had unly studied 
that Many songs of his are to be met with in the 
collections of that day ; several catches and rounds, 
and a few canons of his composition are published in 
Hilton's Collection, but the chief of his printed works 
are, * Choice Psalms put into Musick for three voices,' 
with a thorough-bass, composed to the words of Mr. 
Sandys's paraphrase, by him in conjunction with his 
brother Henry, and published in 1648, with nine 
canons of William Lawes printed at the end of the 
thorough-bass book. 

Henry Lawes, (a Portrait,) the brother of the 
former. Of his education little is known, except that 
he was a scholar of Coperario. By the cheque-book 
of the chapel royal it appears that he was sworn in 
Pisteller on the first day of January, 1625, and on 
the third of November following a gentleman of 
the chapel ; after that he was appointed clerk of the 
cheque, and of the private music to king Charles I. 
Lawes is celebrated for having first introduced the 
Italian style of music into this kingdom, upon no 
better pretence than a song of his, the subject where- 
of is the story of Theseus and Ariadne, being the first 
among his Ayres and Dialogues for one, two, and 
three voices, Lond. fol. 1653, wherein are some 
passages which a superficial reader might mistake 
for recitative. The book however deserves par- 
ticular notice, for it is published with a preface by 
Lawes himself, and commendatory verses by Waller, 

I The following quibbling Umos were written on occasion of his death :— 
On Mr. William Lawes, Musician, slain at the siege of West Chester. 
Concord is conquer'd ; in this urn there lies 
The Master of great Music's Mysteries: 
And in U is a riddle like the cause. 
Will. Lawes was slain by those whose Wills were Laws. 
Who was the author of them is hardly worth enquiry: but it maybenoted. 
that awtong the cowtmendatory verses prefixed to the second edition of 
PlayfonTs Musical Companion, printed in 1673, are certain lines written 
by Tlkomas Jordan, wherein is this couplet — 

When by the fury of the good old cause. 
Will. Lawes was slain by such whose Wills were Laws. 
This Thomas Jordan was a Dramatic Poet and a composer of city 
pageants: there is on article for him in Langbaiae's account of the Eng. 
lishDr • ~ ' 

i DrauuUic Poets, page 306. 

Digitized by 





Edward and John Phillips, the nephews of Milton, 
and other persons ; besides, that the songs are, for 
the poetry, some of the best compositions of the kind 
in the English language ; and, what is remarkable, 
many of them appear to have been written by young 
noblemen and gentlemen, of whose talents for poetry 
there are hardly any other evidences remaining; 
some of their names are as follow : Thomas earl of 
Winchelsea, William earl of Pembroke, John earl of 
Bristol, lord Broghill, Mr. Thomas Carey, a ^on of 
the earl of Monmouth, Mr. Henry Noel, son of lord 
Camden, Sir Charles Lucas, supposed to be he that 
together with Sir George Lisle was shot at Colchester 
after the surrender of the garrison; and Carew 
Raleigh, the son of Sir Walter Raleigh. In the 
preface to this book the author mentions his having 
formerly composed some airs to Italian and Spanish 
words; and/Bpeaking of the Italians, he acknow- 
ledges them m general to be the greatest masters of 
music : yet he contends that this nation.bad produced 
as able musicians as any in Europe. He censures 
the fondness of the age for songs sung in a language 
which the hearers do not understand : and to ridicule 
it, mentions a song of his own composition, printed 
at the end of the book, which is nothing else than an 
index containing the initial words of some old Italian 
songs or madrigals ; and this index, which read to- 
gether made a strange medley of nonsense, he says 
he set to a varied air, and gave out that it came from 
Italy, whereby it passed for an Italian song. In the 
title-page of this book is a very fine engraving of i4he 
author's head by Faithome, a copy whereof, with the 
inscription under it, is inserted in ike Portrait volume. 

The first composition in this book is the Complaint 
of Ariadne, WTitten by Mr. William Cartwright of 
Christ-Church college, Oxon. The music is neither 
recitative nor air, but is in so precise a medium 
between both, that a name is wanting for it. The 
song is in the key of C, with the minor third, and 
seems to abound with semitonic intervals, the use of 
which was scarcely known at that time. Whether 
it was this singular circumstance, or some other less 
obvious, that contributed to recommend it, cannot 
now be discovered, but the applauses that attended 
the publication of it exceed all belief. 

In the year 1633, Henry Lawes, together with 
Simon Ives, were made choice of to compose the airs, 
lessons, and songs of a masque presented at Whitehall 
on Candlemas-night before the king and queen by 
the gentlemen of the four inns of court, under the 
direction of Noy the attorney-general, Mr. Edward 
Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, Mr. Selden, 
Bulstrode Whitelocke,* and others. Of this ridi- 

* Whitelocke made great pretentiont to skill in music. In the raanu- 
script memoirs of his life above-mentioned, he relates that < with the 
' assistance of Mr. Ives he composed an air. and called it Whitelocke's 

* Coranto, which was first pl^ed publicly by the Black Friars music, 
' then esteemed the best in London. That whenever he went to the 
' playhouse there, the musicians would immediately upon his coming In 
' play it. That the queen hearing it, would scarce believe it was com- 
' posed by an Englishman, because, as she said, it was fuller of life and 
' spirit than the English airs, but that she honoured the Coranto and the 

* maker of it with her majesty's royal commendation : and, lastly, that 
' it grew to that request, that all the common musicians in this towne. 
' and all over the kingdome. gott the composition of it, and played it 
'publicly in all places for about thirty years after.' The reader may 
probably wish to peruse a dance tune the composition of a grave lawyer, 
one who was afterwards a commissioner of the great seal, and an 
ambassador, and which a oueen of England vouchsafed thus to honour ; 
and to gratify his curiosity it is here inserted by the favour of Dr. 
Morton of the British Museum, the possessor of the MS. from which 
it is taken :— 


In the Journal of his embassy to Sweden, lately published from 
the above-mentioned MS. is this passage: 'Piementelle staying with 

* Whitelocke above three howers, he was intertained with Whitelocke's 

* musick ; the rector choii was Mr. Ingelo, excellent in that and other 
' fiaculties, and seven or eight of his gentlemen, well skilled both in 

* vocall and inttrumentidl musicke : and Whitelocke himself sometimes 

* in private did beare his part with tnem, having bin in his younger dayes 
' a master and composer of musick.' Vol. I. page 289. 

In the account which gave occaslou to this note it is said that Lawes 

Lord Coiimissioner Whitelocke. 

and Ives had each an hundred pounds for composing the music to the 
masque : the same adds that proportionable rewards were also given 
to four French gentlemen of the queen's chapel, who assisted in the 
representation. Whitelocke's words are these: 'I invited them one 

* morning to a collation at St. Dunstan's taveme, in the great roome, the 
' Oracle of Apollo, where each of them had his plate layd for him covered, 
' and the napkin by it ; and when they opened their plates, they found 

* in each of them forty pieces of geuld of theii master's coyne fcr the 
' first dish.' 

Digitized by 




Book. XIIL 

culoTiB Bcene of mummery Whitelocke has given an 
account in his Memorials, but one much longer and 
more particular in certain memoirs of his life extant 
in manuscript, wherein he relates that Lawes and 
Ives had each an hundred pounds for his trouble, 
and that the whole charge of the music came to 
about one thousand pounds. The 7)iasque was Tvritten 
by Shirley t it is entitled the Triumpn of Peace, and 
is printed in 4:to. like his vlays, William Lawes 
joined with his bro titer ana Ives in the composition 
of the music. 

Henry Lawes also composed tunes to Mr. George 
Sandys's excellent paraphrase on the Psalms, published 
first in folio in the year 1638, and in 1676 in octavo. 
These tunes are different from those in the Psalms 
coflaposed by Henry and William Lawes, and pub- 
lishwl in the year 1648 ; they are for a single voice 
with a bass, and were intended for private devotion : 
that to Psalm Ixxii. is now, and beyond the memory 
of any now living, has been played by the chimes of 
the church of St. Lawrence Jewry, London, at the 
hours of four, eight, and twelve. 

Milton's Comus was originally set by Henry Lawes 
and was first published by him in the year 1637, 
with a dedication to Lord Bracly, son and heir of 
the earl of Bridgewater. 

Of the history of this elegant poem little more 
is known than that it was written for the entertain- 
ment of the noble earl mentioned in the title-page 
of it, and that it was represented as a masque by his 
children and others ; but the fact is, that it is founded 
on a real story: for the earl of Bridgewater being 
president of Wales in the year 1634, had his residence 

at Ludlow-castle in Shropshire ; lord Bracly and 
Mr. Egerton, his sons, and lady Alice i^erton, his 
daughter, passing through a place called the Hay- 
Wood forest, or Haywood in Herefordshire, were 
benighted, and the lady for some short time lost; 
this accident being related to their father upon their 
arrival at his castle, furnished a subject which Milton 
wrought into one of the finest poems of the kind 
in any language ; and being a drama, it was repre- 
sented on Michaelmas night, 1634, at Ludlow-castle, 
for the entertainment of the family and the neigh- 
bouring nobility and gentry. Lawes himself per- 
forming in it the character of the attendant spirit, 
who towards the middle of the drama appears to 
the brothers habited like a shepherd, and is by them 
called Thirsis.* 

Lawes's music to Comus was never printed, and 
there is nothing in any of the printed copies of the 
poem, nor in the many accounts of Milton now 
extant, that tends to satisfy a curious enquirer as to 
the form in which it was set to music, whether in 
recitative, or otherwise; but by a MS. in his own 
hand-writing it appears that the two songs, ' Sweet 

* Echo,' and * Sabrina Fair,' together with three other 
passages in the poem, 'Back, shepherds, back,' *To 

* the ocean now. I fly,* * Now my task is smoothly 
'done/ selected for the purpose, were the whole of 
the original music to Comus, and that the rest of it 
being blank verse, was uttered with action in a man- 
ner conformable to the rules of theatric representation. 
The first of these songs is here given. At the end 
of it a quaint alteration of the reading occurs, which 
none but a musician would have thought of : — 

SWEET £o-cho sweet - est Nimi^e, that liv'st un - seen 

within thy air - y shell, 


by slow 

Me - an-ders mar-gent greene, and in the Vi - o - let em-broider'd vale where the Lovelome 

Night-in-gale night - ly to thee her sad . 

BODg monm - cth well, Canst thou not tell me 

of a gen-Uepayre, that lik - est thy Narcis-sos are? 

O if thoa have hid them in some 

• Sec the dedicattoD of the original printed in 16S7, and in Dr. Newton's edition of Milton's poetical works. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXI. 



pc 1 y 1.-= |K }f. ' ^ » 1^ — »• '-' W — ' 

So maysttlioabe trans-planted to the skies, and hold a coon-ter-point to all heav'ns Har - mo - nies. 

m - ^ ^ /TS^ 

Lawes taught music in the family of the earl of 
Bridgewater, the lady Alice Egerton was in particular 
his scholar ;* he was intimate with Milton, as may 
be conjectured from that sonnet of the latter — 
* Harry, whose tuneful and well-measured song.' 
Peck says that Milton wrote his masque of Comus 
at the request of Lawes, who engaged to set it to 
music ; this fact needs but little evidence ; he fulfilled 
his engagement, adapting, as we may well suppose, 
the above song to the voice of the young lady whose 
part in the drama required that she should sing it 

The songs of Lawes to a very great number are 
to be found in the collections entitled 'Select musical 
* Ayres and Dialogues,' by Dr. Wilson, Dr. Charles 
Colman, Lawes himself, and William Webb, fol. 
1652; Ayres and Dialogues published by himself 
in 1653, and The Treasury of Music, 1669 ; and in 
various others printed about that time. Among them 
are most of the songs of Waller set by Lawes ; and 
Mr. W^aller has acknowledged his obligation to him 
for one in particular which he had set in the year 
1635, in a poem wherein he celebrates his skill as 
a musician, concluding with these lines : — 
< Let those which only warbk long, 
' And gargle io their throats a song, 
* Content themselves with ut, re, mi, 
' Let words and sense be set by thee.' 

Mr. Fenton, in a note on this poem, says that the 
best poets of that age were ambitious of having their 
Terses composed by this incomparable artist, who 
having been educated under Signer Coperario, in- 
troduced a softer mixture of Italian airs than before 
had been practised in our nation.f This assertion has 
no better a foundation than the bare opinion of its 
author, and upon a slight examination will appear to 
be a mistake ; Coperario was not an Italian, but an 
Englishman, who having visited Italy for improve- 
ment, returned to England, Italianized his name, 
and affected to be called Signer Giovanni Coperario, 

* SJuwagaltoCouuUuofCarbery. See the Dedication to Lawet^t Song$t 
1653. Dr. Taplor preoehed her funeral Mermon ; it is among hi* printed 
eentons. There i» a eong among the old collection* entitled The JSarl to 
the Countess of Carberg. Her sister Lady Mary married Lord Herbert of 
Cherbwry. See the above Dedication, and Collins's Peerage^Egerton Duke 
of Bridgewater, 

f Mr. Fenton, in the tame note upon these lines of Waller, seems not 
to have understood the meaning of the two last. It was a custom with 
the musicians of those times to frame compositions, and those in many 
parts, to the syllables of Ouido's hexachord, and many such are extant : 
Mr. Waller meant in the passage abore-cited to reprehend this practice, 
and Tery emphatically says that while others content themselves with 
setting notes to sylkibles that have no meaning. Lawes employs his 
talent in adapting mutk to words replete with sentiment, like those of 
Mr. Waller. 

Henbt Lawes. 

instead of Mr. John Cooper. It appears by his com* 
positions that he affected to imitate the style of the 
Italians, but that he introduced into our music any 
mixture of the Italian air, will hardly be granted by 
any that have perused his works, .^d as to Lawes, 
he has in the preface to his Ayres and Dialogues, 
intimated little less than a dislike of the Italian style, 
and in the last composition in that book done his 
utmost to ridicule it. The truth is, that not only in 
the time of Coperario, but in that of Lawes himself, 
the music of the English had scarce any air at all : 
and although in the much-applauded song of Lawes, 
his Ariadne, he has imitated the Italians by setting 
part of it in recitative ; there is nothing in the airs 
that distinguishes them from the songs of the time 
composed by English masters ; at least it must be 
confessed that they differ widely in style from those 
of Carissimi and Marc Antonio Cesti, who were the 
first that introduced into music that elegant succession 
of harmonic intervals which is understood by the 
term melody. This superiority of the Italian melody 
is to be ascribed to the invention of the opera, in 
which the airs are looked on as the most considerable 
part of the entertainment : it is but natural to suppose 
that when the stage was in possession of the finest 
voices of a country, every endeavour would be used 
to exhibit them to advantage ; and this could no way 
BO efifectually be done as by giving to the voice-parts 
such mellodies as by their natural sweetness and 
elegant contrivance would most conduce to engage 
the attention of the judicious hearers. 

But to return to Henry Lawes, he continued in 
the service of Charles I. no longer than till the 
breaking out of the rebellion ; after that he betook 
himself to the teaching of ladies to sing, and by his 
irreproachable life and gentlemanly deportment, con- 
tributed more than all the musicians of his time to 
raise the credit of his profession; he however re- 
tained his place in the royal chapel, and composed 
the anthem for the coronation of Charles II. He 
died on the twenty-first day of October, 1662, and 
was buried in Westminster abbey. 

If we were to judge of the merit of Lawes as a 
musician from the numerous testimonies of authors 
in his favour, we should rank him among the first 
that this country has produced; but setting these 
aside, his title to fame will appear but ill-grounded. 
Notwithstanding he was a servant of the church, he 
contributed nothing to the increase of its stores : his 

Digitized by 




Book XIII. 

talent lay chiefly in the composition of songs for 
a single voice, and in these the great and almost 
only excellence is the exact correspondence between 
the accent of the music and the quantities of the 
verse ; and if the poems of Milton and Waller in his 
commendation be attended to, it will be found that 
his care in this particular is his chief praise. 

It will readily be believed that music flourished 
but very little during the time of the usurpation ; for 
although Cromwell was a lover of it, as appears by 
his patronage of Hingston, and other particulars of 
him above-noted; yet the liturgy being abolished, 
those excellent seminaries of music, cathedrals, ceased 
now to afford a subsistence to its professors, so that 
tliey were necessitated to seek a livelihood by teach- 
ing vocal and instrumental music in private families ; 
and even here they met with but a cold reception, 
for the fanaticism of the times led many to think 
music an unchristian recreation, and that no singing 
but the singing of David's Psalms was to be tolerated 
in a church that pretended to be forming itself into 
the most perfect model of primitive sanctity. 

Of the gentlemen of king Charles the First's 
chapel, a few had loyalty and resolution enough to 
become sharers in his fortunes; and among these 
were George Jeflferies, his organist at Oxford in 
1643, and Dr. John Wilson ; of the latter Wood 
gives an account to tliis purpose : — 

John Wilson^^ Portrait^) was bom at Fever- 
sham in Kent. He seemed to value himself on the 
place of his nativity, and was often used to remark 
for the honour of that county, that both Alphonso 
Ferabosco and John Jenkins were his countrymen ; 
the former was bom of Italian parents at Greenwich, 
and the latter at Maidstone ; they both excelled in 
the composition of Fantasias for viols, and were 
greatly esteemed both here and abroad. He was 
first a gentleman of his majesty's chapel, and after- 
wards his servant in ordinary in the faculty of music ; 
and was esteemed the best performer on the lute in 
England; and being a constant attendant on the 
king, frequently played to him, when the king would 
usually lean on his shoulder. He was created doctor 
at Oxford in 1644, but upon the surrender of the 
garrison of that city in 1646, he left the university, 
and was received into the family of Sir William 
W^alter, of Sarsden in Oxfordshire, who with his 
lady, were great lovers of music. At length, upon 
the request of Mr. Thomas Barlow, lecturer of 
Church-Hill, the parish where Sir William Walter 
dwelt, to Dr. Owen, vice-chancellor of the university, 
he was constituted music-professor thereof anno 1656, 
and had a lodging assigned him in Baliol college, where 
being assisted by some of the royalists, he lived very 
comfortably, exciting in the university such a love of 
music as in a great measure accounts for that flourish- 
ing state in which it has long subsisted there, and 
for those numerous private meetings at Oxford, of 
which Anthony Wood, in his life of himself, has 
given an ample and interesting narrative. After the 
Kestoration he became one of the private music 
to Charles II. and one of the gentlemen of his chapel, 
succeeding in the latter capacity Henry Lawes, who 

died on the twenty-first day of October, 1662. These 
preferments drew him from Oxford, and induced him 
to resign his place of professor to Edward Low, who 
had officiated as his deputy, and to settle in a house 
at the Horse-ferry, at Westminster, where he dwelt 
till the time of his death, which was in 1673, he then 
being near seventy -nine years old : he was buried in 
the little cloister of St Peter's church, Westminster. 
A picture of him is yet remaining in the music- 
school at Oxford, and the engraving (as in separate 
Volume) is taken from it The compositions of Dr. 
Wilson are ' Psalterium Carolinum, the Devotions of 
his sacred Majestie in his solitudes and sufferings 
'rendered in verse, set to musick for three voices and 
*an organ or theorbo,* fol. 1657. * Cheerful Airs or 
'Ballads; ' first composed for one single voice, and since 
*set ' for three voices. Oxon. 1660.' 'Airs for a voice 
'alone to a Theorbo or Bass Viol ;' these are printed 
in a collection entitled ' Select Airs and Dialogues,' 
fol. 1653. * Divine Services and anthems,' the words 
whereof are in James Clifford's Collection, Lond. 
1663. He also composed music to sundry of the odes 
of Horace, and to some select passages in Ausonius, 
Claudian, Petronius Arbiter, and Statins, these were 
never published, but are extant in a manuscript 
volume curiously bound in blue Turkey leather, 
with silver clasps, which the doctor presented to the 
imiversity with an injunction that no person should 
be permitted to peruse it till after his decease. It is 
now among the archives of the Bodleian library. 

It appears that Dr. Wilson was a man of a facetious 
temper, and Wood has taken occasion from this 
circumstance to represent him as a great humourist, 
and a pretender to buffoonery : most people know 
that a humourist and a man of humour are two very 
different characters, but this distinction did not 
occur to Anthony. Henry Lawes has given a much 
more amiable, and probably a truer portrait of him 
in the following lines, part of a poem prefixed to the 
Psalterium Carolinum : — 

< From long acquaintance and experience, I 

* Could tell the world thy known integrity ; 

* Unto thy friend ; thy true and honest heart, 

' Ev'n mind, good nature, all but thy great art, 

* Which I but dully understand.' 


Benjamin Hooers was the son of Peter Rogers of 
the chapel of St George at Windsor ; he was bom 
at Windsor, and was first a chorister under the 
tuition of Dr. Nathaniel Giles, and afterwards a clerk 
or singing-man in that chapel : after that he became 
organist of Christ-Church, Dublin, and continued in 
that station till the rebellion in 1641, when being 
forced thence, he returned to Windsor, and again 
became a clerk in St. George's chapel; but the 
troubles of the times obliging him to quit that station, 
he subsisted by teaching music at Windsor, and on 
an annual allowance, which was made him in con- 
sideration of the loss of his place. In 1663, he 
composed Airs of four parts for Violins, which 
were presented to the archduke Leopold, afterwards 

Digitized by 


Chap. OXXIL 



emperor of Grermany, and were often played before 
him to his great delight ; he being himself an excel- 
lent mnsician. 

Mr. Rogers was favoured in his studies by Dr. 
Nathaniel Ingelo, a fellow of Eton college, who in 
the year 1653 being appointed chaplain to lord com- 
missioner Whitelocke, embassador to Sweden, took 
with him thither some compositions for instruments, 
which were oftentimes played before queen Christina, 
and greatly admired, not only by her majesty, but 
by the Italian musicians her servants."*^ Afterwards, 
viz., in the year 1658, the same Dr. Ingelo recom- 
mended his friend Rogers to the university of Cam- 
bridge, and having obtained a mandate from Cromwell 
for that purpose, he was admitted to the degree of 
bachelor in music of that university. 

In the year 1662, October 21, Mr. Rogers was 
again appointed a derk of St. George's chapel at 
Windsor, with an addition of half the salary of 
a clerk's place beside his own, and also an allowance 
of twenty shillings per month out of the salary of 
Dr. Child, in consideration of his performing the 
duty of organist whenever Child was absent; and 
about the same time he was appointed organist of 
Eton coll^e.f All these places he held until a vacancy 
happening in Magdalen college, he was invited thither 
by his fnend Dr. Thomas Pierce, and appointed 
organist there; and in 1669, upon the openmg the 
new theatre, he was created doctor in music. In this 
station he continued till 1685, when being ejected, 
together with the fellows, by James II. the society 
of that house allowed him a yearly pension, to keep 
him, as Wood says, from the contempt of the world, 
adding, that in that condition he lived in his old age 
in a &rt of the city of Oxon. unregarded. 

The works of Dr. Rogers enumerated by Wood 
are of small account, being only some compositions 
in a collection entitled * Court Ayres, consisting of 
' Pavans, Almagnes, Corants, and Sarabands of two 

* parts,' by him. Dr. Child, and others, Lond. 1655, 
octavo, published by Playford ; and some hymns and 
anthems for two voices in a collection entitled Cantica 
Sacra, Lond. 1674, and others in the Psalms and 
Hymns of four parts, published by Playford. But 
his services and anthems, of which there are many 
in our cathedral books, are now the most esteemed 
of his works, and are justly celebrated for sweetness 
of melody and correctness of harmony. 

Wood concludes his account of him in these words : 
'His compositions for instrumental music, whether 
' in two, three, or four parts, have been highly valued, 
' and were always 30 years ago or more, first called 

* for, taken out and played, as well in the public 
' Music-school, as in private chambers ; and Dr. 
' Wilson the professor, the greatest and most curious 
'judge of music that ever was, usually wept when 
' he heard them well performed, as being wrapt up 

* Whitelocke in the account of that embassy lately published, fre- 
quratly mentions the applause given by the queen and her servants to 
vhat he calls his music, but be has forborne to mention to whom that 
applause was due, or even hinted that the author of it was Dr. Rogers. 
Whitelocke pretended to skill in music ; he says that while he was in 
Swnlen he had music in his family, and frequently performed a part. 
Vide page 579, in not. an aix of his composition. 

t Vide State TriaU, Vol. IV., p. 274. 

' in an extacy, or if you will, melted down, while 
' others smiled, or had their hands and eyes lifted up 
* at the excellency of them.' 

Upon the restoration of Charles II. the city of 
London having invited the king, the dukes of Yori^ 
and Gloucester, and the two houses of parliament to 
a feast at Guildhall, Mr. Rogers was employed to 
compose the music ; Dr. Ingelo upon this occasion 
wrote a poem entitled Hymnus Eucharisticus, be- 
ginning ' Exultate justi in Domino,' this Mr. Rogers 
set in four part84 and on Thursday the fifth day of 
July 1660, it was publicly performed in the Guild- 
hall, and Mr. Rogers was amply rewarded for his 
excellent composition. 

John Jenkins, a native of Maidstone in Kent, was 
one of the most celebrated composers of music for viols 
during the reigns of Charles the First and Second. 
He was patronized by Deerham of Norfolk, 

Esq. and by Hamon L'Estrange of the same county, 
a man of very considerable erudition. In the family 
of this gentleman, Jenkins resided for a great part of 
his life, following at the same time the profession of 
a private teacher of music. ,His compositions are 
chiefly Fantasias for viols of five and six parts, which, 
as Wood asserts, were highly valued and admired, not 
only in England, but beyond seas. He set to music 
some part of a poem entitled Theophila, or Love's 
Sacrifice, written hy Edward Benlowes, Esq., and 
printed at London, m folio, 1651 ; and many songs. 

Notwithstanding that Jenkins was so excellent a 
master, and so skilful a composer for the viol, he 
seems to have contributed in some degree to the ba- 
nishment of that instrument from concerts, and to the 
introduction of music for the violin in its stead. To 
say the truth, the Italian style in music had been 
making its way into this kingdom even from the 
beginning of the seventeenth century ; and though 
Henry Lawes and some others afifected to contemn it, 
it is well known that he and others were iinawares 
betrayed into an imitation of it ; Walter Porter pub- 
lished ' Airs and Madrigals with a Thorough-bass for 
the Organ, or Theorbo-lute, the Italian way ;' even 

I Of this hymn, those stanxas which are dally sung by way of graee 
after meat at Magdalen college, Oxford, are part: they begin at *Te 
Deum Patrem colimas/ Of the other compositions abore spoken of, and 
of the reception thev met with abroad, mention is made in a letter txom, 
Mr. Rogers to his intimate friend Anthony Wood, dated April 9, 1695, 
Arom his house in New.Inn, Hall-lane, Oxon., fh>m which the following 
is an extract . — 

* According to your dedre when you were at my house last week, I 
' have herewith nuuie some addition to what I formerly gave you. via.- 

' That Dr. Nathaniel Ingelo going into Sweedland as chaplaine to the 
- lord ambassador to Christina the queen, he did then present to the said 
* queen two seU of musique which I had newly made, being four parts. 

' viz., two treble violins, tenor, bass in Elaml key, which were played 
'often to her Mi^^^ ^7 ^« Italians, her musicians, to her great 
' content. 

* There are also several setts of his of two parts for the violins 
* called Court-masquing Ayres, printed by John Flayford, at the Inner 

' Temple, in the vear 1662, which were sent into Holland by the said John 
"~* ' ■ piay< 

^'y « - 
* bassador there ; which were so well liked off, that the noblemen and 

' Playibrd, and played there by able masters to the States General at the 
' conclusion of the treaty of peace, when the Lord Hollis went over am- 

'others at the playing thereof did drink the great rummer of wine to 
' Minehere Rogers of England: this account I had of Mr. John Ferds 
' of Magdalen college, who was there at that time, and one of the per- 
' formers thereof.' 

The letter above written is signed Ben. Rogers, and directed to his 
worthy friend Anthony Wood, at his house over-against Merton College ; 
the design of the letter is evidently to satisfy Wood in a request to have 
an account of the doctor's compositions ; and therefore, notwithstanding 
the use of the pronoun hit for mine, the compositions of two parts for 
TioUns abovementloned, must be imderstood to be the doctor's own, and 
as such they are mentioned in Wood's accoimt of him in the Fasti Oxon 
vol. II. col. 174. 

Digitized by 






Dr. Child, whose excellence la}r in the composition of 
church-music, disdained not to compose psalms after 
the Italian way, and Deering gave wholly into it, as 
appears by his Cantiones Sacrss, and his Cantica Sa- 
cra, the one published in 1597, the other in 1618. 
Others professed to follow the Italian vein, as it was 
called ; and to favour this disposition a collection of 
Italian airs was published about the beginningof king 
Charles the Second's reign, by one Girolamo JPignani, 
then resident in Londonv entitled ' Scelta di Oe«zo- 
' nette Italiane de pin autori : dedicate a gli amatori 
'della musica;' after which the English composers, 
following the example of other countries, became the 
imitators of the Italians. 

In compliance therefore with this general prepos- 
session in fjEiTour of the Italian style, Jenkins com- 
posed twelve Sonatas for two violins and a bass, with 
a thorough-bass for the organ, printed at London 
about the year 1660, and at Amsterdam in 1664; 
and these were the first compo^ons of the kind by 
an Englishman. Jenkins lived to about the year 
1680. Be is mentioned in terms of great respect by 
Christopher Simpson, in his compen^nm of Practical 
Music ; and there is a recommendatory epistle of his 
writing, prefixed to the first edition of that work 
printed in 1667. Wood says ha was a little man, 
but that he had a great souL 

Musicians of eminenx^e in the reign of Charles I. 
berades those already noticed were : — 

Adrian Battbn, a singing-man of St. PauTs and 
a celebrated composer of services and anthems, of 
which there are many in Barnard's Collection; as 
are also the words of many anthems composed by 
hun in that of Clifford. 

JoHW Cabrwarden, a native of Hertfordshire, of 
the private music to Idng Charles I. a noted teacher 
on the viol but a harsh composer. 

Richard Cobb, organist to Charles I. till the re- 
bellion, when he betook himself to the teaching of 

Dr. Charles Colh an, a gentleman of the private 
music to king Charles I. after the rebellion he taught 
in London, improving the lyra-way on the viol. 
Dr. Colman, together with Henry Lawes, Capt Cook, 
and George Hudson, composed Uie music to an enter- 
tainment written by Sir William D'Avenant, intended 
as an imitation of the Italian opera, and performed 
during the time of the usurpation at Rutland-house in 
Gharter-house-yard. Dr. Colman died in Fetter-lane, 

WiLUAH Ceanford, a singing man of St. PauTs, 
the author of many excellent rounds and catches in 
Hilton's and Playford's Collections. He composed 
that catch in particular to which Purcell afterwards 
put the words * Let's lead good honest lives, <S^' 

John Gamble, apprentice to Ambrose Beyland, a 
noted musician, was afterwards musician at one of ike 
play-houses ; from thence removed to be a comet in 
the king's chapeL After that he became one in 

* Tki$ name oecwn in the AekmoUam mamutcript : btU it probably mis- 
taken for John Cobb, the eompoeer of an elegy on WiUiam Lawee, printed 
among the Pealma of Henrg and WUUamLawett ito, 1648, in whichhe ie 
ekfUdOrganiet of hi* Majutg'* Chapel-Rogal. Sundry eatchet and eanone 
qfhU composition appear in Hiltow* collection ntentioned in page 578. 

Charles the Second's band of violins, and composed 
for the theatre. He published ' Ayres and Dialogues 
to the Theorbo and bass Viol,' fol. Loud. 1669. 
Wood, in his account of this person. Fasti, voL I. 
col. 285, conjectures that many of the songs in the 
above collection were written by the learned Thomas 
Stanley, Esq. the author of the History of Philo- 
sophy, and seemingly with good reason, for they 
resemble, in the conciseness and elegant turn of them, 
those poems of his printed in 1651, containing trans- 
lations ^m Anacreon, Bion, Moschus, and o&ers. 

William Howes, bom near Worcester, where he 
was bred up with the waits, became one of the choir 
of Windsor till the rebellion, when he followed the 
king to Oxon. and was a singing man of Christ- 
Church ; he returned after the wars to Windsor, 
and had a soldier's pay allowed him to subsist on, 
till the restoration resettied him in both places, he 
was afterwards a comet in the king's chapeL He 
died at Windsor, and was buried in St George's 
ehapel yard. 

Gboegb Jeffbries, organist to Charles L when 
he was at Oxon. 1643, servant to Lord Hatton of 
Kirfoy in Northamptonshire, where he had lands of 
his own, was succeeded in the king's chapel by 
Edward Low. His son Christopher Jefferies, a 
student of Christ-Church, played well on the organ. 

Randal or Bamdolph Jewit, a scholar of Orlando 
Gibbons, and bachelor in music of the university 
of Dublin, was orgamst of Christ-Church Dublin, 
succeeding in that statioiv Thomas Bateson, before 
spoken of. In 1639 he quitted it, and Benjamin, 
afterwards Dr. Rogers, was appointed in his room, 
upon which Jewit retumed to England, and became 
organist of Winchester, where he died, having ac- 
quired great esteem for his skill in his profession. 

Edward Low, originally a chorister of Salisbury, 
afterwards organist of Christ -Church, Oxon. and 
professor of music, first as deputy to Dr. Wilson, 
and afterwards appointed to succeeid him. He suc- 
ceeded George Jefferies as organist of the chapel 
royal, he died at Oxford the eleventh of July, 1682, 
and lies buried in the Divinity chapel joining to 
Christ-Church there. He published ia 1661 ' Short 
directions for the performance of Cathedral Service,' 
of which, as also of the author, there will be £u;ther 
occasion to speak. 

BioHARD Nicholson, organist of Magdalen college^ 
Oxford, was admitted to the degree of bachelor in 
music of that university in 1595. He was the first 
professor of the mnsickl praxis in Oxford under Dr. 
Heyther's endowment, being appointed anno 1626. 
He died in 1639, and was the author of many 
madrigals, and of one of five parts^ printed in the 
Triumphs of Oriana. 

Arthur Phillips was made a derk of New Col- 
lege, Oxford, at the age of seventeen ; after that he 
became organist of Mc^dalen college, took the degree 
of bachelor of music in that university, and upon 
the decease of Richard Nicholson, Dr. Heyther*8 
professor, in 1639, was elected to succeed him. Upon 
the breaking out of the rebellion he went abroad, 
and after changing his religion for thac of fiome^ 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXIL 



was retained by Henrietta Maria qneen of England, 
then in France, as her organist, but being dismissed 
her service, he returned hither, and was entertained 
in the family of Caryl, a gentleman of the 

Romish persuasion in Sussex. His vocal compositions 
of two and three parts are said to have great merit, 
but we know not that any of them are extant in 
print Wood asserts that this person was nearly 
related to, if .not descended from, the famous Peter 
Phillips, organist to the archduke and archduchess 
Albert and Isabel, of whom an account is herein 
before given. 

Walter Porter, a gentleman of the chapel royal 
to Charles I. and master of the choristers at West- 
minster. He suffered in the time of the rebellion, 
and was patronized by Sir Edward Spencer: his 
works are ' Airs and Madrigals for two, three, four, 
' and five voices, with a thorough-bass for the organ 
' or Theorbo-lute, the Italian way,* printed in 1639 ; 
Hymns and Motets for two voices, 1657 ; and the 
Psalms of Mr. George Sandys composed into music 
for two voices, with a thorough-bass for the organ, 
printed about the year 1670. 

Thomas Warwick, organist of the abbey-church 
of St Peter's Westminster, and also one of the 
organists of the royal chapel. This person, as Tallis 
had done before him, composed a song of forty parts, 
which was performed before king Charies I. about 
the year 1635, by forty musicians, some the servants 
of his majesty, and others, of whom Benjamin, after- 
wards Dr. Rogers, was one. He was the fether of 
the noted Sir Philip Warwick, secretary of the 
treasury in the reign of Charles II. 

During that period, which commenced at the be- 
ginning, and terminated with the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, the English seem to have possessed 
a style of their own ; at least it may be said that till 
towards the year 165Q our music had received no 
stronger a tincture from that of Italy than must be 
supposed necessarily to result from the intercourse 
between the two countries ; and this too was con- 
siderably restrained by those civil commotions which 
engaged the attention of all parties, and left men little 
leisure to enjoy the^easures of repose, or to cultivate 
the arts of peace. Upon the restoration of the public 
tranquillity, the manners of this country assumed 
a new character; theatrical entertainments, which 
bad long been interdicted, ceased to be looked on as 
sinful, and all the arts of refinement were practised 
to render them alluring to the public. To this end, 
instead of those obscure places, where tragedies and 
comedies had formeriy been represented, such as the 
Curtain near Shoreditch,* the Magpye in Bishopegate- 
Btreet, and the Globe on the Bank-side, Black-Fnars, 
theatres were erected with scenical decorations, and 
women were introduced as actors on the stage. 

The state of dramatic music among us was at 
this time very low, as may well be inferred from 

* At this theatre Ben Jonaon wu ui actor; ft was sitnated near the 
Borth-eaat corner of Upper Moorflelds, and behind Hog-lane ; the vhole 
aei^bourhood, for want of another name, is called the Curtain, which 
aoifte have mlataken for the term Curtain used in fortification, imagining 
that some little fortress was formerly erected there, but it is taken from 
Hie sign of the theatre, which was a green curtain. Vide Athen. Oxon. 
▼OL I. col. 608. 

the compositions of Laneare, Coperario, Campion, 
and others to court masques in the reign of king 
James I. and from the music to Milton's Comus by 
Lawes; and yet each of these was in his time 
esteemed an excellent musician : this general dis* 
parity between ecclesiastical and secular music is 
thus to be accounted for : in this country there are 
not, as in Italy and elsewhere, any schools where the 
latter is cultivated ; for, to say the truth, the only 
musical seminaries in England are cathedral and 
collegiate foundations; and it is but of late years 
that the knowledge of the science was to be attained 
by any other means than that course of education 
and study which was calculated to qualify young 
persons for choral service; it is notorious that the 
most eminent composers for the theatre for some 
years after the Bestoration, namely. Lock, Purcell, 
and Eiccles, had their education in the royal chapel ; f 
and till the time of which we are now speaking, and 
indeed for some years after, he was held in very 
low estimation among musicians, who had not dis- 
tinguished himself by his compositions of one kind 
or other for the church. Prom this propensity to 
the study of ecclesiastical music it naturally followed 
that the national style was grave and austere; for 
this reason, the blandishments of the Italian melody 
were looked on with aversion, and branded with the 
epithets of wanton and lascivious, and were repre- 
sented as having a tendency to corrupt the mannera 
of the people. It is very difficult to annex corre- 
spondent ideas to these words, as they respect music ; 
we can only observe how the principle operated in 
the compositions of those masters who affected to be 
influenced by it ; and here we shall find that it laid 
such restrictions on the powen of invention, that all 
discrimination of style ceased. In all the several 
collections of songs, airs, and dialogues published 
between the years 1600 and 1650, the words might, 
without the least injury to the sense, be set to any 
aira of a correspondent meaeure ; and with regard to 
melody, he must have no ear that does not prefer 
a modem ballad tune to the best air among them. 

The defects in point of melody under which the 
music of this country so long laboured, may justly 
be ascribed to the preference given to harmony ; that 
is to say, to such compositions, namely, madrigals 
and fantasias for viols in five and six parts, as were 
the general entertainment of those who professed to 
be delighted with music; and these had charms 
sufficient to engage the attention not only of learned, 
but even of vulgar ears: The art of singing had 
never been cultivated in England with a view to the 
improvement of the voice, or the calling forth those 
powen of expression and execution, of which we at 
this time know it is capable; and as to solo-com- 
positions for instruments, the introduction of such 
among us was at a period not much beyond the reach 
of the memory of persons yet living. 

In Italy the state of music was far different ; the 

t This circumstance gave occasion to Tom Brown to say that the men 
of the musical profession hang between the chureh and the playhouse 
like Mahomet's tomb between the two loadstones. Works of Mr. Thomas 
Brown, vol. II. page 301, in a letter of Dr. Blow to Henry Purcell, in 
answer to one feigned to be written flrom among the dead. 


Digitized by 





invention of the opera had introduced a new species, 
differing from that of the church, in regard that it 
admitted of all those gi'aces and ornaments, which, 
as they tended rather to gratify the sense than improve 
the affections, it had been the business of councils, 
and the care of bishops and pastors, to exclude from 
divine worship. In the musical entertainments of 
the theatres it was found that the melody of the 
human voice, delightful as it naturally is, was in 
males capable of improvement by an operation which 
the world is at this day well aware of ; as also that 
in the performance on single instruments the degrees 
approaching towards perfection were innumerable, 
and were generally attained in a degree proportioned 
to the genius and industry of all who were candidates 
for the public favour. 

The applauses, the rewards, and other encourage- 
ments given to distinguished performers, excited in 
others an emulation to excel; the eflfects whereof 
were in a very short time discerned. It was about 
the year 1590 that the opera is generally supposed 
to have had its rise; and by the year 1601, as 
Scipione Cerreto relates,* the number of performers 
celebrated for their skill in single instruments, such 
as the lute, the organ, viol d*arco, chittarra, viol da 
gamba, trumpet, comet, and harp, in the city of 
Naples only, exceeded thirty.f 

• Delia Prattlca Musica, pag. 157. 

t In Coriat's Crudities the author mentions his hearing in the year 
1608, at St. Mark's church at Venice, the music of a treble viol, so 
excellent that no man could surpass it. He also gives a description of 
a musical performance in the same city in honour of St. Roche, at which 
he was also present ; and celebrates as well the skill and dexterity of 
many of the performers as the music itself, which he says was such as 
he would have gone an hundred miles to hear. The relation Is as 
follows .— 

*This feast consisted prlndpaUy of musicke, which was both vocall 
'and Instrumentall, so good, so delectable, so rare, so admirable, so 

* superexcellent, that it did even ravish und stupifie all those strangers 
'that never heard the like. But how others were affected with it 
' I know not ; for mine owne part I can say this, that I was for the time 
' even rapt up with St. Paul into the third heaven. Sometimes there 
' sung sixeteene or twenty men together, having their master or mode- 

* rator to keepe them in order ; and when thev sung, the instrumental! 
' musicians played also. Sometimes sixteene played together upon their 

* instruments, ten sagbuts, foure comets, and two violdegambaes of an 
'extraordinary greatnesse; sometimes tenne, sixe sagbuts, and foure 
' comets ; sometmies two, a comet and a treble vioU. Of those treble 
' viols I heard three severall there, whereof each was so good, especially 
' one that I observed above the rest, that I never heard the like before. 
' Those that played upon the treble viols, sung and played together, and 
' sometimes two singular fellowes played together upon Theorboes, to 
' which they sung also, who yeelded admirable sweet musicke, but so 
' still that they could scarce be heard but by those that were very neare 
' them. These two Theorbists concluded that night's musicke, which 
' continued three whole bowers at the least. For they beganne about 
' five of the docke, and ended not before eight. Also it continued as 
' long in the morning: at eveiy time that every severall musicke played, 
' the organs, whereof there are seven faire paire in that roome, standing 
'al in arowe together, plaid with them. Of the singers there were 
' three or foure so excellent that I thinke few or none in Christendcmie 
' do excell them« especially one, who had such a peerelesse and (as 
' I may in a manner say) such a supematurall voice for sweetnesse, 

* that I thinke there was never a better singer in all the world, insomuch 
' that he did not onely give the most pleasant contentment that could be 
' imagined, to all the hearers, but also did as it were astonish and amaze 
' them. I alwaies thought that he was an eunuch, which if he had beene, 

' he was a middle>aged man, as about forty veares old. For nature doth 
' more commonly bestowe such a singularitie of voice upon boyes and 
' striplings, then upon men of such yeares. Besides it was farre the 
' more excellent, because It was nothing forced, strained, or aflbcted, but 
' came from him with the greatest fadlitie that ever I heard. Truely 
' I thinke that had a nightingale beene in the same roome, and contended 
* with him for the superiorine, somettiing perhaps he might excell him» 
' because God hath granted that little birde such a priviledge for the 
' sweetnesse of his voice, as to none other ; but I thinke he could not 
' much. To conclude, I attribute so much to this rare fellow for his 
' singing, that I thinke the country where he was borne, may be as 
' proude for breeding so singular a person as Smyrna was of her Homer, 
' Verona of her Catullus, or Mantua of Virgil : but exceeding happy may 

It was scarce possible but that a principle thus 
uniformly operating through a whole country, should 
be productive of great improvements in the science 
of melody, or that the style of Italy, where they 
were carrying on, should recommend itself to the 
neighbouring kingdoms; the Spaniards were the 
first tliat adopted it, the French were the next, and 
after them the Germans. 

In England, for the reasons above given, it met 
at first with a cool reception, and Coperario, who 
went to Italy purposely for improvement, brought 
very little back but an Italian termination to his 
name. Lawes disclaimed all imitation of the Italians, 
though he was the first who attempted to introduce 
recitative amount us, a style of music confessedly 
invented by Giulio Caccini, a musician of that country, 
Lawes's favourite song of Ariadne in Naxos is no 
other than a cantata, but how inferior it is to those 
of Cesti and others any one will determine who is 
able to make the comparison. 

Other of our musicians who were less attached to 
what was called the old English style, thought it no 
diminution of their honour to adopt those improve- 
ments made by foreigners which fell in with that 
most obvious distinction of music into divine and 
secular, and which had before been recognized in 
this kingdom in compositions of AUemands, Corantos, 
Pavans, Passamezzos, and other airs borrowed from 
the practice of the Germans and the Italians. Even 
the grave Doctors Child and Rogers, both church- 
musicians, and Jenkins, who is said to have been the 
glory of his country, disdained not to compose in 
Uie Italian vein as it was called ; the first of these 
published Court Ayres after the manner of the 
Italians, as did also Rogers, and Jenkins composed 
Sonatas for two violins and a bass, a species of music 
invented in Italv, and till the time of this author 
unknown in England. From the example of the e 
men ensued in this country a gradual change in the 
style of musical composition; that elaborate con- 
texture of parts which distinguish the works of Tye, 
Tallis, Bird, and Gibbons, was no longer looked on 
as the criterion of good music, but all the little 
graces and refinements of melody were studied. To 
answer particular purposes, the strict rules of harmony 
were occasionally dispensed with; the transitions 
from key to key were not uniformly in the same 
order of succession ; and in our melody, too purely 
diatonic, chromatic passages were introduced to aid 
the expression, and give scope for variety of modu- 
lation; in short, the people of this country, about 
the middle of the seventeenth century, began to 
entertain an idea of what in music is termed fine air, 
and seemed in earnest determined to cultivate it 
with as much zeal as their neighbours. 

Nor are we to look on this propensity to innovation 
as arising from the love of novelty, or that caprice 
which often leads men to choose the worse for the 
better; the improvements in melody and harmony 

' that dtie, or towne, or person bee that possesseth this mirade of nature. 
' These musicians had bestowed upon them bv that company of Saint 
' Roche an hundred duckats, which is twenty three pound sixe shillings 

'eight pence starling. Thus much concerning the musicke of those 
' famous feastes of Saint Lawrence, the Assumption of our Lady, and 
' Saint Roche.' Codat's Cmdities, page 250. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXIII. 



are reciprocal, and both have a necessary tendency 
to introduce new combinations, and thereby produce 


The efforts from time to time made by the Italians 
in the improvement of music, have been deduced to 
the year 1600 ; and its progress in other countries 
has been traced to the same period : it is necessary to 
observe the same course through the succeeding 
century, and by memoirs of the lives and works of 
the most eminent theoretic and practical musicians 
who flourished during that period, to relate the sub- 
sequent refinements, as weli in the theory as the 
practice of the science. 

Benedetto Pallavacino, a native of Cremona, 
and an eminent composer, was maestro di capella to 
the duke of Mantua about the year 1600. He is 
highly celebrated by Draudius, in his Bibliotheca 
Classica, pag. 1630. His works are chiefly madrigals 
for five and six voices, and in general are very fine. 
DoMEKioo Pedro Gebone, a native of Bergamo, 
and maestro di capella of the royal chapel at Naples, 
was the author of a very voluminous work written 
in the Spanish language, and published at Naples in 
the year 1613, with this title, ' £1 Melopeo y Maestro. 
' Tractado de musica theorica y pratica : en que se 
' pone por extenso, lo que uno para haserse perfecto 
' musico ha menester saber : y por mayor facilidad, 
' comodidad, y claridad del lector, esta repartido en 
* xxii libros.'* 

This book, perhaps the first of the kind ever 
written in the language of Spain, is a musical 
institute, and comprehends in it the substance of 
Boetius, Franchinus, Glareanus, Zarlino, Salinus, 
Artusi, Galilei, and, in short, of most of the writers 
on music who had gone before him. In it are 
treated of the dignity and excellency of music, of 
the necessary qualifications in a teacher of the 
science, and of the reciprocal duties of the master 
and disciple ; in what cases correction may be 
administered to advantage, and of the reverence due 
from disciples to their masters : these, and a great 
number of other particulars still less to the imme- 
diate purpose of teaching music, and yet supported 
by a profusion of references to the scriptures, the 
fathers, and to the Greek and Latin classics, make 
up the first book. 

The titles of the several books are as follow : — 
Lib. i. De los Atavios, y Consonancias morales. 
Lib. ii. De las Curiosidades y antiguallas en Music. 
Lib. iii. Del CantoUano Gregoriano b Ecclesiastico. 
Lib. iv. Del Tono para cantar las Orac Epist y 
Evang. Lib. v. De los Avisos necess. en Cantollano. 
Lib. vL Del Canto metrico, mensural, 6 de Organo. 
Lib. vii. De los Avisos necess. en canto de Organo. 
Lib. viii. De las glosas para glosar las obras. Lib. ix. 
Del Contrapunto comun y ordinario. Lib. x. De los 
Contrapuntos artificiosos y doctus. Lib. xi. De los 
inovimientos mas observados en la Comp. Lib. xiL 
De los Avisos necessaries para la perf. Comp. 

* It teems also to have been published In 1619 at Antwerp. Walth. 1 52. 

Lib. xiii. De los Fragmentos Musicales. Lib. xiv. 
De los Canones, Fugas, y de los Contr. a la xij. &c. 
Lib. XV. De los Lugares comunes, Entradas y Clau- 
sulas, <fcc Lib. xvi. De los Tones en Canto de 
Organo. Lib. xvii. Del Modo, Tiempo, y Prolacion. 
Lib. xviii. Del valor de las notas en el Temario. 
Lib. xix. De las Proporciones, y comp. de diversos 
Tiempos. Lib. xx. La declaracion de la Missa 
Lomme arm^ de Prenestina. Lib. xxi. De los 
Conciertos, e instrum. music y de su temple. 
Lib. xxii. De los Enigmas musicales. 

In the fifty-third chapter of his first book Cerone 
enquires into the reasons why there are more pro- 
fessors of music in Italy than in Spain ; and these 
he makes to be five, namely, 1. The diligence of the 
masters. 2. The patience of the scholars. 3. The 
general affection which the Italians entertain for 
music ; and this he illustrates by an enumeration of 
sundry persons of the nobility in Italy who had dis- 
tinguished themselves by their skill in music, and 
had been the authors of madrigals and other musical 
compositions, particularly the Count Nicolas De 
Arcoe, the Count Ludovico Martinengo, the Count 
Marco Antonio Villachara, G^ronimo Branchiforte 
Conde de Camerata, Carlo Gesualdo Principe de 
Venosa, Alexander Gonzaga, duke of Mnntua, and 
Andrew Aquaviva, duke of Atri, the author of a 
learned treatise on music published in 1528. Under 
this head he takes occasion to celebrate the liberality 
of Philip m. ihe then reigning king of Spain 
towards musicians ; as an instance whereof he says 
that of chapel-masters and organists under him, 
some had salaries of three hundred, and some of 
five hundred ducats a year. The fourth reason 
assigned by him is the great number of academies 
in Italy for the study of music, of which he says 
there are none in Spain, excepting one founded by 
Don Juan de* Borja, Major-domo to the empress 
Donna Maria de Austria, sister of Philip II. king of 
Spain. The fifth reason he makes to be the continual 
exercise of the Italian masters in the art of practical 

These reasons of Cerone sufficiently account for 
the small number of musicians which Spain has pro- 
duced in a long series of years ; but though it be 
said that during that interval between the time 
when St Isidore, bishop of Sevil lived, and that of 
Salinas, we meet with no musician of eminence a 
native of Spain excepting Bartholomeus Ramis, the 
preceptor of Spataro, already mentioned, and Don 
Bias, u e. Blasias Reset ta,f Christopher De Morales, 
and Thomas a Sancta Maria ; nor indeed with any 
intimation of the state of the science in that country, 
yet at the time that Salinas published his treatise 
De Musica the Spaniards are remarked to have 
applied themselves to the study of the science with 
some degree of assiduity. The first musician of 

t Rosette was the author of a treatise published in 1529, entitled 
' RudimenteMusices, de tripUci musices specie; de modo debite solvendi 
' divinum pensum : et de aufereodis nonulUs abusibus in templo DeL' 
Christopher Morales was an excellent composer of madrigals lAont the 
year mentioned before. Thomas a Sancta Marlft was a native of Spain, 
being bom at Madrid, and a Dominican monk; he lived a very few 
years before Salinas, and in the year 1M5 published at Valladolid a work 
entitled 'Arte de tenner fantasia pars tecla viguela y todo instmmendo 
de tres o quatro ordines.' 

Digitized by 




Bo<« XIIL 

eminence among the Spaniards after Salinas seems 
to have been Gon9alo Martinez, and after him Fran* 
cesco de Montanos : this person was a portionist or 
pensioner and maestro di cappella in the chnrch of 
Valladolid for the space of thirty-six years ; he was 
the author of a treatise entitled 'Arte de Musica 
theorica y practica/ published in 1592; and of 
another entitled ' Arte de Contollano/ published at 
Salamanca in 1610, to whom succeeded Sebastian 
Eaval, a celebrated composer. 

After this apology for the low state of music in 
his country, Cerone proceeds to explain the nature 
of the ancient system of music, making use of the 
several diagrams that occur in the works of Fran- 
chinus, Qlareanus, Salinas, Zarlino, and other writers ; 
he then proceeds to teach the precepts of the Cantus 
Gregorianus, following herein that designation of the 
ecclesiastical tones, and the method of singing the 
offices which is to be found in the works of Pran- 
chinus. From these he proceeds to the practice of 
singing, and the Cantus Mensurabilis, next to the 
precepts of Counterpoint, or plain and figurate Descant, 
and then to fugue and canon. 

Towards the end of this book he treats of the pro- 
portions in music, giving the substance of all that is 
said by other writers on that branch of the musical 

In the twenty-first book he speaks of musical in- 
struments, which he divides into three classes, namely, 
the pulsaUle, which he calls Instrumentos de golpe, 
comprehending the Atambor, Symphonia, Gystro, 
Orotal, Ciembalo, Tintinabulo, Pandero, and AtavaL 
Under the head of wind-instruments he ranks the 
Chorus, Tibia or Flute, the Sambuca, Calamo, So- 
delina or Gayta, the Syringa or Fistula, the Chiiimia, 
Trompeta, &M»buche, Cometa, Regal, Organo, Fa- 
gote, Comamusa, Comamuda, I)ul9ayna, and Doblado. 
Lastly, in the class of stringed instruments he places 
the Sistro comun, Psalterio, Accetabulo, Pandura, 
Dulcemiel, Rebequina or Rabel, Vihuela, Violon, 
Lyra, Cythara or Citola, Quitarra, Laud, Tyorbo, 
Arpa, Monochordio, Clavichordio, C}Tnbalo, and 
Spineta. He speaks also of the temperature of the 
lute, and delivers the sentiments cS the various 
writers on that controverted subject 

The twenty-second and last book is affectedly 
mysterious ; it consists of a great variety of musical 
enigmas as he calls them, that is to say. Canons in the 
forms of a cross, a key, and a sword, in allusion to 
the apostles Peter and Paul; others that have a 
reference to the figure of a balance, a piece of Spanish 
coin, a speculum, a chess-board, and one resolvable 
by the throwing of dice. 

It appears very clearly from this work of Cerone 
that the studies of the Spanish musicians had been 
uniformly directed towards the improvement of 
church-music; and for this disposition there needs 
no other reason than that in Spain, music was a part 
of the national religion; and how tenacious they 
were of that formulary which St Gregory had in- 
stituted for the use of me Latin church, may be in- 
ferred from a fact related in a preceding part of this 
history, to yrit, that a contest for its superiority 

divided the kingdom, and was at length determined 
by the sword. 

With this predilection in favour of ecclesiastical, 
it cannot be supposed that secular music could meet 
with much encouragement in Spain. In this huge 
volume, consisting of near twelve hundred pages, we 
meet with no compositions for instruments, all the 
examples exhibited by the author being eidier ex- 
ercises on the ecclesiastical tones, or motets, or 
Ricercatas,* and such kind of compositions for the 
organ ; neither does he mention, as Scipione Ceretto, 
Mersennus, Eircher, and others have done, the names 
of any celebrated performers on the lute, the harp, 
the viol, or other instruments used in concerts. 

Thecommonmusicaldivertisementsof the Spaniards 
seem to have been borrowed from the Moors, who in 
a very early period had gained a footing in Spain, 
and given a deep tincture to the manners of the 
people ; these appear to be songs and dances to in- 
struments confessedly invented by the Arabians, and 
from them derived to the Moors, such as the Pan- 
dore, the protatype of the lute ; and the Rebec, a 
fiddle with three strings, and to which most of the 
songs in Don Quixote are by Cervantes said to have 
been sung. As to their dances, excepting the Pavan, 
which whether it be of Spanish or Italian original is 
a matter of controversy, the most favourite among 
the Spaniards till lately have been the Chacone and 
Sarabandf and that these were brought into Spain 
by the Moors, seems to be agreed by all that have 
written on music. 

In the enumeration of instruments by Cerone 
mention is made of the guitar, Ital. Chittara, an 
appellation well known to be derived from the word 
Cithara. The form of the cuitar is exhibited by 
Mersennus in his Harmonics, lib. I. De Instrumentis 
harmonicis, pag. 25, and is there represented as an 
instrument so very broad as to be almost circular; 
the same author also gives the figure of an instrument 
longer in the body than the former, and narrower in 
the middle than at the extremities, somewhat re- 
sembling a viol, and this he calls the Cithara His- 
panica or Spanish Guitair4 

This instrument by numberless testimonies appears 
for some ages back to have been die common amuse- 
ment of the Spanish gentlemen : Quevedo, an eminent 
Spanish writer of the last century, relates the adven- 
tures of a very accomplished gentleman, but a great 
humourist, one who in the day time constantly kept 
within doors, excluding the light of heaven from his 
apartments, and walked the streets of Madrid by 

^ RicKmcATA, a tenn derived 'from the Italian vert) RIoercare, to 
•earoh or enquire into, signifies in the lasgoage of maiiciant, though 
improperiy, a prelude or Fantasia for the organ, harpsichord, or Theorbo; 
they are generally extempore performaaoes, and in -strictness, when 
committed to vricing. should, as should also voluntaries, be distinguished 
by some other appellation. Vide DIctionaire de Musique par Brossard. 

t Besides the danoes abOTeraentloned there is one called the Fandango, 
which the Spaniards are at this time fond of even to madness, the air of 
it is very like the English hornpipe ; it is danced by a roan and woman, 
and consists in a vartety of the most indeeent gesticulations that can be 

} About the year 1730 a teacher of the guitar, an Italisn, arrived at 
London, and posted up in the Royal Exchange a bill inviting persons to 
B hli scholars : it began thus : * De delecUbl music calit Chittara 
the bill had at the top of it the 

fit ibr te ganthnan 


with none that 

it began thus 

e ladls camera;' the bill had at the top < 
instrument miserably drawn, .but agreeing with that in 

The poor man offered to teach at a very low rate, but 
could be prevailed on to learn of him. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXin. 



night with his guitar, on which he had arrived at 
great perfectioD, imitating in this particular the 
practice of the young nohiUty and gentry of Spain, 
who followed it as the means of reconmiending 
themselves to the notice and favour of their mistresses. 

For this instrument there are octant many collec- 
tions of lessons composed hy Spaniards and others. 
Mersennus mentions one published in 1626 by Ludo- 
vico de Bri^enneo, entitled ' Tanner k Templar la 
'Guitarra;' another written by Ambrosius Colonna 
of Milan, published in 1627, entitled ' Intavolatora 
'di Cithara Spagnola,' containing many airs, viz., 
Passacalli tam simplices quam Passegiati, Chiaoone, 
Zaravande, Folias, Spagnolette,* Pavagnilie Arie, 
Monache, Passe-mezzi, Romaneecha, Corrente, Gag- 
liarda, Toccata, Nizarda, Sinfonia, Balletto, Gapricio, 
and Canzonette. 

RoMAKO MiOHiELi, [Lai, Michaelius Bomanus,] 
maestro di cappella in the church at Venice cailea 
Gathedrale de Concordia. He published at Venice 
a Gompieta for six voices. This author is celebrated 
for his skill in the composition of canon, an example 
whereof in a canon for nine choirs or thirty-six 
voices is inserted in Kircher's Musurgia, tom. I. 
ptg. 584 But his most celebrated work is a book 
entitled 'Musica vaga ed artificiosa,' published at 
Venice in 1615, in which the subject of canon is 
very learnedly discussed and explained by a variety 
of examples. In the prefiEU^e to this book are con- 
tamed memoirs of the most celebrated musicians 
living in Italy at the time of writing it 

JoHAKN WoLTz, organist of Heilbmn, an imperial 
town in the dukedom of Wirtemberg, and also a 
burgher thereof, was the publisher of a work printed 
at Basil in 1617, entitled * Novam musices organices 
' tabulaturam,' being a collection of motets and also 
fugues and canzones, gathered from the works of the 
most £unons musicians and organists of Germany 
and Italy. In the dedication of this book to tb^ 
magistrates of fieilbrun the author takes notice that 
he had been organist there forty years, and that his 
son had succeeded him. He was esteemed one of 
the most skilful organists of his time; nevertheless 
tiiere are no compositions of his own extant, a cir- 
cumstance much to be lamented. 

LuDovioo ViADAHA, macstro di cappella at first of 
the cathedral church of Fano, a small city situate in 
the gulph of Venifte in the duchy of Urbino, and 
afterwards of the cathedral of Mantua, is celebrated 
for having about the year 1605 improved mtisic by 
the invention of ihe^gured or thorough-bass. Printz 
' has given a relation of this fact in the following 

* Of the wreral tin ibore entunerated a particular descriptkm will 
be given lieTeafter, at pmaent it mar not be improper to mention that 
the Chacone is suppoeed to have been invented by the Arabians, and the 
Saraband by the Moors ; the FolOa is so partteulvly of Spanish original, 
that in musicbodks it is frequently called Follia di Spagna. Grasslneau 
has given a very silly dtseription of it, styling it a ]»rticular sort of afar 
caHed Fardinal's Ground, which mistake is thus to be accounted for: 
About the year 1690 there resided at the court of Hanover, in quality 
of concert'master, a muddan named Farinelli. Corelll being then at 
Haoover, Farinelli gave him a ground to compose on ; and the divisions 
Iff him made thereon, to the number of twenty-four, make the twelfth 
of his eolos, termed Foxua. CorelK had the practice of the Spanish 
musicians in has eye, the FOllia di Spagna, being nothing else than 
a certain number of aizt in diiferent mea«ures composed on a ground 
bass. Vivaldi also has composed a sonata consisting of divisions on the 
same ground, and called it Follia. See his Sonatas for two violins and 
a baas opera prima. 

terms: 'In the time of Viadana, Motets abounded 
'with fugues, syncopations, the florid and broken 
' counterpoint^ and indeed every kind of affectation 
' of learned contrivance ; but as the composers seemed 
' more to regard the harmony of the sounds than the 
'sense of ^e words, adjusting first the one, and 
'leaving the other to chance, such confusion and 
' irregtdarity ensued, that no one could understand 
' what he heard sung ; which gave occasion for many 
'judicious people to say, "Musicam esse inanem 
"sonorum strepitum.' Now this ingenious Italian 
' organist and skilful composer, (who, as Christopher 
' Demantius relates, was able to raise more admiration 
' in the minds of the hearers with one touch upon 
' the organ, than others with ten) perceiving this, he 
' took occasion to invent monodies and concerts, in 
' which the text, especially aided by a distinct pro- 
'nunciation of the singer, may well and easily be 
' understood. But as a fundamental bass was neces- 
' sarily required for this purpose, he took occasion 
'from that necessity to invent that compendious 
'method of notation which we now call continued 
' or thorough-bass.' 

Draudius has mentioned several works of Viadana, 
among which are the following : 1. ' Opus musicum 
' sacrorum Concentuum, qui et unica voce, nee non 
'dnabus, tribus, et quatuor vocibus variatis conci- 
' nentur, una cum basso Gont, ad Organum applicato,' 
an. 1612. 2. ' Opera omnia sacrorum Concentuum, 
' 1, 2, 3, et 4 vocum cum Basso continuo et generali, 
' Organo applicato, nov^ue inventione pro omni 
'genere et sorte Cantorum et Organistarum accom- 
' modatIL Adjuncts insuper in Basso generali hujus 
'nov» inventionis instructione et succinct^ expli- 
'catione. Latine, Italice, et Germanice, an. 1613 
' (item an. 1620V t 

Claudio Montbvebdb, maestro di cappella of the 
church of St Mark at Venice,:^ was a famous com- 
poser of motets and madrigals, and flourished about 
the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the 
last century. In the year 1600 he became engaged 
in a dispute with some of the ablest musicians of his 
time, occasioned by certain madrigals of his, in which 
the dissonances were taken in a manner not warranted 
by the practice of other musicians. The particulars 
of this controversy are related by Artusi in the 
second part of his treatise ' De Imperfettioni della 
modema Musica.* Monteverde is celebrated for his 
skill in recitative, a style of music of which he may 
be said to have been one of the inventors ; at least 
there are no examples of recitative more ancient than 

t It does not appear by the date of anv of the above publications that 
Viadana invented thorough-bass ao early as 1605. But as Prints has 
expressly asserted it, and his testimony has never yet been contro- 
verted, it would be too much at this distance of time to question it; 
nevertheless it may be remarked that within two years as early as the 
period above assigned, it was practised by another author, namely, 
Gnsory Aichinger, a German, and a voluminous composer, who in 1607 
published at Augsburg, *Cantiones Ecclesiasticas a 3 et 4 voc. mit. 
* elnem O. B.' says the relator, i. e. with a geneial or thorough bass. 
Walth. 18. 

Farther, it has been discovered that the practice of figuring bassea 
was known before the beginning of the seventeenth century : in a wodc 
of our countivman Richard Deemif . entitled * Cantiones 8acr« quinque 
vocum,' publdhed at Antwerp in 1597, the bass part is figured with a 6Ui 
wherever that concord occurs. 

} Upon a comparison of times it seems probable that he was the im- 
mediate successor in that sution of Zarlino, who himself succeeded 
Adrian WiUaert. 

Digitized by 




Book XIII. 

are to be found in his opera of Orfeo, from which an 
extract is inserted in a subsequent part of this work ; 
and indeed it may with truth be said that Monteverde 
was the father of the theatric style. It seems that 
before his advancement to the dignity of chapel- 
master of St. Mark's he was chapel-master to the 
duke of Mantua, for he is so styled in his fifth book 
of madrigals represented at Venice in the year 1612. 
Monteverde was one of the original members of the 
Accademia Filomusi, erected at Bologna in the year 
1622. Some very fine madrigals of his composition 
are extant in the collections published by Pietro 
Phalesio and others, about the year 1600. 

Antonio Cifra, a Roman educated in the school 
heretofore mentioned to have been instituted by 
Palestrina and Nanino, for the instruction of youth 
in music ; after he had finished his studies was taken 
sito the service of the archduke Charles of Austria, 
brother of the emperor Ferdinand II. After that 
he became director of the music in the German 
college at Rome, and about the year 1614 was ap- 
pointed maestro di cappella of the church of Loretto. 
He composed altogether for the church, and made 
a great number of masses and motets. Milton is 
said to have been very fond of his compositions, and 
to have collected them when he was in Italy. 

Pietro Francesco Valentini, a Roman, and of 
a noble family, was educated under Palestrijii and 
Gio. Maria Nanino, in the school instituted by them 
at Rome; he was an excellent theorist, and, not- 
withstanding the nobilitv of his birth, was necessitated 
to make music his profession, and even to play for 
hire. He was the author of many compositions of 
inestimable value, among the rest is the canon en- 
titled 'Canon Polymorphs! inserted in page 303 of 
this work, which may oe sung two thousand ways ; 
this composition was once in the possession of Antimo 
Liberati, who esteemed it as a very great curiosity ; 
not knowing perhaps that the author had given it to 
Kircher, who published it in his Mnsurgia. Valentini 
was the author of a work published in 1645, entiUed 

* La Transformatione di Dafne, Favola morale con 

* due intermedii ; il primo contiene il ratto di Pro- 
' serpina, il secondo la cattivita nella rete di Venere 

* e Marte. La Metra Favola Grseca versificata ; con 

* due intermedii ; il primo rappresentante I'uccisione 
•di Orfeo, ed il secondo Pitagora, che ritrova la 
' Musica.' 

Paolo Aoostino, (a Portrait^) a disciple of the 
same school, was successively organist of Sancta 
Maria Trastevere, St Laurence in Damaso, and 
lastly of St. Peter's at Rome. For invention he is 
said to have surpassed all his contemporaries. His 
compositions for four, six, and eight choirs are said 
to have been the admiration of all Rome. He died 
in 1629, aged thirty-six, and lies buried in the 
church of St. Michael in Rome. He left a daughter, 
married to Francesco Foggia, who will be spoken of 

GiROLAMo Diruta was a Franciscan friar, and the 
author of a work entitled * H Transilvano, Dialogo 
*sopra il vero modo di sonar Organi ed Istromenti 
*da penna,* printed at Venice in folio in the year 

1625. The author styles himself Organista del 
Duomo di Chioggia. The design of this his work is 
to teach the method of playing on the organ and 
harpsichord. After explaining the scale of music 
and the characters used in the Cantus Mensurabilis, 
he remarks the distinction between the organ and 
die other instruments which are the subject of his 
discourse: the organ he observes is to be sounded 
gravely, and at the same time elegantly; other 
instruments used in concerts and in dancing he says 
are to be played on with spirit and vivacity. And 
here he drops a hint that the profane and lascivious 
music, forbidden to be used in the church by the 
decree of the council of Trent, consisted in airs 
resembling dance-tunes, i. e. 'Passemezzi, ed altre 
* senate da hallo.' 

After some general directions respecting the posi- 
tion of the hand, and the application of the fingers 
to the instrument, he exhibits a variety of lessons or 
Toccatas upon the ecclesiastical tones, some by him- 
self, and the rest by other masters, as namely, Claudio 
Merulo, Andrea Gabrieli, Luzzasco Luzzaschi, Paolo 
Quagliati, Gioseffo Guami, and others. 

tn the course of this dialogue the author takes 
occasion to mention in terms of the highest respect, 
Claudio Merulo and Andrea Gabrieli, who seem to 
have been joint organists of the church of St Mark 
at the time of the nrst publication of this book. 

In the year 1622 Diruta published a second part 
of the Transilvano ; this is divided into four books, 
the first is said to be * Sopra il vero modo de 
intavolare ciaschedun Canto.' The second teaches 
the rules of counterpoint, and the method of com- 
posing Fantasias, of which kind of music he gives 
a variety of examples, the composition of Luzzasco 
Luzzaschi, Grabriel Fattorini, and Adriano Bianchieri. 
The third part treats of the ecclesiastical tones, and 
of the method of transposing them, and other matters 
necessary to be known by every organist. The 
fourth book treats of the method of accompanying 
in choral service, with the use of the several registers 
or stops, as they are now called, of the organ. 

Michael Prjctorics, a musician eminent both in 
the theory and practice, was a native of Creutzberg, 
a city, castle, and bailiwick on the river Wena in 
Thuringia, belonging to the duke of Saxe Eisenach, 
where he was bom on the fifteenth day of February, 
1571. Having made a great proficiency in music, 
he was appointed by Henry Julius, duke of Brunswick, 
chapel-master, and chamber-organist of his court, 
and also chamber or private secretary to Elizabeth 
his consort ; after which, being an ecclesiastic by pro- 
fession, he became prior of the Benedictine monastery 
of Ringelheim or Ringeln, situated between Goslar 
and Lichtenburg, in die bishopric of Hildesheim. 
In the year 1596 he was the forty-eighth of fifty- 
three organists who were appointed to make trial of 
an organ then lately erected in the castle-church of 
Groningen. He was also, but in what part of his 
life is not ascertained, chapel-master of the electoral 
court of Dresden ; this appears by the superscription 
of a congrntnlatory ode in I^tin, composed by John 
Steiiinictz, prefixed to the first volume of the Syn- 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXIII. 



tagma Masicum of PraBtorins. The mnsical oom- 
podtions of Pnetorias are very nomeronB, and consist 
of motetts, masses, hymns, and other offices in the 
chnrch service. Besides these he composed a work, 
intended to consist of foor volames in quarto, bnt 
only three were printed, it is entitled Syntagma 
Mnsicnm, and contains a deduction of the progress 
of ecclesiastical mnsic from its origin to the an&or's 
own time, with a description of the several instro- 
ments in nse at different periods. In the dedication 
of this work Protorins complains of the many 
troubles and fatigues which he had undergone ; and 
perhaps it is to be imputed to these that he left the 
work imperfect He died at Wolfenbuttle on the 
fifteenth day of Februaiy, 1621, which day of the 
month was also that of his nativity, he having just 
completed the fiftieth year of his age. 

Heikrich Schutz was bom on the eighth day of 
October, 1585, at Eosteritz, a village on the river 
Elster in Voightland. His grandfother Albrecht 
Schutz, a privy-councellor, dying in 1591, at Weis- 
senfeils, and leaving considerable possessions, Chris- 
topher his son removed with his family thither, 
and was elected a burgomaster of that city. In the 
year 1599, Heinrich having made a considerable 
proficiency in music, and having a very fine voice, 
was introduced to the Count Palatine Moritz at his 
court of Hesse Cassel, where having distinguished 
himself, he was by the direction of the Count in- 
structed in languages and the arts. Having perfected 
himself in the rudiments of literature and the sciences, 
he in the year 1607, together with a brother of his, 
named George, and a son of his father's brother 
named Heinrich, went to the university of Marpurg, 
and prosecuted tJie study of the law. In the short 
space of two years Heinrich Schutz had made so 
good use of his time, that at the end of it he main- 
tained a public disputation de Legatis, and gained 
great applause for his learning and acuteness. Soon 
after this his patron Count Moritz coming to Mar- 
purg, Heinrich waited on him, and the Count dis- 
covering in him the same propensity to music that 
had first recommended him to his notice, proposed 
to him the leaving of the university in order to study 
music under Giovanni GJabrieli, a most celebrated 
musician at Venice, promising to bear his expences, 
and maintain him there. This offer of grace was no 
sooner made than accepted, Schutz went to Venice, 
And continued there till the death of his master in 
1612. Ebiving made a progress in his studies equal 
to any of his fellow disciples, he returned back to 
Hesse Cassel, and the Count Palatine settled on him 
a pension of two hundred guilders per annum ; but 
not having determined to make music his profession, 
he betook himself again to the study of the law, 
which he pursued with great eagerness till the year 
1615, when the elector of Saxony, John George, 
upon occasion of the baptism of the young prince 
Augustus his son, invited him to his court, and in- 
vested him with the dignity of director of his music, 
at the same time honouring him with a gold chain 
and medal. Being now settled in an honourable and 
lucrative employment, Schutz. on the first day of 
June, 1619, married Magdalen, a young woman 

whom the original author of thip account has dis- 
tinguished by the description of Christian Wildeck 
of Saxony's land steward's book-keeper's daughter,* 
and by her had two daughters. 

In the year 1625 Schutz became a widower ; and 
in the year 1628, having a desire to revisit Italy, he 
obtained permission for that purpose. While he 
was abroad his father and also his wife's father died, 
the one in August, 1631, the otiier in October in the 
same year. During his abode at Venice, viz., in 1629, 
he published a collection of Latin motets with the 
title of Sagillarius. 

Soon after his return to Dresden the electorate of 
Saxony became the seat of war ; not choosing there- 
fore to make that city his residence, Schutz, with the 
permission of the elector, in the year 1634 accepted 
an invitation of his Ihinish majesty to settle at 
Copenhagen; from thence in 1638 he removed to 
Brunswic Luneuburgh, and in 1642 returned to Den- 
mark, where he was appointed director of the king's 
music. Towards the end of his life he became in 
a great measure deaf, after which misfortune he went 
very little abroad, betaking himself to the reading of 
the holy scriptures and the study of theology ; yet 
he did not renounce the study of music, for in this 
his retirement he composed several very noble works, 
as namely, some of the Psalms, particularly the 
hundred and nineteenth, also the history of the 
Passion as recorded by three of the Evangelists. 
In his latter years he was afflicted with a diarrhssa, 
with which he struggled for a long time, till at length 
on the sixth day of November, 1672, a violent attack 
of that disorder put a period to his days, he being 
then eighty-seven years and twenty-nine days old, 
fifty-seven years whereof he had been chapel-master 
at the court of Saxony. 

The works of Schutz are flifltovit tftt tLtdttfUt^ 
bustg Stfta Chriftti in seven books, published at 
Dresden in 1623, ftlnsten geitttlichnt Conmrtm^ 
for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 voices, Leipsig, 1636. Sympho- 
niarum Sacrarum, the first part, published at Friburg 
in 1629, by George Hofman, a mend of the author, 
while he was abroad, dedicated to the elector John 
George. Symphoniarum Sacrarum the second part, 
published at Dresden by Johann Elemme, organist 
to the elector of Saxony, and Alexander Herings, 
organist of Bautzen in the year 1647, it is called his 
tenth work, and is by them dedicated to Christian V. 
king of Denmark. Symphoniarum Sacrarum, the 
third part, 1650. In tiie year 1661 all the works of 
Schutz were reprinted at Dresden by the express 
command of John G^eorge II. who committed the 
care of revising them to one Cornelius Becker. 

JoHANK Klbmmb, a celebrated organist and church 
musician, a Saxon by birth, was distinguished for 
his early proficiency in singing and knowledge of 
music by the elector of Saxony, Christian II. It 
seems that, agreeably to the custom of Germany and 
other countries, that prince was used to be entertained 
at his meals with vocal music, and that he had dis- 
covered in Elemme singular readiness and dexterity 
in the practice of descant : to encourage a genius so 

* A Designatio Penon« almost as rerbose as that with which tho 
visitors of Don SaItero!s Museum are amused, when they are shewn 
Poatios Pilate's wife's chamber-maid's sister's hat. 

Digitized by 





hopeful, he commiUed him to the tuition of the ablest 
masters in the court of Dresden, under whom he was 
instracted and maintained at the expence of the 
elector, for the space of six years, at the end of which 
his patron died. Fortmwiely for Elemme, John 
George the succeedmg elector, entertained an equal 
affection for music with his predecessor, and having 
discovered in Klemme a strong propensity to im- 
provement, he placed him for his farther instruction 
under Christian Erbach, a famous organist and com- 
poser at Augsburg, under whom he studied three 
years. At the expiration of this term ELlemme re- 
turned to Dresden, and soon after was appointed 
master of the electoral chapel, and organist to the 
elector, by the recommendation of Schutz, who had 
held the former office fifty-seven years, and now re- 
signed it on account of his age. 

The works of Klemme are Fugues for the Organ, 
in number thirty-six, published at Dresden, 1631. 
He also in conjunction with Alexander Herings, 
oi^ganist of Bautzen, published in the year 1647, &e 
second part of the Symphomiarmn Sacrarum of 
Heinrich Schutz, and dedio^ed it to Christian V. 
king of Denmark, the first part of whidi work had 
been published at Friburg by some other friend of 
the author during his absence in the year 1629, wi^ 
a dedication to the elector John George. 

Tarquinio Mebula, a cavalier, and iiao accademieo 
filomuso in Bologna, was also maestro di cappella 
of the cathedral of Bergamo in the year 1639. His 
compositions are of various kinds, and consist as well 
of instrumental as vocal music ; he published several 
collections of Masses and Psalms to be performed 
cither with or without instruments : one of his works 
is entitled * Canzoni overo sonate concertate per 
' Chiesa e Camera, a 2, e 3 Stromenti, lib. 1, 2, 3, c 4.* 
Tarquinio Merula was one of those musicians who 
introduced instruments other than the organ, that is 
to say, viols and also violins, into the church in aid 
of choral singing ; and,which is worth remarking, he 
appears by the work, the title whereof is above given 
at length, to have composed sonatas both for the 
church and the chamber as early as the year 1637, 
beyond which, in respect of antiquity, it will be 
found very difficult to carry the invention of this 
species of musical composition, since it is certain 
that for some years after that time, the only concert- 
music in practice either in Franoe or England were 

those fantasias for viols already described in the 
course of this work. Among the vocal compositions 
of Merula is one singularly humorous in its kind : 
it is the grammatical declension of the Latin pronoun 
hie, set to musical notes in the form of a fugue, or, as 
it is vulgarly called, a canon in the unison. It seems 
the office of chapel-master at Bergamo was not the 
first of Merula's preferments, for in a work of his 
entitled ' Concerti Spirituali, con alcune sonate a 2, 
3, 4, e 5 voci,* printed at Venice in 1628, he is 
styled * Organista nella Chiesa Collegiate di S. Agata, 
' e Maestro di Cappella nella Cathedrale di Cremona.' 

Mabco Sgacchi, a Boman by birth, and a cele- 
brated musician, was maestro di cappella to Sigis- 
mund UL and Uladislaus IV. successively kings of 
Poland. Angelo Berardi, the author of the Mis- 
cellanie Musicali, Document! Armonici, and other 
tracts on music, acknowledges that in the compilation 
of them he received great assistance from his friend 
Marco Scacchi. He was the author of a treatise 
published in 1643 with this title, ' Cribrum musicum 
'ad triticum Siferticum, sen Examinatio succincta 
' Psalmorum, quos non ita pridem Paulus Siferdus, 
' Dantiscanus, in sede Parochiali ibidem Organsedns, 
'in lucem edidit, in qu& clar^ et perspicu^ multa 
' explicantar, qu» summ^ necessaria ad artem melo- 
' poeticam esse solent, Autore Marco Scacchio, Ro- 
' mano. Regime Majestatis Poloniae et Sueci^ Capelke 
' magistro. Venetiis apnd Alexandrum Vincentium.* 

In the year 1647 Scacchi published * Cantilena 
' V. voc. et lachiymse sepulchrales,* containing a motet 
composed on occasion of the death of Johannes 
Stobseus ; and certain canons entitled ' Canones sive 
' Lachrimsa sepulchrales ad Tumulum Johannis 
* 6tob»i;* prefixed to the book is an eulogium cele- 
brating the praises of Stobeus, of whom the author 
says that he was 'inter sui seculi musicos facile 
' princeps.* This person was a Prussian by birth, 
and chapel-master of the church of Koningsberg in 
Regal Prussia. 

The musical compositions of Scacchi are greatly 
esteemed by the Italians for ^e exceeding closeness 
of thmr contexture, and tha^ ingenious and artificial 
contnvanoe, which manifests itself to the curious 
observer. As a specimen of these his exoellenoies, 
Berardi, in the Documenti Armonici, has published 
two madrigals, the one in four, the oth^ in five 
parts, the latter whereof is here inserted : — 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXIII. 



ri - um, noB - ce - re mis - te - ri -um, 

mis-te - ri-um, reg - ni De-i, reg- 

Di De - 

- i, c« - terifl au-temjn pa - r» - bo-lis, ut 

ni De 

oe - te-m aa-tem in 

pa- fa 

bo - lis, 

r^ - ni, reg 


- ni De 

reg -niDe - - i,c«- te-ris aa-tem in pa - ra 

• bo - lit, 

- ui De 


. . vi - den - - - tesnon vi -de -ant, nt vi-den-tes-. . non vi - de-ant, nt . . vi - den 

nt viden-tes non ti 

- de -ant, 

nt vi - dentes 

nt Ti-den- tesnon vi -de - ant, non vi - - de-ant, nt vi-den - 

^ viden-tesnon vi - de - ant, 

nt vi - dentes non • • 


et an - di - en - tes non in - tel - li-gant, 

jTf J ff Iff JJf 

non vi - de-ant, . 

de - ant, 

et an-di - en -tes ncm in - telligant, et an-di-en-tea 

tes non. . videant,et an-di-en-tes non in-tel - li - gant, 

et an-di-en-tes 

vi - deant, et an -di - en-tes non 

in-tel - - H - gant, 

Digitized by 




Book XIII. 

- tes, aa -di - en - tes non intel - li - gant. 

ct au-di-en-tes non . . in- tel - li-gant. 

et au-di - en.tcsnonin - telli - gant, non in -tel - li-gant, et aU'di-eu - tea non in - tel - li-gaut. 

in - tel - 


non in -tel - ligant, 

in -tel 

et au-di-en-tes non . 


li - gant, non in -tel -li -gant, et au -di - en - tes non in -tel - li-gant 


Gregorio Allegbi, (a Portrait,) a disciple of 
Gio. Maria Nanino, and a fellow student under him 
and Palestrina, with Bernardino Nanino, the nephew 
of Gio. Maria, Antonio Cifra, Pier Francesco Valen- 
tin!, and Paolo Agostino, was a singer in the papal 
chapel, being admitted as such on the sixth day of 
December, 1629. He was besides, as a scholar of 
his, Antimo Liberati, relates, a celebrated contra- 
puntist Andrea Adami, sumamed da Bolsena, who 
has given a brief account of him, says that he was 
but an indififerent singer; but that he was dis- 
tinguished for his benevolent disposition, which he 
manifested in his compassion for the poor, whom 
he daily relieved in crowdB at his own door, and in 
daily visits to the prisons of Rome, and communica- 
tions with those confined there, whose distresses he 
enquired into and relieved to the extent of his 
abilities. Allegri was a man of very devout temper : 
his works are chiefly for the service of the church ; 
nevertheless he sometimes composed for instruments:* 
among his compositions in the church style is a 
Miserere in five parts in the key of G, with the 
minor third, which by reason of its supposed ex- 
cellence and pre-eminence over all others of the like 
kind, has for a series of years been not only reserved 
for the most solemn functions, but kept in the library 
of the pontificial chapel with a degree of care and 
reserve that none can account for.f 

Andrea Adami, who might be a good singer, but 
was certainly a very poor writer, and, as may be 
collected from many passages in his book, less than 
a competent judge of the merits of musical composi- 
tion, has given a character of this work in the 
following words : ' Among those excellent com- 
' posers who merit eternal praise, is Gregorio Allegri, 
' who with few notes, but those well modulated, and 
'better understood, has composed a Miserere, that 

* A compMiHoa of hU for two Tiollns, a tanor and baM viol, is pub- 
Ibhed in the Muturgia of Kircher, torn. I. pag. 487. 

t The few copies of the Miserere of Alleffri till lately extant are said 
to be incorrect, haTlng been surreptitlouslj obtained, or written down 
by memory, and the chasms afterwards supplied : such it is said is that 
ill the library of the Academy of Ancient Music, but one in every respect 
complete, and copied with the utmost care and exactness, was about 
three vears ago presented as an inestimable curiosity by the present pope 
to an ulnstrions personage of this country. 

The French church-musleians have a Miserere, which Is highly valued 
among them, tho production of thehr own country, comix>sed by 
Allouette, of the church of Nfttre Dame in Paris, a celebrated composer 
of motets, and a disciple of LuUy. 

li - gant. 
Mabco Soaoohi. 

' on the same days in every year is sung, and is the 
' wonder of our times, being conceived in such pro- 
' portions as ravish the soul of the hearer.' 

The above eulogium, hyperbolical as it is, will be 
found to mean but little when it is considered that 
most men express delight and admiration, rapture 
and astonishment in the strongest terms that imagi- 
nation can suggest The Miserere of Allegri is in 
its structure simply counterpoint, a species of com- 
position which it must be allowed does not call for 
the utmost exertions of genius, industry, or skill; 
and it might be said that tibe burial service of Purcell 
and Blow may well stand in competition with it ; 
if not, the Miserere of Tallis, printed in the Gantiones 
SacrsQ of him and Bird in the year 1575, in the 
opinion of a sober and impartial judge, will be 
deemed in every respect so excellent, as to suffer by 
the bare comparison of it with that of Allegri. 

This person died on the eighteenth day of February, 
in the year 1652, and was buried near the chapel of 
St. Filippo in the Chiesa nuova, in the place of 
sepulture appropriated to the singers in the pope's 

Barbara Strozzi, otherwise Strozza, a Venetian 
lady,j: flourished towards the middle of the last 
century, and was the author of certain vocal com- 
positions, containing an intermixture of air and re- 
citative, which she published in 1653, with the title of 
'Cantate, Ariette, e Duetti,' with an advertisement 
prefixed, intimating that she having invented this 
commixture, had given it to the public by way of 
trial ; but though the style of her airs is rather too 
simple to be pleasing, the experiment succeeded, and 
she is allowed to be the inventress of that elegant 
species of vocal composition tho Cantata. 

GiAooMo Garissimi, maestro di cappella of the 
church of 8t. Apollinare in the German college at 
Rome, is celebrated by Kircher and other writers as 
one of the most excellent of the It«Jian musicians. 
He is reputed to be the inventor of the Cantata, 
which is borrowed from the opera, but which in the 

t This lady is not to be confounded with another of her own sex, 
Laurentia Stronia. a Dominican nun of Florence, who lived near fifty 
years after her, and wrote on music. She was very learned, understood 
the Greek language, and wrote Latin Hirmns, which were translated 
into French, and set to music by Jacques Mauduit, a French musklan, 
celebrated by Mersennus in his Harmonic Unireiselle Des Instrumens 
de Percussion, page 6S. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXIV. 



preceding article is shewn to have been invented by 
Barbara Strozzi, a lady his contemporary, and in 
truth was only first applied by Carissimi to religions 
subjects, and by him introduced into the church : a 
remarkable composition of his in this kind is one on 
the last Judgment, which begins with a recitative to 
the words 'Suonare Tultima tromba.* One of the 
most finished of his compositions is his Jephtha, a 
dialogue of the dramatic kind, and adapted to the 
church service; it consists of recitatives, airs, and 
chorus, and for sweetness of melody, artful modula- 
tion, and original harmony, is justly esteemed one of 
the finest efforts of musical skill and genius that the 
world knows of. Kircher in his Musurgia, tom. I. 
page 603, speaks with rapture of this work, and 
after pointing out its beauties, gives the chorus of 
virgins * Plorate fili» Israel,* for six voices in score 
and at length. 

Another work of Carissimi, of the same kind, and 
not less excellent than that abovementioned, is his 
Judicium Salomonis, to which may be added his 
dialogue between Heraclitus and Democritus, in 
which the affections of weeping and laughing are 
finely contrasted in the sweetest melodies that ima- 
gination ever suggested.* 

To Carissimi is owing the perfection of the re- 
citative style ; this species of music was invented by 
Jacopo Peri and Giulio Caccini, but reduced to 
practice, and greatly improved by Claudio Monte- 
verde ; Carissimi excelled in imitating the inflections 
of the human voice, and in uniting the charms of 
music with the powers of oratory. 

He was likewise the inventor of moving basses, in 
which he was imitated by a famous composer of 
Cantatas, Pier Simone Agostino, Colonna, Bassani, 
and lastly by Corelli. He was also among the first 
of those that introduced the accompaniment of violins 
and other instruments with the voices in the per- 
formance of motets, a practice which he took from 
the theatre, and was afterwards adopted by Colonna, 
Bassani, Lorenzani, and other Italians. A disciple 
of his. Marc Antonio Cesti, who will be spoken of in 
the next article, introduced the Cantata on the stage 
and into secular performances. Mattheson calls this 
a profanation, but with little reason, for the Cantata 
was never appropriated to church-service, and in its 
original design was calculated for private enter- 

Kircher in the strongest expressions of gratitude 
acknowledges his having received great assistance 
from Carissimi in the compilation of the Musurgia, 
particularly in that part of it which treats of Recita- 
tive, in which style he asserts that Carissimi had not 
his equal. 

Dr. Aldrich has adapted English words to many 
of Carissimi's motets; one of them, 'I am well 
pleased,' is well known as an anthem, and is fre-w 
quently sung in the cathedrals of this kingdom : and 
here it may be noted that the chorus in Mr. Handel's 
oratorio of Samson, ' Hear Jacob's God,' is taken 
from that in Jephtha ' Plorate filiss Israel.' 

Among the Harleian manuscripts is a volume of 
musical compositions, said by Mr. Humphrey Wanley, 
who drew up the Catalogue as far as No. 2407, 
to have been bought of himself, the first whereof is 
entitled ' Ferma, lascia, ch'io parli Sacrilego Ministro, 
'Cantata di Giacomo Carissimi,' upon which is 
the following note : ' This Giacomo Carissimi 
'was in his time the best composer of church- 
' music in all Italy. Most of his compositions were 

* with great labour and expence collected by the late 

* learned dean of Christ-Church, Dr. Henry Aldrich. 
' However, some things of Carissimi I had the luck 
<to light upon, which that great man could not 

* procure in Italy, of which this Cantata was one. 

* Carissimi living to be about ninety years old, com- 

* posed much, and died very rich as I have heard-'f 

Maro Antonio Cesti was first a disciple of Ca- 
rissimi, and afterwards a monk in the monastery of 
Arezzo in Tuscany. The emperor Ferdinand III. 
made him his maestro di cappella, notwithstanding 
which, and his religious profession, he composed but 
little for the church, for which he has been censured ; 
nay he composed for the theatre, operas to the 
number of five ; one entitled Orontea was performed 
at Venice about the year 1649, and another entitled 
La Dori some years after. His Cantatas, as has been 
mentioned in the article of Carissimi, were all of the 
secular kind, and the invention of the Cantata di 
Camera is therefore by some ascribed to him, while 
others contend that the honour of it is due to Carissimi 
his master; neither of these opinions have any 
foundation in historical truth ; the Cantata, as above 
is related, was originally invented by Barbara Strozzi ; 
and there are some of her compositions now extant 
which bear the name of Cantatas, and are so in fact, 
as consisting of recitative and airs for the voice ; it 
is true that the evidences of art and skill in the 
contrivance of them are but few, however they are 
prior in respect of time to those of Carissimi and 
Cesti, and must therefore be looked on as the earliest 
compositions of the kind. One of the most cele- 
brated Cantatas of Cesti is that to the words ' O cara 
Liberta;' some of his airs are printed in a col- 
lection published in London about the year 1665 by 
Girolamo Pignani, entitled * Scelta di Canzonette 

* Italiane de piu Autori.' The following sprightly 
duet is also of his composition 

CA-RA ca-ra'e dol-ce, 

ca - ra ca-ra'e dol - ce, ca -ra*e dol - ce Li - ber 

CA-RA ca.ra'e dol - - ce Li-ber-ta, ca-ra'e, ca-ra'e dol-ce, ca-ra'e dol-ce« 

* Pietro Torri, chapel-inaiter of th« church of Brutaels in the year 1 722, compoeed a daet on the same subject. t Harleian Catalogue, No. 1165. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Book XIII. 

Li - ber - ta, 

. oa - ra*e dol • ce li - ber - ta, I'al - ma mia con - so - li 

ca - la ca-rao 

tu piu non vi-vo ser-vi-tu il mio cor sciol-to sen - va, 


ca - ra ca - ra'e dol - o© ca - ra'e dol - ce Li - ber - ta 

ca-ra'e dol - - ce Li -ber- ta, ca - ra ca-ra*e dol-ce, ca - ra'e dol - ce li-ber-ta 

ca-ra'e del-ce Li -ber-ta, ca-ra'e dol-ce Ll-ber-ta. 


r ^ tLfju- i n J J— 1— Fr-3- ^rjj\r] j .j ii 

Esther Elizabeth Velkiers may jnstly be ihought 
to merit a place in a work of this kind, for her ex- 
cellence in the facnlty of mnsic. She was a native 
of Geneva, and was bom abont the year 1640, but 
before she was a twelvemonth old, through Uie care- 
lessness of a servant, was suffered to go so near 
a heated oven, that she was in an instant almost 
totally deprived of her sight As she grew up, her 
father discovering in her a strong propensity to 
learning, taught her the use of letters by means of an 
alphabet cut in wood, and had her instructed in the 
Latin, German, French, and Italian languages. Being 
thus furnished, she applied herself to the study of the 
mathematics, natural and experimental philosophy, 
and lastly, theology ; in all which sciences she ac- 
quired such a degree of knowledge as rendered her 
tiie wonder and admiration of the ablest professors. 
As a relief to h^ severer studies, she betook herself 
to music, the knowledge whereof she acquired with 

Seat facility. She had a good voice and a very fine 
nd, which Bh» exercised on the harpsichord. She 
bad scarce any remains of sight, but had nevertheless 
attained the power of writing a hand very legible. 
Nothing of her composition is remaining, nor any 
other memorials of her extraordinary genius and 
abilities, than are to be found in some of &e German 

Mabg AtrroNio Cwxi. 

Lexicons, in ^ich she is mentioned in terms of 
great respect* 

JoHANN Caspar Kerl, was a native of Saxony, 
and having in his early youth made great proficiency 
in music, was called to Vienna l^ the archduke 
Leopold, and appointed organist at his court, where 
discovering signs of an extraordinary genius, ho was 
for his improvement committed to tiie care of Gio- 
vanni Valentini, maestro di cappella at the Imperial 
court, and after that sent to Kome for instruction 
under Carissimi : upon his return great offers were 
made him to enter into the service of the Elector 
Palatine, but he declined them, chusing rather to 
setde at Bavaria, where he became maestro di cappella 
to the elector Ferdinando Maria. His principal work 
is his ' Modulatio Organica super Magnificat octo 
'Tonis Ecclesiasticis respondens,' engraved and 
printed in folio at Munich in 1687. KeH is justly 
esteemed one of the most skilful and able organists 
that the world ever produced. In a competition 
tiiat he had witii some Italian musicians a^ the court 
of the elector of Bavaria, he composed a piece for 
that instrument of wonderful contrivance, and which 
none but himself could execute. 

The followinjc: is given as a specimen of EerVs 
style of composition for the organ. 

• BUkop Bumet in 1685, wlun abroad on hit t n 9 fhitm » tmd kadtlOKi 

conversaiiont with (kit extraordinarjf ptnon, , , i OOOl^ 

Chap. CXXIV, 



ij j^.j ifi^^^ i r r r r ir rrr-h^F-f-r- 

ft" 'H ij'f .-^rg 

, r^, r^^a^ 

^j.ilM rnir'- ^ ,| 'r 7"'M -n ^^ ^ ^^^ 


Digitized by 




Book XHI. 

Pabio Colonna, of the illustrious family of that 
name at Rome, was a celebrated mathematician, 
naturalist, and speculative musician. He was bom 
at Naples in the year 1567, and flourished at the 
beginning of the succeeding century. He acquired 
great reputation by his skill in botany, and by the 
publication at different times of three books of Plants 
with figures, and remarks on the writings of Theo- 
phrastus, Pliny, Dioscorides, and Matthiolus : he was 
a member of the society called Accademia Lyncsei, 
established by the Duke De Aqua Sparta ; the first 
of those institutions for the improvement of science 
and literature, which are now so numerous in Italy 
and other parts of Europe. In the year 1618 he 

CMished in the Italian language a work in three 
ks, entitled * Delia Sambuca Lincea, overo dell' 
instrumento musico perfetto, which instrument he 
named Lincea, and also Pentecontachordon, as con- 
sisting of fifty strings. 

In this work of Colonna is contained the division 
of the diapason, which many have confounded with 
that of Vicentino, and makes the octave to consist 
of thirty -two sounds or thirty-one intervals. 

Salinas asserts, and as it seems Mersennus once 
thought, that the two systems of Vicentino and 
Colonna were one and the same, as they both divide 
the tone into five parts, three whereof are given to 
the greater semitone, and two to the lesser. Salinas's 
words are these : ' I should not pass over a certain 
'instrument, which was begun to be fabricated in 

* Italy about forty years since, and was by its in- 

* ventor, let him be who he will, called Archicymba- 

* lum, in which all the tones are found to be divided 

* into five parts, three whereof are given to the greater 
' semitone, and two to the lesser one.' 

And Mersennus remarks that that division cannot 
be called a new one which began to be made ninety- 
seven years before the time of his, Mersennus's, 
writing, viz., in the year 1634 ; between which time, 
and the time when Salinas published his book, fifty 
years elapsed : wherefore says Mersennus, as Colonna 
is a very old man, and confesses that he received this 
invention from another, it agrees very well with what 
Salinas has remarked.* 

But in the Harmonic Universelle, livre III. Des 
Genres de la Musique, Prop. XI. Mersennus exhibits 
Colonna's system, which has no one circumstance in 
common with that of Vicentino, excepting only the 
division of the tone into five parts, as appears by the 
following description : — 

' Fabio makes use of a monochord of the length of 
' seven feet between the two bridges, and divides it 
' into 200 equal parts, by means of an iron wheel, 
' of the size of a Julio, an Italian coin worth five 
< pence, this wheel has forty teeth, and being placed 

• Harmonid, Ub. VI. De Otntribas et Modit, Prop. xUL 


' in a collateral situation with the string, and rolled 
' along, in fifty revolutions marks 200 points. 

' As to the degrees of the different species of the 
' Diatonic, which he endeavours to find in the division 
' of the octave into thirty-eight intervals, they prove 
' that the Greeks have groped in the dark for that 
' which they might easily have found if they had 
' followed nature. 

'The design of Fabio is to prove that the tone 
' ought to be divided into five parts, but thb may 
' be done, as we have elsewhere said, by a division 

•'The table here ex- 
'hibited shews all the 

* chords, and intervals in 

* the octave of Fabio. Its 
' two columns contain all 
' the chords of the octave, 
*and shew the different 
' points of the monochord 
'on which the bridge is 
'to be placed, to find 

* every degree and every 
' interval, as well against 
'the whole chord, as a- 
' gainst the residue ; and 
' for this purpose the right 
' hand column contains a 

* number, which, together 
'with its correspondent 
' number on the lefl, com- 
' pletes the number 2000. 
'representing the whole 
' chord. 

' For example, the num- 
' bers 1000 and 1000 at 
' the top of each column, 
'make up the number 
' 2000 ; the numbers in 
' the sixth place from the 
' top, that is to say, 1200 
' and 800 in like manner 
' complete the niunber 
'2000; and the same 
' thing will come to pass 
' in all the rest of the num- 
' bers in the two columns. 
' whose addition will al- 
*ways give the number 
' 2000, the sum of the 
'divisions contained in 

* the whole chord, 
' It is easy to know 

' what every residue 
' makes with the whole 
' chord, or with the other 

t Vid« Harmon, lib. V. De Disaoiuuitlif. Prop. xix. 




1063 44 

936 ^ 

1090 4^ 

909 tV 


nil i 

888 4 

1142 4 

857 4 








1333 i 

666 § 

1538 A 

461 tV 


688 tV 

1428 4 

671 4 

1464 A 

646 T-V 








260 14 

1668 4f 

341 H 


1666 § 

333 i 

1684 1 

316 i 

1714 f 

286 4 


1777 i 

222 1 

1860 IJ 

139 If 

1811 H 

188 If 

1818 T»r 

181 A 

1828 4 

171 f 

1840 A 

163 4J 

1882 T^ 

117 14 

1937 41 

62 If 



1904 M 

96 W 


89 14 




1939 H 

60 If 





1961 A 

48 If 



1959 A 

40 If 


30 4f 



Digitized by 


Chap. OXXIV. 



' remaining part, that is to say, what every number 
'of each colnmn makes when compared with its 
' opposite number, or with that of the whole chord, 

* for example : — 

* The sixth step of the first column, 1200, and the 
' sixth of the second, 800, make the fifth, but 800 
' with 2000, the greater tenth, and 1200 with 2000, 
'the greater sixth. The rest of the relations are 

* seen in this table, in which I have put the letters 
' A, J], C, &c. that is A, re, }i mi, C pa ut, and so 
' on opposite the numbers answering to them. For 
' example, the A with the K or 2000 with 1777J 

* makes the greater tone ^ to 8, for there is no 
' number which makes the lesser tone, viz., 10 to 9 
' with 2000, since 1800 is not there, which is to 
' 2000 as 9 to 10. Now I begin this system with 
' our A RB, because it answers to the Proslambano- 
' menos of the Greeks, and I put the other letters \y 
*Mi, C FA UT, &c. with those feigned ones having 
' this character 4, ascending to the octave, A la hi 
' RE, opposite to the numbers which answer to these 
' syUables, although you might begin from C ut, D 
' RE, or any o^er syllable or harmonical letter. 
' I really wonder that Colonna and others have 
'laboured so much at the division of the octave 
' without first ascertaining the true intervals that are 

* necessary to be used in singing, for the C sol ut fa 
' at the bottom, marked 2000,* has no greater tone 
' above it ; the D la re sol makes the greater tone ; 
' and he should have put the number 1750 to make 
' the greater tone, without which it is not possible to 
' obtain the justness of the consonants ; he has also 
' left out the B fa, that is 1125, which should make 

* the greater semitone with A marked 1200, and the 

* fourth with F marked 1500 ; he has no Jj mi, which 
' should make the fifth with £, or 1600, as does the 
'number 1066f. I omit several other harmonical 
' intervals which cannot be found in his octave, both 
' consonant and dissonant, but must observe that he 
*has made the measures of his system so difficult, 

* that out of the thirty-nine numbers there are only 
'six that are not fractional, and these I could not 
' reduce into less whole terms than those which are 
' to be seen in the 12th proposition of the sixth book 
'of the Harmonics, de Greneribus et Modis, which 
' are so prodigiously great, that there are but few who 

* would not rather for ever quit all the pleasure of 
' music than examine them, and proportion the chords 
' of instruments to their intervals and ratios. 

'But as the principal design of Colonna was to 
'determine the several intervals by the monochord 
' on every chord, and consequently to give a system 
' which might serve for C sol ut fa, or D la re sol, 


' ]-| MI, this invention should not be suffered to be 
' buried in oblivion. The division of the tone into 
' five equal parts is noted by four different characters 
called dieses ; the first of these is made by two lines 
' crossing each other obliquely, the second has four 
' lines, the third six, and the fourth eight, as in this 
' example : — 

■ TlM tcheme of Cokmna't lystem beie referred to if that ^th the 
muDbexs annexed. 


0X0 y ojroyo ^ o^^o^i^'^^w^^ 

12 8 4 66789 10 11 12 

in which he puts the first diesis of the first note to 
the second, and so on, until he comes to the sixth 
note, which is a tone above the first, and a diesis 
above the fifth ; and certainly if the tone could- in 
reality be divided into five equal parts, the invention 
of these characters for distinguishing them is in- 
genious enough, because the number of crossing 
lines shews how many dieses we must ascend or 
descend in singing ; for the first cross points out an 
ascent by one diesis, the second by two, 4fec ; and 
if the tone were capable of a division into eight 
commas, as some imagine, some such like characters 
might be made use of, or indeed the common 
numbers. But it is certain that the tone cannot be 
divided into five equal dieses by numbers, for as the 
diesis is the difference between the greater and 
lesser semitone, which last Colonna supposes equal 
to two dieses, it follows that all his divisions are 
ficdse, for two dieses are greater than the lesser 
semitone iVflV5 > ^ ^^^y ^ demonstrated by the 
rule of proportion, since the ratio of two dieses is 
16384 to 15625, and these two numbers are to one 
another as 25 AWg ^ ^* when that of the lesser 
semitone is as 25 to 24. 

'But this author seems not to have understood 
the perfect theory of music, because he takes no 
notice of the greater semitone, an essential interval 
in music, for the number, 1871^ which makes that 
semitone with the first or greatest number of his 
monochord, that is to say, 2000, is not in his division, 
and had it been there, should have been placed 
between 1882t^ and 1 840^V ^^ '^ ^^ characters 
are truly marked, he puts the greater semitone 
2000 to 1882^, and consequently makes it greater 
than it is. 

' The following example will shew how he divides 
the octave by the chromatic and enarmonic degrees, 
opposite to which are placed the numbers of his 
monochord : — 

JJ ^ ^-H^nkJ^P- Hi* ft ^ ^^"^^ 



'» »- 

O;pO0000*q •qasqtqitf^C0fc0^i-*OQ 

'But the octave, divided as under into twelve 

^ equal semitones, answers all the ends of his division. 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 


i^vTitTn^S ^ 

Mersennus has given so copious a description of 
Colonna's system, that he has left very little to be 
said on the subject, except that it has never been 
adopted in any of the proposals for a temperature : 
neither indeed has that of Vicentino, which he has 
investigated with great ingenuity. On the contrary, 
the above division of the octave into thirteen sounds 
and twelve intervals, which is the same with that 

Digitized by 





mentioned in pag. 4:01 of this work, in not. and which 
Mersennus has particularly recommended in the 
Harmonic Universelle, liv. III. Des Genres de la 
Musique, Prop. XII. seems to prevail, as having 
hitherto resisted all attempts towards a farther im- 


Mabin Mersbnke, (a Portrait^) [Lat Marinns 
Mersennus J a most learned French writer, was bom 
on the eighth day of September, 1588, at Oyse in the 
province of La Maine. He received his instruction in 
polite literature at the college of Fl6che, but quitting 
that seminary, he went to Paris, and after having 
studied divinity some years in the college of the 
Sorbonne, entered himsdf among the Minims, and 
on the seventeenth day of July, 1611, received the 
habit. In September, 1612, he went to reside in the 
convent of that order at Paris, where he was ordained 
priest, and performed his first mass in October, 1613. 
Immediately upon his settlement he applied himself 
to the study of the Hebrew language under the 
direction of father John Bruno, a Scots Minim, and 
having acquired a competent degree of skill therein, 
he became a teacher of philosophy and theology in 
the convent of Nevers. In this station he continued 
till the year 1619, when he returned to Paris, de- 
termined to spend the remainder of his life in study 
and conversation, as indeed he did, making them his 
whole employment. In the pursuit of his studies 
he established and kept up a correspondence with 
most of the learned and ingenious men of his time. 
During his stay at la Fl^che he had contracted a 
friendship with Des Cartes, which he manifested in 
many instances, of which the following may be 
reckoned as one. Being at Paris, and looked on 
as the friend of Des Cartes, he gave out that that 
philosopher was erecting a new system of physics 
upon the foundation of a Vacuum ; but finding the 
public were indififerent to it, he immediately sent 
intelligence to Des Cartes that a Vacuum was not 
then tibe fashion, which made that philosopher change 
his system and adopt the old doctrine of a Plenum. 
The residence of Mersennus at Paris did not hin- 
der him from making several joumies into foreign 
countries, for he visited Holland in the middle of the 
year 1629, and Italy four times, viz., in 1639, 1641, 
1644, 1646. In the month of July, 1648, and in 
the dog-days, having been to visit his friend Des 
Cartes, he returned home to his convent excessively 
heated ; to allay his thirst he drank cold water, and 
Boon after was seized with an illness which produced 
an abscess on his right side. His physicians ima- 
gining his disorder to be a kind of pleurisy, he was 
bled several times to no purpose; at last it was 
thought proper to open his side, and the operation 
was begun, but he expired in the midst of it on the 
first day of September, 1648, he being then about 
the ^ge of sixty. He had directed the surgeons, in 
case of a miscarriage in the operation, to open his 
body, which they did, and found that they had made 
the incision two inches below the abscess. 

The author of Mersennus's life, Hilarion de Coste, 
gives thb farther character of him and his writings. 

He was a man of universal learning, but excelled 
particularly in physics and the mathematics; on 
these subjects he published many books, and one in 
particular entitled ' Questiones celeberim» in Genesim, 
' cum accurate textus explicatione : in quo volumine 
' athsei et deista impugnantur, dbc.'* Paris 1623 It 
abounds with long digressions, one on the subject of 
music, in which, and indeed in many other parts of 
his book, he takes occasion to censure the opinions 
of Robert Fludd, an Englishman, a doctor in physic, 
and a fellow of the college of physicians in London, 
but a crack-brained enthusiast, of whom, as he was 
a writer on music, an account will hereafter be given. 

The character of Mersennus as a philosopher and 
a mathematician is well known in the learned world. 
To that disposition which led him to the most abstruse 
studies, he had joined a nice and judicious ear, and 
a passionate love of music, these gave a direction to 
his pursuits, and were productive of numberless ex- 
periments and calculations tending to demonstrate 
the principles of harmonics, and prove that they are 
independent on habit or fashion, custom or caprice, 
and, in short, have their foundation in nature, and 
the original frame and constitution of the universe. 

In the year 1636 Mersennus, published at Paris, in 
a large folio volume, a work entitled Harmonic 
Universelle, in which he treats of the nature and 
properties of sound, of instruments of various kinds, 
of consonances and dissonances, of composition, of the 
human voice, and of the practice of singing, and 
a great variety of other particulars respecting music. 

This book consists of a great number of separate 
and distinct treatises, with such signatures for the 
sheets and numbers for the pages as make them 
independent of each other. The consequence whereof 
is, that there are hardly any two copies to be met 
with that contain precisely the same number of tracts, 
or in which the tracts occur or follow in the same 
order, so that to cite or refer to the Harmonic 
Universelle is a matter of some difficulty. The titles 
of the tracts are as follow : De TUtilit^ de THarmonie. 
De la Nature et des Proprietez du Son. Des Con- 
sonances. Des Dissonances. Des Instrumens. Des 
Instrumens k chordes. Des Instrumens k vent Des 
Instrumens de Percussion. DesOrgues. Des Genres 
de la Musique. De la Composition. De la Voix. 
Des Chants. Du Mouvement des Corps. DesMouve- 
mens et du son des Chordes. De I'Art de Men 
chanter, and herein des Ordres de Sons, de TArt 
d'embellir la Voix, les Recits, les Airs, ou les Chants. 
De la Eythmique. 

As the substance of these several treatises is con- 
tained in the Latin work of Mersennus herein spoken 
of, it is not necessary to give any thing more than 
a general account of the Harmonic Universelle; 
nevertheless some material variations between the 
Latin and the French work will be noted as they 

In the year 1648, Mersennus published hb Har- 
monic Universelle in Latin, with considerable addi- 

* Th« title of the book at entered in the Bodleian Catalogne it 

Questiones et Explfcatio in sex prion capita OeneseofS, quibus etiam 

< Onecorum et Hebneonun Mnsica instauratur.' Par. 16SS. It seems 

that the Harmonie Universelle and Harmonid, contain in tabttance tha 

vhole of what he has said in it relating to mosic 

Digitized by 


Chap. OXXV. 



lions and improvements, with this title, 'Harmoni- 
' corum libri xii. in quibus agitur de sonorum natara, 
* cansis, et effectibus : de consonantiis, dissonantiis, 
' Tationibns, generibus, modis, cantibns, compositione, 
'orbisqne totins harmonicis instrmnentis/ This 
work, diongh the title does not mention it, is divided 
into two parts, the first containing eight, and the 
second fonr books, thus distinguished: Lib. i. De 
natura et proprietatibus sonorum. iL De causis 
sonorum, sea de corporibus sonum producentibas. 
iii. De fidibus, nervis et chordis, atque metallis, ex 
qmbus fieri solent iv. De sonis consonis, seu con- 
sonantiis. v. De nmsicss dissonantiis, de rationibus, 
et proportionibus; deque divisionibusconsonantiarum. 
vL De speciebus consonantiarum, deque modis, et 
generibus. vii. De cantibus, sen cantilenis, earumque 
numero, partibus, et speciebus. viii. De compositione 
musica, de canendi methodo, et de voce. 

The several chapters of the second part are thus 
entitled : — 

Lib. L De singulis instrumentis cvraroic sen 
eyx^p^oic hoc est nervaceis et fidicularibus. ii. De 
instrumentis pnenmaticis. iiL De organis, campanis, 
tympanis, ac csteris instrumentis xpovoiuvoi^y seu que 
percutiuntur. iv. De campanis, et aliis instrumentis 
Kpovofuvoic seu percussionis,ut tympanis, cymbali8,<&c. 

The titles of these several books do in a great 
measure bespeak the general contents of them seve- 
rally; but the doctrines delivered by Mersennns 
are fonnded on such a variety of experiments touch- 
ing the nature and properties of sound, and of chords, 
as well of metal as those which are made of the 
intestines of beasts; and his reascming on these 
subjects is so veiy close, and withal so curious, that 
nothing but the perusal of this part of his own 
original work can afiford satisfiAOtion to to enquirer, 
for which reason an abridgment of it is here for- 

In the fourth and fifth books he treats of the 
consonances and dissonances, shewing how they are 
generated, and ascertaining with the ntmost degree 
of exactness the ratios of each; for an instance 
whereof we need look no farther ^an his fifth book, 
where he demonstrates that there are no fewer than 
five different kinds of semitone, giving the ratios of 
them severally. 

His designation of the genera contained in his 
sixth book, De Generibus et Modis, is inserted in 
page 34 of this work. Previous to his explanation 
of the modes, he exhibits a view of the scale of 
Guide in a collateral position with that of the ancient 
Greeks, making Proslambanomenos answer to A re, 
and Nete hyperboleon to aa, la mi re. Of the 
ancient modes he says very little, but hastens to 
declare the nature of the modem, or as they are 
otherwise termed the ecclesiastical tones, and these 
with Glareanus he makes to be twelve. This book 
contains also his examen and censure of the division 
of the monochord by Fabio Colonna. 

In his seventh book, De Cantibus, in order to 
shew the wonderful variety in music, he exhibits 
tables that demonstrate the several combinations or 
possible arrangements of notes in the forming a Can- 

tilena; and in these the varieties appear so multi- 
farious, that the human mind can scarce contemplate 
them without distraction ; in short, to express the 
number of combinations of which sixty-four sounds 
are capable, as many figures are necessary as fill 
a line of a folio page in a small type ; and those 
exhibited by Mersennns for this purpose are thus 
rendered by him : — 

'Ducenti viginti et raius vigintioctoiliones, 284 
' vigintiseptemiliones, 59 vigintisexiliones, 310 vigin- 
' tiquinqueiliones, 674 vigintiquatuoriliones, 795 vi- 
' gintitresiliones, 878 vigintiduoiliones, 785 viginti 
'et unnsiliones, 453 vigintiliones, 858 novemdeci- 
'miliones, 545 octodecimiliones, 553 septemdecimi- 
'liones, 220 sexdecimiliones, 443 quindecimiliones, 
' 327 quatuordecimiliones, 118 ti^ecimiliones, 855 
' duodedmiliones, 467 nndecimiliones, 387 decimi- 
'Hones, 637 noviliones, 279 octiliones, 113 septi- 
*liones, 59 sexiliones, 747 quintiliones, 33 qnadri- 
* liones, et sexcenti triliones.** 

In his book intitled De Instrumentis harmonicis, 
Prop. II. he takes occasion to speak of the chords of 
musical instruments, and of the substances of which 
they are formed ; and these he says are metal and 
the intestines of sheep or any other animals. He 
says that the thicker chords of the greater viols and of 
lutes are made of thirty or forty single intestines, 
and that the best of this kind are made in Rome 
and some other cities in Italy, and this superiority 
he says may be owing to the air, the water, or the 
herbage on which the sheep of Italy feed : he adds 
that chords may be also made of silk, flax, or other 
materiab, but that the animal chords are far the best 
Chords of metal he says are of gold, silver, copper, 
brass, or iron, which being formed into cylinders, are 
wrought into wires of an incredible fineness; these 
cylinders he says are three, or four feet long, and l^ 
the power of wheels, which require the strength of 
two or three men to turn them, ar^ drawn through 
plates with steel holes, which are successively changed 
for others in gradual diminution, till the cylinders 
are reduced to slender wires. 

To demonstrate the ductility of metals, particularly 
silver and gold, he says that he tried a silver chord, 
so very slender, that six hundred feet of it weighed 
only an ounce, and found that it sustained a weight 
of eight ounces before it broke; and that when it 
was stretched by the same weight on a monochord 
eighteen inches in length, it made in the space of 
one second of time a hundred vibrations : as to gold, 
he says that an ounce may be converted into sixteen 
hundred leaves, each at least three inches square, 
and that he remembered a gold-beater that by mere 
dint of labour hammered out such a leaf of gold till 
it covered a table like a table-cloth. He mentions 
also the covering cylinders or chords of silver or 
copper with gold, and demonstrates that an ounce of 
gold being beaten into leaves, may be made to gild 
a wire two hundred and sixty-six leagues long. 

In Prop. VIII. of the same book, the author 

* AccordiDg to the computation of risgot, the time required to riog 
all the possible changes on twelve belli is seventy-fiye years, ten months*' 
one week, and three days. 

Digitized by 




Book XIIL 

treats of the Oithara or Lute, and of the Theorho, 
which ho calls the Githara bijuga, thus represented 
by him : — 

After having 
explained the 
construction of 
these two se- 
veral instru- 
ments, and 
shewn the tun- 
ing, and the 
method of play- 
ing on each, as 
also the me- 
chanical opera- 
tions of the 
I workmen in 
' making them, 
he directs the 
application of 
the hands and 
6nger8, and describes the several little percussions or 
graces in the performance on the lute. 

And here, tf> avoid confusion, it may be proper to 
note the difference between the above two instru- 
ments: the first is the primitive French lute im- 
proved by an additional number of strings from that 
represented in page 418 of this work. The other 
is the Theorbo or Githara bijuga, so called from 
its having two necks, though we ought rather to 
say that it has two nuts, which sevendly determine 
the lengths of the two sets of strings. When the 
strings of the latter are doubled, as among the Italians 
they frequently are, the instrument is called Arcileato, 
the Arch-lute. See page 418 of this work, in not 
The use of it then is chiefly in thorough-bass. In 
the earlier editions of Gorelli's Sonatas, particularly 
of the third opera, printed at Bologna in 1690, the 
principal bass part is entitled Violone, 6 Arcileuto. 
In the Antwerp editions it is simply Violone, from 
whence it may be inferred that in Flanders the Arch- 
lute was but little, if at all, in use. 

In Prop. XIII. he explains the tablature for the 
lute ad well by figures as letters, illustrating the 
latter method in a subsequent proposition by a Can- 
tilena of Mons. Boesset^ master of the chamber-music 
to the king of France. 

Prop. XIX. contains a description of another in- 
strument of the 
lute-kind, which 
he calls the Pan- 
dura, of the fol- 
lowing form : — 
and seems to be 
an improvement 
of the instrument 
called the Bandore, invented by John Hose,* and 
spoken of in pag. 493 of this work. 

* The right name of this peison •eems to have been Rou. He had 
A ton, a famous viol-maker. Mace, in hii Mutiek's Monument, piw. 245, 
■ayi that one Bolles and Rou were two the bett makert of violi ur the 
world, and that he had known a baM-vioI of the former valued at one 
hundred poonds. 

In Prop. XX. are 
given the figure, 
concentus, and ta- 
blature of the Man- 
dura or lesser lute, 
an instrument of 
this form ; — 

In Prop. XXI. 
the following 
representation of 
the Githara His- 
panica,or Spanish 
Guitar, f 

In Prop. XXII. are exhibited the form and con- 
centus of the instrument called the Gistrum, thus 
delineated : — 

This instru- 
ment Mersennus 
says is but little 
used, and is held 
in great con- 
tempt in France, 
as indeed it has 
been till very lately in this country. The true 
English appellation for it is the Gittem, notwith- 
standing it is by ignorant people called the Guitar : 
the practice on it being very easy, it was formerly 
the common recreation and amusement of women 
and their visitors in houses of lewd resort. Many 
are the allusions to this instrument in the works of 
our old dramatic poets : whence it appears that the 
Gittem was formerly the s3nnbol of a woman that 
lived by prostitution. Another proof of the low 
estimation in which it was formerly held in England 
is that it was the common amusement of waiting 
customers in barbers* shops. ^ 

Prop. XXrV. exhibits the form and use of an 
instrument resembling the Gittem in the body, but 
having a neck so long as to make the distance 
between the nut and the bridge six feet The general 

t Aocording to the well-known maxim ' Additio probat minoritatem.' 
the appellation Githara Hiipaniea, which we render the Spaniih Ouiur, 
inppoees a guitar of some other country, but the case is not so, although 
a certain instrument now in fitsbion, and which is no other than the 
Cistrum or Ctsteron of Mersennus, or the old cittern, is ignorantly termed 
a guitar. This conftision of terms is to be thus accounted for: almost 
every instrument of the lute-kind is in Latin called Oithara, and by the 
Italians Cetera, and sometimes Chittarra ; the Spaniards pronounce this 
latter word Ouitaira, and sometimes, as in Cerone, Quitarra. So that 
upon the whole the dmple appellative. Guitar, is a sufficient designation 
of the Githara Hisaanica or Spanish lute, which differs greatly firom that 
of the French ana Italians in its form, as may be seen by comparing 
their respective diagrams abore exhibited. 

X This fact is alluded to in Jonson's Comedy of the Alchemist, and 
also in his Silent Woman, in which Morose finding that instead of a mute 
wife he has got one that can talk, cries out of Cutberd, who had re* 
commended her to him, ' That cursed barber t I have married his Cittern 
that is common to all men.* It seems that formerlv a barber's shop, 
instead of a newspaper to amuse those that waited for their turn, was 
furnished with a musical instrument, which was seldom any other than 
the Cittern, as being the most easy to play on of any, and therefore might 
be truly said to be common to all men : and when this is known, the 
allusion of the poet appears to be very Just and natural ; as to the fkct 
itself, it is ascertained in one of those many little books written by 
Crouch, the bookseller in the Poultry, and published with the initial letters 
R. B. for Robert Burton, entitled Winter Evening Entertainments. ISmo. 
1687, it consisU of ten pleasant relations, and fifty riddles in verse, each 
of which has a wooden cut before it ; Numb. XLIV. of these riddles is 
explained a barber; the cut prefixed to it represents his shop with one 
person under his hands, and another sitting by and playing on a cittern 
Tki» iiutrument grew into distue about the btflmmimg of this eentwry," 
2>r. Kinff, taking oeea$hn to mention tkt barbers of his time, says thai 
turning tkemsetves to periwig making iheg had forgot their cittern and their 
music. Works of Dr, William King, Vol. S, page 79. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXX\. 



name of it is the Colachon ; but it is also called the 
Bichordon or Trichordon, accordingly as it is strung ; 
the nse of it is to play songs in two or three parts, 
which Mersennus says may be performed on it with 
all the varieties of fugnes, Syncopes, and other orna- 
ments of figorate music. He adds that the table or 
belly of this instrument may be of parchment or 
copper, or even of glass. 

The several instruments above enumerated are of 
that genus which is characterized by the appellation 
of the Cithara, or as it is usually rendered, the Lute. 
Another class is included in the general denomination 
of the Barbiton, and of these there appear to be two 
species, the Violin and the Viol ; these Mersennus 
particularly characterizes, but first he describes an 
instrument of a singular form, and a very diminutive 
size, which, for want of a better name, he calls the 
Lesser Barbiton ;♦ this is a small violin invented for 
the use of the dancing-masters of Prance, of such 
a form and dimension, as to be capable of being 
carried in a case or sheath in the pocket. There 
are two forms of this instrument by him thus ex- 
hibited : — 

He then de- 
scribes the violin 
properly so call- 
ed; that is to 
say, the common 
treble violin, and 
from thence pro- 
ceeds to the greater, called by the Italians the 
Violone, and of late years the Violoncello. He 
gives also a representation of the violin : to each of 
these instruments he assigns a tuning by fifths, but 
the ambit of the former differs from that of the 
modem Violoncello. 

Mersennus speaks also of the tenor and contra- 
tenor violin, which he says differ only in magnitude 
from the treble violin. He adds that these instru- 
ments are severally strung with four chords, each 
acuter than the other in the progression upwards by 
a diapente. 

Mersennus having treated thus largely of the 
violin species, and shewn what is to be understood 
by a concert of violins, f he proceeds to a description 

■ In England this instrament ii called a Kit, it is now made in the 
fonn of a violin ; its length, measuring firom the extremities, is about 
sixteen inches, and that of the bow about seventeen. Small as It is, its 
powers are co-extensive with those of the violin. Mr. Francis Pemberton, 
a dandng>master of London, lately deceased, was so excellent a master 
of the Kit, that he was able to play solos on it, exhibiting in his per- 
formance all the graces and elegancies of the violin, which is the more to 
be wondered at as he was a very corpulent man. 

t We have here a perfect designation of a concert of violins, as contra- 
distinguished from one of viols, usually called a chest of viols, by meant 
whereof we are enabled to form an idea of that band of twenty-four 
violins esUblished by Lewis XIV. which as Mons. Perrault and others 
assert, was the meet fiunous of any in Europe. 

The common opinion of this band is. that it consisted of four and 
twenty treble violUu, thus ridiculously alluded to by Durfey in one of 
his songs, 

' Four and twenty fiddlers all in a row.' 
But the Ikct is that it was composed of Bass, Tenor, Contratenor, and 
Treble instruments, all of which were included under the general de- 
nomination of violins. Mersennus given a very particular description of 
I<ewi8's band in the following passage :— * Whoever hears the 24 fldidnists 
*ofthe king with six Barbitons to each part, namely, the bass, tenor, 
'contratenor, and treble, perform all kinds of Cantilenas and tunes for 
« dancing, must readily confess that there can be nothing sweeter and 

of the viol species ; and first he treats of the greater 
viol, which he says has six chords ; the form of this 
instrument is thus represented by him : — 

Speaking of that little pillar of 
wood placed under the belly of 
the viol and other instruments, 
which we call the sound-post, 
Mersennus makes it a question, 
why it is placed under the 
slenderest, rather than the thick- 
est chord, which seems most to 
require a support, and recom- 
mends to the enquiry of in- 
genious persons the reason of this 

In Prop. xxii. Mersennus treats 
of an instrument which he calls 
the new, or rather the ancient 
lyre, but whether properly or not, 
almost any one is able to judge. 
It is an instrument of a very 
singular kind as may be seen by the following re- 
presentation of it : — 

* pleasanter. If you have a mind to hear the upper part only, what can 
' be more elegant than the playing of Constantinus ? what more vehement 
< than the enthusiasm of Bocanus f what more subtile and delicate than 

* the little percussions or touches of Laxarinus and Foucardus ? If the 

* bass of Legerus be Joined to the acute sounds of Constantius, all the 

* harmonical numbers will be compleated.' 

At p Absent we have no such instruments in use as the contratenox 
violin. It seems that soon after this arrangement it was found un- 
necessary, inasmuch as the part proper to it might with ease be per- 
formed on the violin, an instrument of a more sprightly sound than any 
other of the same species ; and it may accordingly be observed, that In 
concertos, overtures, and other instrumental compositions of many parts, 
the second violin is in truth the countertenor part. 

Mersennus has taken no notice of the Instrument now used In concerts, 
called by the Italians and French the Violone, and by us in England the 
> double bass ; it seems that this appellation was formerly given to that 
Instrument which we now call the Violoncello ; as a proof whereof it may 
be remarked, that in the earlier editions of Corelli's Sonatas, particularly 
that of Opera III. printed at Bologna in 1690, that bass part which is 
not for the organ is entitled Violone, whereas in the latter, printed at 
Amsterdam by Estienne Roger, the same part is entitled Violoncello ; 
hence it appears that the name Violone being transferred to the greatest 
bass of modem invention, there resulted a necessity of a new de- 
nomination for the ancient bass-violin, and none was thought so proper 
as that of Violoncello, which is clearly a diminutive of the former. 

The Violone or double bass is by Brossard and others said to be double 
in its dimensions to the Violoncello, and consequently that its ambit is 
precisely an octave more grave ; but this depends upon the number of 
strings, and the manner of tuning them, some performers using four 
strings, and others only three, and in the tuning of these there is a 
dillbrenoe among them. 

The true use of the Violone is to sustain the harmony, and in this 
application of it has a noble effect ; divided basses are improper for it, thq 
strings not answering immediately to the percussion of the bow ; these 
can only be executed with a good effect on the Violoncello, the sounds 
whereof are more articulate than distinct. 

It is much to be doubted whether the countertenor violin ever came 
into England; Anthony Wood, in his Life, speaking of the band of 
Chas. II. makes no mention of the contratenor violin, the following is hia 
description of it : ' Before the restoration of K. Ch. 2, and especially 

* after, violins began to be out of fashion, and only violins used, as treble 

* violin, tenor and bass violin ; and the king, according to the French 

* mode, would have S4 violins playing before him while he was at meals, 
' as being more airie and brisk than viols.' 

X The figure here given represents the true form of the viol, but great 
confusion arises fh>m the want of names whereby to describe the in- 
struments of which we are now speaking ; Mersennus could find no term 
to signify the Viol but the Barbiton and the Lyre ; the former of these 
names he'gives also to all the instruments included in the violin species ; 
nay the Italians and others call a tenor violin Viola, and as to the Lyre,. 
Galilei uses it for the lute, and by others of the lUlian writers it is made 
to signify most other instruments of that class, but the true distinction 
between the viol and the violin species, arises from the difference of their 
form, and the number of their string respectively, the viol, meaning 
that for concerts, of what size soever it be, having six strings, and the 
violin, whether it be the treble, the tenor, or the bass, having uniformly 

Digitized by 




Book XIIL 

It is mounted with fifteen 
chords, sustained by a bridge 
ivhich forms a segment of a 
very large circle, and of con- 
sequence is nearly flat : it is 
capable of performing a con- 
centus of four, and even five 
parts. It seems that Mons. 
Bailif, a French musician, used 
this instrument in accompani- 
ment to his voice. Mersennus 
calls him the French Orpheus. 
The subject matter of Prop. 
I jcxxiii. is so very curious, that 
it will not admit of an abridg- 
ment The proposition is en- 
titled 'Explicare quamobrem 
' nervus quilibet percussus 
' plures simul sonos edat, qui 
' faciunt inter se Diapason, Disdiapason, duodecimam, 
' decimamseptimam,* &c. and is to this efifect : — 

' This proposition opens a wonderful phenomenon, 
' and throws a light on the 8, 11, 12, 13, and other 
' problems of Aristotle contained in his nineteenth 

* section, in which he demands " Why do the graver 
*' sounds include the acuter." And here it may be 
' noted that Aristotle seems to have been ignorant 
'that every chord produces five or more different 
' sounds at the same instant, the strongest of which 

* is called the natural sound of the chord, and alone 

* is accustomed to be taken notice of, for the others 
'are so feeble, that they are only perceptible by 

* delicate ears. Some things therefore are here to be 
' discussed, when some most certain and true experi- 
'ments have been premised, the first of which is, 
' that a chord of brass or metal produces as many 
'sounds precisely as one made of gut; the second 
' is that these several different sounds are more easily 
' perceived in the thicker than the slenderer chords 
'of instruments, for this reason, that the former 
' are more acute ; the third experiment teaches that 
' not only the Diapason and Disdiapason, the latter 

* of which is more clearly and distinctly perceived 
'than the octave, but also the twelfth and greater 
' seventeenth are always heard ; and over and above 
'these I have perceived the greater twenty-third, 

* about the end of the natural sound.'* The fourth ex- 

" The Diapason, Dudiapason, twelfth, greater seventeenth, and greater 
twentp'lhird here mentioned, are with respect to the octave or diapason, 
subordinate or secondary sounds : the four first arise from the respective 
vibrations of certain parts, ex. gr. a half, a fourth, a third, and a fifth of the 
chord, coinciding with the vibrations of the same chord in an harmonical 
ratio of I to 9. Mersennus at, the close of the above proposition leaves it as 
a desideratum. Of these partial vibrations of a chord mention is made in 
some of the papers communicated to the Royal Society by Dr. WaUis and 
others, published in the Philosophical Transactions [Fide, page 407 in not. 
n et infra .] But Mons. Sauveur, of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, 
has pursued this discovery by a distinction of his own invention between 
hmrmonieal and inharmonical sounds. According to him, harmonical 
sounds are such as make a determinate number of vibrations in the time 
that some other fundamental sound to which they are referred makes one 
vibration ; and these are produced by the parts of chords which vibrate 
a certain number of thnes, while the whole chord vibrates once. By this 
cireumstasMe the harmonical sounds are distinguished from the thirds major 
and minor, and fifth, where the relations of the vibrations are respectively 
4 <o 5, 5 <o 6, 2 to 3. And whereas the ratios of sounds had before the time 
of Mons. Sauveur, been contemplated in the following series of numbers, 
1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, 4 to 5, measuring respectively the intervals of an 
octave, a fifth, a fourth, and a third major, he took the numbers in their 
naUiral order, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ^c. and found that as I to 2 is the ratio of the 
octave, 1 to 3 a twelfth, 1 to 4 a fifteenth or double octave, 1 to 5 a seven^ 

' periment convinces us that all these sounds are not 
' perceived by some persons, although they imagine 
'they have delicate and learned ears. The fifth 
' shews that the sounds which make the twelfth and 
' the seventeenth are more easily distinguished than 
'the others, and that we very often imagine we 
'perceive the diapente and the greater tenth, mis- 
' taking for them their replicates, that is to say, the 
' twelfth and seventeenth. Lastly, the sixth experi- 
' ment teaches us that no chord produces a soond 
' graver than its primary or natural sound. 

'These things being premised, we are now to 
'investigate the cause why the same chord should 

* produce the sounds above-mentioned, and expressed 
' in these lesser numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, for the dia- 
' pason is as 1 to 2, the twelfth as 1 to 3, the Dis- 
' diapason as 1 to 4, and the greater seventeenth as 
' 1 to 5. These phenomena cannot be referred to 
' any other causes than the different motions of the 
'air; but it is very difficult to explain by what 
' means the same chord or air is moved at the same 

* time once, twice, thrice, four, and five times ; for 
' as it is struck but once, it is impossible that it can 
' be moved twice or three times, &c. unless we allow 
' that there is some motion of the chord or the air, 
' greater than the rest, and of an equal tenor from 

* the beginning to the end, while other intermediate 

teenth major, 1 to 6 a nineteenth, meaning by the first number of these 
several ratios the whole of the chord, taut by the second the parts thereof cor- 
responding with such number ; so while a general vibrarion of the whole 
chord was going on, other vibrations of the several parts thereof denoted by 
the above numbers exceeding the unit were making that produced subordinate 
sounds in consonance with their fundamental, and these he catted har 
monical sounds. Fide. Chamber's Diet. Voce Harmonical Sounds, and 
see the original tract of M. Sauveur in the History of the Academy of 
Sciences for the year 1 7U 1 . 

The parts of a bell, besides the general sound which is excited by the 
stroke of the clapper, do in like manner in certain proportions at the savse 
time yield subordinate and acuter sounds in consonance therewith, which 
a nice ear will clearly distinguish. The same may be observed of that 
useful and most accurate instrument, the tuning fork as now constructed, 
the slightest percussion of which will bring out a variety of subordinate 
harmonical sounds ; though here it must be remarked that the secondary 
sounds of bells are very frequently dissonant, as may be observed in the belt 
of almost any house clock; and in a peal of hand-bells tuned in respect 
of their primary sounds, with the utmost nicety, it has been discovered that 
being heard at such a distance as to render their secondary sounds pre- 
dominant, viz., at that of fifty yards or thereabouts, these latter have been 
most offensively discordant. [Fide infra .] Of these subordinate or 
secondary sounds, more especially such as are produced from a chord or the 
tuning fork, the least acute which we hear is an octave with the whole 
sound, the next that follows is a twelfth, the next a seventeenth, till they 
grow too acute for the ear to perceive them. As to the greater twenty-third, 
U is an itUerval compounded of the Trisdiapason and tone, or in other 
words, the Triplicate of the second, and being therefore a Dissonant, is not 
to be accounted for upon the principles here laid down ; and it may be 
observed that as it was the last sound of the five mentioned by him, that 
Mersennus was able to hear, it might possibly be the necessary result of 
lang u id and expiring vibrations, resetnblistg as himself hints the depMiing 
smoke of a candle. Upon all which it is remarked that upon the percussion 
of a chord, no subordinate or secondary sound is produced that makes 
a fifth, or a third major or minor, with the fundamental or primary sound ; 
nor in ^ort, any that does not coincide in respect of its vibrations with 
every single vibration of the whole chord or sonorous body whatever it be. 

The doctrine of subordinate sounds, so far as they are produced by the 
vibration of a chord, is by this discrimination clearly investigated, and we 
team by it how far natwre unassisted by art will go in the production of 
consonances; but on what principle those are founded that arise from the 
percussion of a bell, or the stroke of a tuning fork, on which the proportions 
of the subvibriUing parts are undiscoverable, and by consequence their 
proportions immensurable, remains yet to he discovered. 

Mons. Sauveur asserts that the structure of the organ, by which he must 
be supposed to mean the combination of pipes therein, depends upon this so 
long-unknown principle; but we should rather say it is resolvable into it; 
in like manner as we must suppose the wedge of the pulley and the lever, 
which were in use before the principles on which they severalty act were 
investigated; for in the construction of the organ, meaning thereby the 
Diapason or full concentus or symfAony of the greater or lesser pipes, it 
was student for the fabricators of that instrument to know, that they could 
not long be ignorant of it that the acuter sounds in the harmonical ratios 
above enumerated would coincide with, and also did, the fundamental or 
graver; and it remained for philosophers and speculative musicians to 
discover the physical causes of this wonderful coincidence. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXV. 



* motions are made more frequent, almost in the same 
' manner as, according to the Copemican system, the 
'earth makes three hundred and sixty-five daily 

* revolutions, while it makes only one round the sun. 

' But it appears from experience that a chord of 

* an hundred foot long, composed of any materials 

* whatsoever, has not the two ahove-mentioned mo- 

* tions, but only one, whereby it makes its courses 
^backwards and forwards: wherefore the cause of 

* this phenomenon is to be sought from other motions, 

* unless it is to be imputed to the different surfaces 

* of the chords, the upper one whereof might produce 

* a graver, and the others that follow, as far as the 

* centre of the chord, acuter sounds; but as these 

* sur&ces constitute only one continued homogeneous 

* body, as appears from chords made of pure gold or 

* silver, and are therefore moved by the same action 
' and vibrated backwards and forwards by the same 

* number of courses, they cannot produce ihe different 
' sounds, wherefore I imagine that the air which is 

* first affected by the percussion of the chord, vibrates 
' quicker than the chord itself, by its natural tension 
*' and aptitude for returning, and therefore produces 
' an acuter sound, or rather that the same air being 

* driven by the chord to the right side for example, 
' returns at first with the same celerity, but is again 
' repelled, and is agitated with a double velocity, and 
'thus produces a Diapason with the primary and 

* principal sound of the chord, which being still more 
' agitat^ by the different returns of the chord, and 

* returning more frequently itself, acquires a triple, 
' quadruple, and quintuple celerity, and so generates 
' the twelfth, fifteenth, and greater seventeenth. These 
' first consonances must occur, nor can the air receive 

* any other motions, as it should seem, before it is 

* affected by them. But by what means it makes the 

* twenty-third, or 1 to 9, let them who have leisure 
' enquire, and I advise them to lend a most attentive 
' ear to l^e chords, that they may be able to catch or 

* perceive both the above sounds, and any oUiers that 

* may be produced. 

* To this phenomenon of chords may be referred 

* the different sounds produced at the same time by 
' the greater bells, as is well known by every one ; 
' and the leaps and intervals of the trumpet and litui, 

* which imitate the sounds of the above-mentioned 
' chords. Add to these the various sounds of glass 

* vessels when their edges are pressed or rubbed by 
*the finger, also the different figures and periods 

* of smoke ascending from the flame of a candle ; 
' and the pipes of organs which make two sounds at 

* one time.* 

Prop. XXXVL contains a description of the instru- 
ment called by the author, Vielle, and by Kircher 
Lyra Mendicorum ; a figure of this instrument is to 
be seen in the Musurgia of Ottomarus Luscinius, and 
in a preceding part of this work. Mersennus says 
that the construction of it is little understood, by 
reason that it is only used by blind men and other 
beggars about the streets. He makes it to consist of 
four chords, that is to say, two which pass along the 
belly of the instrument, and are tuned in unison to 
each other, but are an octave lower than the former 

two. All the four strings are acted upon by a wheel 
rubbed with powder of rosin, which does the office of 
a bow. The middle strings are affected by certain 
keys which stop them at different lengths, and produce 
the tones while the others perform the part of a mono- 

Shonous bass, resembling the drone of a bagpipe, 
[ersennus says that there were some in his time 
who played so well on this contemptible instrument, 
that they could make their hearers laugh, or dance, 
or weep. 

Mersennus next treats, viz. in Prop, xxxvii. of that 
surprising instrument, the Trumpet Marine, here 
delineated, con- 
cerning which he 
thus delivers his < 
sentiments : — 

'The instrument commonly called the Marine 
Trumpet, either because it was invented by seamen, 
or bemuse they make use of it instead of a trumpet, 
consists of three boards so joined and glued 
together, that they are broad at the lower end, and 
narrow towards the neck, so that it resembles a tri- 
lateral pyramid with a part cut off; a neck with 
a head is added to this pyramid in order to contain 
the peg that commands the chord ; near the greater 
end of the instrument is a stay, to which the chord 
is fastened by a knot under the belly, and detains it 
To the left of the stay is the movable bridge which 
bears up the chord, and determines with the littla 
bridge or nut at the smaller end, the harmonical 
leng^ of the chord. The bow is necessary to strike 
the chord, and consists of silk, and a stick, as has 
been said in the discourse on the Barbitons. 
'The most remarkable thing that occurs in this 
instrument is that little stud of ivory, bone, or other 
matter which is feistened into the left foot of the 
bridge, under which a square little piece of glass is 
placed, and fastened to the belly, that when it is 
agitated by the different strokes of the stud it may 
communicate a tremor to the sounds of the chord, 
and that by this means this instrument may imitate 
the military trumpet, for when the chord is rubbed 
by the bow, the left leg beats against the glass plate 
with repeated strokes, and impresses a peculiar 
quality or motion into the sounds of the chord, com- 
posed of the triple motion, namely of the stud, the 
chord, and the bow. 

' The manner of using the trumpet marine is this, 
its head is turned towards the breast of the per- 
former, and leans thereon while he passes the bow 
across the chord, and lightly touches with the 
thumb or the fore-finger ^ose parts of the chord 
which are marked by the divisions ; but the bow 
is to be drawn over the chord between the thumb 
which the chord is touched by, and the little bridge, 
not but that it might be drawn at any other place, 
but at that above directed it strikes the chord a 
great deal more easily and commodiously. 

* Of the six divisions marked on the neck of the 
instrument, the first makes a fiifth with the open 
chord, the second an octave, and so on for the rest, 
corresponding with the intervals of the military 

Digitized by 




Book XIII. 

Mersennns says that Glareanns has taken notice of 
the trumpet marine, and that he distinguishes it by 
the appellation of the Citharisticum ; to which we 
may add, that there are many curious particulars 
both in the Dodecachordon of Glareanus, and the 
Harmonics of Mersennus, as also*in the Harmonie 
Universelle of the latter, concerning this instrument.* 

Prop. XXXIX. treats of the Spinnet, or, as Mer- 
sennus terms it, the Clavicymbalum ; the figure 
which he has given of it resembles exactly the old 
English virginal, in shape a parallelogram, its width 
being to its depth in nearly the proportion of two to 
one ; from whence it may be inferred that the tri- 
angular spinnet now in use is somewhat less ancient 
than the time of Mersennus. He makes it to consist 
of thirteen chords and keys, including twelve in- 
tervals ; that being the number contained in an 
octave, divided according to the modem system into 
seven tones and five semitones. He says that the 
tuning of this instrument is by many persons held 
a great secret, nevertheless he reveals it by explaining 

* In the Pbiloiophical Transactions for 1G92, in a discourse on the 
trumpet and trumpet marine by the Hon. Francis Roberts, and a copious 
extract from it in the Abridgment of Lowthorp and Jones, vol. I. pag. 
607, wherein are many curious particulars concerning this instrument. 
As an introduction to his discourse the author observes of the military 
or common trumpet, that its ordinary compass is Arom double C r a ut 
to c SOL FA in alt, but that there are only some notes in that series which 
it will give; and farther that the 7th, 11th, 13th, and 14th notes in that 
progression, vix., B b, f, aa, and bb are out of tune. 

To account for these defects he adverts to the trumpet marine, which 
though very unlike the common trumpet, has a wonderful agreement 
with it ; as resembling it most exactly m sound, yielding the self same 
notes, and having the same defects. 

He refers to the known experiment of two unison strings, and observes 
upon it that not only the unison will answer to the touch of a corres- 
pondent string, but also the 8th and ISth in this manner : — 

If an unison be struck, it makes one entire vibration in the whole 
string, and the motion is most sensibly in the midst, for there the vibra- 
tions take the greatest scope. 

If ad 8th is struck it makes two vibrations, the point In the midst 
being in a manner quiescent, and the most sensible motion the middle of 
the two subdivisions. 

If a 12th be struck it makes three vibrations, and the greatest motion 
at the midst of the three subdivisions, the points that divide the string 
into three eaual parts being nearly at rest, so that in short the ex- 
periment holds when any note Is struck which is an unison to half the 
string, and a 12th to the third part of it. 

In this case (the vibrations of the equal parts of a string being 

synchronous) there Is no contrariety in the motion to hinder each other, 

. whereas it is otherwise if a note is unison to a part of a string that does 

not divide it equally, for then the vibrations of the remainder not suiting 

with those of tne other parts, immediately make confusion in the whole. 

Now, adds he, in the Trumpet Marine you do not stop dose as in other 
Instruments, but touch the string gently with your thumb, whereby 
there is a mutual concurrence of the upper and lower part of the string 
to produce the sound. This is sufficiently evident from this, that if any 
thing touches the string below the stop, the sound will be as eifectuallv 
spoiled as if it were laid upon that part which is immediately struck with 
the bow. From hence thiiefore we may collect that the Trumpet Marine 
yields no musical sound but when the stop makes the upper part of the 
string an aliquot of the remataider, and consequently of the whole, other, 
wise, as we Just now remarked, the vibrations of the parts will stop one 
another, and make a sound suitaUe to their motion altogether oonfrued. 

The author then demonstrates with great clearness that these aliquot 
parts are the very stops which produce the trumpet notes, and that the 
notes which the trumpet will not hit are dissonant, merely because they 
do not correspond with a division of the monochord into aliquot parts. 

Having before premised that the trumpet and trumpet marine labour 
each under the same defects as the other, he applies this reasoning to the 
trumpet in these words :— 

* Vfhete the notes are produced only by the different force of the breath. 

* it is reasonable to imagine that the strongest blast raises the sound by 
< breaking the air within the tube, into the shortest vibrations, but that 
' no musical sound will rise unless they are suited to some aliquot part, 
' and so by reduplication exactly measure out the whole length of the 

* instrument ; for otherwise a remainder will cause the inconvenience 
' before-mentioned to arise Arom conflicting vibrations ; to which if we 
' add that a pipe being shortened according to the proportions we even 
' now discoursed of In a string, raises the sound m the same degrees, 

* it renders the case of the trumpet Just the same with the monochord.' 

To these remarks of Mr. Roberts another not less curious and difficult 
to account for, may be added, vix., that the chord of the trumpet marine 
is precisely equal In length to the trumpet, supposing It to be one con- 
tinued uninflected tube. 

the method of tuning the spinnet, agreeable to the 
practice of the present times. 

From the spinnet he proceeds in Prop. XL. to 
shew the construction of the Organocymbalum, in 
French called the Clavecin, and in English thu 
harpsichord, an instrument too well known at this 
day to need a description. But it seems that in the 
time of Mersennus there were two kinds of harpsi- 
chord, the one of the French above spoken of, and 
the other of the Italians, called by him the Mani- 
chordium. Of this he treats at large in Prop. XLII. 

In this instrument the diapason is said by the 
author to be divided according to the three genera ; 
it resembles in shape the spinnet described by 
Mersennus, but is considerably larger, having fifty 
keys. He adds that the use of it is for the private 
practice of those who choose not to be heard ; but he 
gives no reason for the difference between this and 
other instruments of the like kind in the division of 
the diapason. 

He next proceeds to describe an instrument which 
he calls the Olavicytherium or harp with keys ; this 
is no other than the upright harp6ichord,which of late 
has been introduced into practice, and made to pass 
with the ignorant for a new invention, m 

Prop. XLIII. contains an explanation of the figure, 
parts, harmony, and use of the Ghinor, Cinyra, or 
harp, which he exhibits in the form of a harp of 
our days. His description of this instrument is 
brief, and rather obscure, but in the Harmonie 
Universelle he is more particular, and delivers his 
sentiments of it to this effect: 'Many difficulties 
' have been started relating to this instrument, among 
' others whether the harp of David resembled this of 
' ours ; but as there are no vestiges of antiquity re- 
' maining, whereby we can conclude any thing about 
' it, it must suffice to describe our own,' and this he 
does by a figure of it. 

The verbal description which follows the figure of 
the instrument imports that this harp is triple strung, 
and that the chords are brass wire. The first row. 
and also the third, consist of twenty-nine chords, and 
are tuned in unison ; the intermediate row consists 
of semitones, and contains a less number. In the 
Harmonie Universelle, which contains a much fuller 
description of the harp than the book now quoting, 
Mersennus speaks of a French musician, Mons. Flesle, 
who in his time touched the harp to such perfection, 
that many preferred it to the lute, over which he 
says it has this advantage, that all its chords are 
touched open, and besides, its accordature or tuning 
comes nearer to truth than that of the lute ; and as to 
the imperfection complained of, that the vibrations of 
the chords sometimes continue so long as to create 
dissonance ; he observes that a skilful performer may 
with his fingers stop the vibration of the chords at 

Prop. XLI V. contains an explanation of the figure, 
parts, concentus, and use of the Psalterium, together 
with a proposal of a mundane instrument The 
instrument first above spoken of, as exhibited by 
Mersennus, is in truth no other than that common 
instrument known by the name of the Dulcimer. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXVI. 



The little rod or plectrum with which it is struck, is 
by him said to be made of the wood of the plumb, 
the pear, or the service-tree. He adds that two of 
these may be used at a time for the playing of Duos 
and Cantilenas in consonance. 

The mundane instrument above-mentioned is more 
largely spoken of in the Harmonie Universelle ; the 
figure of it is apparently taken from the Utriusque 
Cosmi Historia of Dr. Robert Fludd, a book of which 
a large account will hereafter be given. The conceit 
of a mundane instrument is certainly one of the 
wildest that madness ever formed ; Mersennus says 
r answers to the earth, A to the water, ]-| to the air, 
and so on for the rest till G, which answers to the 
sun, supposed to be the centre of our system, and 
from thence in a progression of tones and semitones 
upwards to the heavens. 


The book of Mersennus entitled De Instrumentis 
Harmonicis is subdivided into two, the first whereof 
treats of nervaceous or stringed, and the second of 
pneumatic or wind instruments. In preface to this 
latter the itfithor waives the consideration of the nature 
of wind, and refers to the Historia Ventorum of our 
countryman Lord Verulam. 

In Prop. I. he describes an instrument resembling 
the Syringa of Pan, formed of 
reeds in different length con- 
joined with wax. The instru- 
ment exhibited is of this form, 
and it consists of twelve tubes 
of tin, the lesser being subtriple 
in its ratio to the greater. This 
instrument he says is used by 
the braziers or tinkers of Paris, who go about the 
streets to mend kettles, and advertise the people of 
their approach by the sound of it. 

He next speaks of the lesser 
Tibiae, and those of few holes, here 
delineated, which he thus describes : 
' The first of these instruments, viz., 
' that on the left hand is perforated 
' both above and below, and is made 

* of the rind or bark of a tree, or of 

* a branch of the elder-tree, having 

* the pith taken out; or of the wood 

* of the box-tree excavated, or even 

* of iron, or any other matter. The 
' second has three apertures, that is 
' to say, one at the top, where the 

* breath is blown into it, another in 
' front, below it, where the sound is made, and a third 
' at the bottom where the wind goes out The third 
' and fifth figures represent pipes of reed or wheat- 
' straw, on which the shepherds play, wherefore the 
' instrument is called "tenuis avena," "calamus agres- 
" tis," and "stipula," and those who play on the barley- 
' straw are called paTraravXai because pairarr) is the 
' same as jcaXa/xic> as Salmasius on Solinus observes. 
' But whether these pipes may be called Gingrinae, 
'a kind of short pipes of goose bones, that yield 


' a small doleful sound, and those who play on them 

* Gingritores ; and whether they are said, jugere, to 
'cry like a kite, I leave to the judgment of the 
' critics, who also dispute whether the right and the 
' left-hand pipes had the same number of holes, such 

* as those we give in the sixth proposition, or whether 
' they were unequal in the number of their holes. 
' A very late translator of Vopiscus, concludes that 
' they were unequal, and attributes more holes to the 
' left tibia than to the right, that the former might 

* sound more acute ; and that the left or Tyrian, sung 
'after, or followed, the right or Lydian in singing; 
'and also that the Adelphi, Andria, and Heauton- 
' timorumenos of Terence were acted with these, and 
' that in such manner as never to sing together. 

* Moreover you may justly call the pipe which comes 
' next in Prop. II. with three holes, the right-hand 
'pipe, and the flajolet the left, if any person has 
' a mind to sing the Cantus of Terence*s comedies 
' with these pipes ; I shall however add that the left- 
' hand pipe, though not equal to it in the number of 
' holes, was shorter than the right-hand one, in order 
' to sound more acute ; pipes of this kind are usually 
' made after two manners, namely, with a little tongue 
' placed in the middle of the reed, which appears in 
'the third figure, so that while the mouth com- 
' prebends the little tongue, the left hand stops and 
' opens with any finger the upper hole, as the right 
' hand does the lower ; or the tongue is cut in the 
' upper part, as in the fifth figure, and then when the 
' mouth blows therein the fingers of the right hand 
' open and shut the holes to form the different sounds. 

' There now remains the fourth pipe, which is 
' commonly called the Eunuch. This sings rather by 
' speaking than by blowing, for it returns a sound or 
' voice of the same acumen with which it is prolated, 
' and which is reflected with a bombus or hunmiing 
' sound like a drone, from a very thin or fine sheop- 
' skin or onion-peel, and acquires a new grace. This 

* slender skin covers the orifice at the upper extremity, 
' and like the head of a drum is stretched or strained 
' on the pipe, and tied round with a thread, and the 
'cap or cover, which is represented over it, and 

* which has several holes in it, is put over it, but the 
' sound comes freely out of the hole at the bottom. 
' There are some persons who recite songs of four or 

* more parts with these pipes. We must not omit 
' that pipes of this kind may be made of the bones 
' of mules or other animals well cleansed, or of those 
' of birds, nay even of the middle stalk of an onion, 
' of glass, wax, <&c. and of these materials some have 
' constructed organ-pipes.* 

Prop. II. contains a description of the small 
flute, or pipe with three holes, with which the 
tabor or little drum is used in accompaniment 
Its form is here delineated. 

Upon this instrument Mersennus makes some 
curious observations, as that though it has but 
three holes, eighteen sounds may be produced 
from it. He says that the gravest sound is 
prolated when all the holes are stopped, and 
that the three next in succession are ma^e by 
lifting up the fingers, so that the fourth note is the 

Digitized by 




Book XIIL 

sound of the instroment when open. The other 
sounds, and which make up the number eighteen, he 
says are produced by stronger blasts of the breath, 
accommodated to the different degrees of acuteness 
required; and this variety of blowing is also observed 
in the other tibi» and fistula, of which he afterwards 
speaks. Mersennus says he had heard an Englishman, 
John Price by name, by the sole variety of blowing 
on this instrument, ascei^d to the compass of a ter- 
diapason or twenty-second. He adds, that there are 
some things concerning this pipe which are wonderful. 
First, that after the graver sounds, g, a, b, c, which 
are produced by the least blast, the blowing a little 
stronger gives the fifth above : and yet it is im- 
possible to produce from this instrument the three 
intermediate sounds which occur between the fourth 
note c, and the fifth gg^ viz., d, e, f, that so the first 
octave might be perfect, as is the second: and this 
defect he says is peculiar to this instrument only. 
Secondly, that it leaps from its gravest sound to 
a diapason when the wind is a litde increased, and 
again to a second diapason if the wind be increased 
to a greater degree.* 

From the pipe with three holes, the associate 
of the tabor, Mersennus proceeds to what he 
calls the lesser tibia or Flajolet, here delineated. 

Of this instrument Mersennus observes that 
it need not exceed the length of the little finger. 
He says that at the aperture near the top the 
impelled wind goes out, while the rest passes 
through the open holes and the lower orifice. 
He observes that the white circles marked on 
the instrument resembling a cypher, denote the 
holes on the back part of it, and that the uppermost 
of these is stopped by the thumb of the le^ hand, 
and the lowermost or fifth from the top, by the thumb 
of the right hand : the black circles represent the 
holes in the front of the instrument He adds that 
in his time one Le Vacher was a celebrated performer 
on this instrument, and in his French work he inti- 
mates that he was also a maker of flajolets. 

In the Harm. Univer. Des Instrumens k Vent, 
Prop. Vll. Mersennus speaks more fully of the flajo- 
let He says that there are two ways of sounding 
this instrument ; and all such as have the lumiere, 
i. e. the aperture under the tampion ; the first is by 
simple blowing, the other by articulation and the ac- 
tion of the tongue ; the former he says imitates the 
organ, the latter the voice : one is practised by vil- 
lagers and apprentices, the other by masters. 

The ambit of the flajolet, according to the scale 
exhibited by Mersennus, is two octaves from g sol 
RB UT upwMxls. At the end of his description of the 
instrument, both in the Latin and Frendi work, he 
gives a Vaudeville for flajolets in four parts f by 

* This obtenration ippliei to flutes of almoat all kinds : in the flate 
Aboe, bf stopping the thumb hole, and oertain others with the fingers, 
a sound fs produced, but half stopping the thumb-hole without any other 
variation, gives an octave to such sound. The octaves to most of the 
sounds ot the Fistula Germanica, or German flute, are produced only by 
a more forcible blast. This uniformity in the operations of nature, 
though It has never yet been accounted for, serves to shew how greatly 
the principles of harmony prevail in the material world. 

t It is a Und of Oavot, having four bars in the first strain, and eight 
in the last. T|ie afr at the end of the fifth Sonata of the fourth Opera 
of Corelli answers precisely to this description. For the inventor of ^hls 
kind of air, and the etymology of the word Vavosvillb, see page 569 
of this work, in not. 

Henry le Jeune, who he says composed the examples 
for the other wind-instruments described in his book, 
as knowing very well their power and extent 

Prop. V. treats of the Fistula Dulcis, sen 
Anglica, called also the flute Abec ; X the 
figure of it is here represented. § 

Of the two figures adjacent to the instru- 
ment at length, the uppermost shews the 
aperture for ike passage of the wind between 
the tampion or plug and the beak ; the other 
represents the end of the flute with a view of 
the beak and the tampion. This instrument 
has ei^t holes in the front, and one behind, 
which is stopped by the thumb ; na to the 
lower or eighth hole, Mersennus remarks 
that there are two so numbered ; for this 
reason, that the instrument may be played on either 
by right or left-handed persons, one or other of the 
two holes being stopped with wax. || 

Mersennus observes that flutes are so adjusted by 
their different sizes as to form a concentus of treble, 
contratenor, tenor, and bass ; and that the treble-flntc 
is more acute than the contratenor by a ninth or a 
diapason, and a tone. The contratenor he makes to 
be a diapente more acute than the bass, also the 
tenor ; for he supposes the contratenor and tenor to 
be tuned in unison, in the same manner as they are 
in several other harmonies of instruments.^ 

In this, which is his Latin work, Mersennus does 
not mention the sizes of the several flutes, but in the 
Harmonie Universelle he is more particular, for he 
says that the length of the bass-flute is two feet and 
three quarters, that of the tenor one foot five inches, 
and the treble only eleven lines.** 

From the scale or diagram for the flute exhibited 
by Mersennus, it appears that the ambit or compass 
of the instrument is a disdiapason or fifteen notes, 
and that the lowest note of the system for the treble- 
flute is PA UT ; but this system, as also those of 
the tenor and bass-flute, is adapted to what is called 
by him and other French writers, le petit Jeu ; ne- 
vertheless there is a flute known by the name of the 
concert-flute, the lowest note whereof is F ;tt indeed 

X For the reason of this appellation see page 331 of this work, in not. 

$ Fluiet are mentioned in the worUofSt, Bvremond with great enceminmt 
•M the French perfomurt thereon^ and in Sir George Bthereg^e Contedg of 
Ike ' Man <^ Mode: 

H Prom hence it is evident that the practice of making the fiute in 
pieces, that so the lower hole, by turning the pleoe about, might be 
accommodated to the hand, was not known when Mersennus wrote. 

^ Particularly the viol and violin, in neither of which species there Is 
any distinction between the tenor and contratenor ; perhaps in the con- 
centus of flutes the contratenor part was given to the tenor, in that of 
the violin it is the second treble. 

" " This is a mlitake of the author which we know not how to correct : 
a line is but a twdfth part of an inch. 

ft Thetmeconcext flute is that above described; but there are also others 
introduced into concerts of violins of a less slie, in which case the method 
was to write the flute part in a key correspondent to its pitch ; this 
practice was introduced by one Robert Woodcock, a celebrated performer 
on this instrument, and by an ingenious young man, William Babell, 
organist of the church of AUhallows Bread-street, London, about the 
year 1710, both of whom published eoneertos for this instrument, in 
which the principal part was for a sixth flute, in which case the lowest 
note, though nominiOIy F, was in power D, and consequently n»quired 
a tran^posttion of the flute-part a sixth higher, viz., into the key of D. 

But these attempts failed to procure for the flute a reception into 
concerts of various instruments, for which reason one Thomas Stanesby, 
a very curious maker of flutes and other instruments of the like kind, 
about the year 1732. adverting to the scale of Mersennus, in which tho 
lowest note is made to be C fa trr, invented what he called the tiaw 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXVL 



ever since the introdnction of the Ante into concerts, 
the lowest note of the Ante, of what size soever it be, 
has been called F, when in tmth its pitch is deter- 
minable only by its correspondence in respect of 
acnteness or gravity with one or other of the chords 
in the Scala Maxima or g^reat system. 

Mersennns next proceeds to what he calls Fistulas 
regias, royal flutes,* or those of the Grand Jeu as 
he calls it ; meaning thereby, as it is supposed, those 
that are tuned in unison with their respective notes in 
the Scala Maxima, respective forms whereof are thus 
represented by him : — 

B C . D E The Instru- 

ments here de- 
lineated are thus 
described by the 
author : The flute 
A, has a key, 
I which by the pres- 
sure of the little 
finger opens the 
hole which is un- 
der it in the box. 
The fistula B, has 
three boxes, a 
greater and two 
lesser ; the first of 
^ these is represent- 
ed apart by C, 
that all the springs 
which are any w&y 
necessary to open and shut the holes may appear; 
below that part of the instrument, resembling in its 
form a barrel, are two keys which command two 
holes below them, and being pressed with the little 
finger, open either the one or the other of them. 
Beneath these are seen springs contained in the two 
lower boxes of the instrument B, but as they are too 
far distant from the hands, the little square pieces of 
brass which appear in the lower part of fig. 0, are 
pressed down by the foot, in order to lift up the 
springs, as is seen in the tail of the lower spring, 
which being pushed down, lifts up the plate, and 
opens a great hole like a window, and nearly equal 
to the breadth of the fistula. 

•jritem, in which hy making the flute of inch a sixe as to be a fifth above 
«xmcert pitch, the loweet note became C sol r a ttt ; bj thia con^Tance 
the neeeasity of transpocing the flute part was taken away ; for a flute 
of thla sixe adjuated to the system above mentioned, became an ocuve 
to the violin. 

To further *hls invention of Stanesby, one Lewis Merci, an excellent 
performer on the flute, a Frenchman by birth, but resident in London, 
published about the year 1735, six Solos for the flute, three whereof are 
said to be accommodated to Mr. Stanesby's new system, but the German 
flute was now beoome a favorite instrument, and Staneeby'a ingenuity 
failed of iUeflBict. 

There were two persons, flute-makers, of the name of Stanesby, the 
father and the son, the Christian-name of both was Thomas ; they were 
both men of ingenuity, and exquisite workmen ; the father dwelt many 
years in Stonecutter-street leacUng from Shoe-lane to what is now the 
Fleet-market, and died about the year 17M ; the son had apartments and 
his workshcm over the Temple Exchange, in Fleet-street : he died in 1754» 
and lies buried in St. Panoraa church-yard near London, where ia a stone 
with the following incription to his memoiv :— * Here lies the body of the 
' ingenious Thomaa Stanesby, musical wind instrument maker ; esteemed 
' the most eminent man in his profession of any in Europe. A fkcetiooa 
' companion, a sincere friend ; upright and Just in all his dealinga ; ready 
to serve and relieve the distressed ; strictly adhering to his word, even 
* upon the most trivial occasions, and regretted by aU who had the ban- 
'pinesaand pleasure of his acquaintance. Obiit, 2 Mart. 1754, setat sua, 62.' 

* In the Harmonie Universelle. Dee Instnimens, i Vent, Mersennus 
•ays that these flutes were a present tnm England to one of the kings of 
France, which pertups is his reason for calling them royal flutes. 

The figures D and E, represent a flute of the larger 
size in two separate pieces, the springs being conecalod 
by the perforated box, which in fig. C, for 3ie purpose 
of exhibiting the springs, must be supposed to be 
slipped up above the forked keys, the station whereof 
is above the box, as is seen in fig. B. The little tube 
with a curvature at each end, is inserted into the top 
of the instrument, and hooks into a hole of a piece of 
wood, which appears opposite the second hole in fig. 
B, that the mouUi of the flute, which cannot be reach^ 
by the mouth of the performer, may be as it were 
transferred to the end of the tube opposite the second 
hole, fig. D. This contrivance is necessary only in 
flutes of the larger size, the bass especially, which are 
from seven to eight feet long. 

After exhibiting a gavot of four parts as an example 
of a concentns for English flutes, Mersennus remarks 
that a performer on this instrument, at the same time 
that he plays an air, may sing a bass to it ; but with- 
out any articulation of the voice, for that the wind 
which proceeds from the mouth while singing is suf- 
ficient to give sound to the flute, and so a single per- 
son may perform a duo on this instrument. 

Prop. VI. treats of the German flute, and also of 
the Helvetian flute or fife, each whereof is represented 
as having only seven holes, including that aperture 
which is blown into, from which it should seem that 
the eighth hole, or that which is now opened by means 
of a key, is a late improvement of this instrument. 

Mersennus gives this figuref as an example of a 
J^ treble-instrument, which he says ought to be one 
foot ten inches long, measuring from the bottom 
of the tampion, signified by the dotted circle, to 
the lower extremity : those for the other parts he 
observes should be longer, and also thicker. For 
example, he says that to produce the most grate- 
ful sounds of a concentus, or, as he otherwise 
expresses it in the Harm. Univer. Des Instni- 
mens a Vent, Prop. IX. page 241, to make the 
octave or fifteenth, the flute should be twice or 
four times as long and as thick, as the treble-flute. 
He adds that flutes of this kind are made of such 
woods as are easily excavated, and will best 
polish, as namely, plumb-tree, cherry-tree, and box ; 
and that they may be made of ebony, crystal, and 
glass, and even of wax. 

The system of this instrument is of a large extent, 
comprehending a disdiapason and diapente, or nine- 
teen sounds; Mersennus has given two scales, the 
one commencing from G, and the other from D, 
a fifth higher. The first of these scales it seems was 
adjusted by one Quiclet, Lat Kicletus, a French 
cometist, and the other by Le Vacher, already men- 
tioned ; the method of stopping is apparently different 
in these two scales in many instances, that is to say, 
the same sound that is produced by the opening and 
shutting of certain holes in the diagram of Quiclet, 
is produced by the opening and shutting of others in 
that of Le Vacher ; and it is to be remarked that in 
the latter, no one sound of the instrument is directed 

t It is to be observed that the instrument ftx)m which this figure was 
taken, was by accident become crooked, nevertheless Mersennus, in the 
Harm. Univer. Des Instnimens k Vent, pag. 241, says that he chose te 
give it thus deformed, it being one of the best flutes in the world. 

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to be produced by unstopping all the holes, from 
whence it appears that the present practice has its 
foundation in the example of Quiclet. 

It is worthy of remark that neither of these persons 
had discovered. that the diapason of any of the sounds 
in the first septenary was to be produced by a stronger 
blast of the breath ; as is observed in the English 
flute, and at this day in the German flute; for to 
produce the notes in the second septenary, and so 
upwards, a different method of stopping is required 
than for their octaves below. This peculiarity, as 
also the reason why the ambit of this instrument 
is so much more extensive than that of other flutes, 
Mersennus recommends as a useful and entertaining 
subject of enquiry. * 

In this proposition Mersennus treats also of the 
Tibia Helvetica, or Fife ; this is in tnith an instru- 
ment precisely of the same species with the former, 
but proportionably less in every respect ; wherefore 
says the author, 'it sounds more acutely and vehe- 
' mently, which it ought to do, least the sound of it 
' should be drowned by that of the drum.* 

Speaking of a concentus for Grerman flutes, Mer- 
sennus says that it can consist of only three parts, 
for that in a bass German flute the distance of the 
holes would be so great that no finger could command 
them, for which reason he says that in a concentus of 
four parts the bass is either the Sacbut or bassoon. 

Propositions VII. and VIII. comprehend a des- 
cription and explana- 
tion of the Hautboy, 
a treble-instrument, in- 
vented by the French, 
and of the instruments 
used in concentus with 
it, namely the Bas- 
soon, Bombardt, Fagot, 
Courtaut, and Cervelat. 

The hautboy des- 
cribed by Mersennus 
is by him given in two 
forms, viz., the treble 
and tenor ; the first is 
the least, and has ten 
holes, the latter only 
seven, the lowest 
whereof is opened by 
a key. 

In his description Mersennus notes a diversity 
between the holes for the fingers and those for the 
egress of the wind, therefore of the ten holes in the 
treble hautboy, nine only are to be reckoned harmo- 
nical ; and of the eight in the tenor, which number 
includes that concealed under the box, and that on 
either side below it, the last serve only for the emission 

"* In the Harm. Univer, pag. 243, speaking of the flute, Mersennus 
says that in SicHy and elsewhere, there are persons who introduce into 
the mouth, and sound at one time, two and even three flutes of reed or 
cane ; and he adds that if men had laboured as industriously and curiously 
to perfect instruments of this kind, as they have the organ, they might 
perhaps have found out some method of playing four or Ave parts with 
one and the same breath of the mouth ; and if they were to take the pains 
to pierce them in such manner that the diatonic genus being on one side, 
as It is in etkct, the chromatic and enarmonic might be on two other 
sides, and they might easily execute all that the Greeks knew with b Ut 
of wood. 

of the wind, so that the number of har^ 
monical holes is seven. Of the inter- 
mediate figures the upper shews the 
mouth-piece of the tenor called the 
Pirovette, in which the reed is inserted, 
in a larger size, the under is the box 
open and with the key exposed. 

He gives also a representation of the 
bass-hautboy of the form in the margin. 
This instrument Mersennus says, is 
in length five feet, and being so long, 
is inspired by means of the tube at the 
top of it, in which a small tongue or 
reed is inserted for the same purpose as 
in the treble and tenor hautboy. The 
number of holes contained in it arc 
eleven : of these seven are seen in the 
(S^__^^S) upper part of the instrument, three are 
^ — -- contained under the box, and another is 
placed below it, in a situation to be commanded by 
that key which appears below the box on the left hand ; 
the three holes within the box are stopped and opened, 
by three of the keys that are seen above the box, and 
that below by the fourth, which communicates with 
that below. The box is perforated in many places, 
to give egress to the sound. 

Prop. V III. treats of such pipes as are compacted 
together in a little bundle, for which reason they are 
called Fagots ; and of Bassoons, &c. and exhibits an 
instnmient of this kind in two forms, as also another 
called by the French the Courtaut. They are 
severally represented by the following figures : — 

These figures are de- 
scribed by Mersennus in 
the order of their situation, 
the first has three keys, 
that on the left hand naked, 
the two on the right 
covered with boxes. The 
brazen tube has a mouth- 
piece at the extremity, by 
means whereof the instru- 
ment is inflated ; the fun- 
nel at the top is moveable,, 
and the instrument, though 
apparently consisting of 
one, the two being bound 
together with hoops of brass, and the cavities of each 
stopped with a peg, as is seen in the under of the 
two short figures, in which are two white spots 
denoting two pegs that stop the cavities of the two 
tubes in such manner that the wind may not escape 
till it arrives at the upper hole under the funnel, 
except when either of the holes short of it is un- 

The second figure represents an instrument, called, 
by reason of its shortness, the Courtautf This Mer- 
sennus says is made of one cylindrical piece of wood, 
and has eleven holes. The upper of the two short 
figures shews that the Courtaut has two bores, which 

t Cor»TAUT, from the adjective Court, short ; the French dictionaries 
explain it a short bassoon. We have a verb, curtail, that signifies ta 
shorten, and a noun, Cvktaxl, interpreted a bass to the hautboy. 

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are concealed under the moveable box into which the 
tube is inserted ; the holes in those tampions called 
by Mersennus, Tetines, which project from each side 
of the insti-ument are for the fingers, and by being 
doubled are adapted for the use of either right or 
left-handed persons. The two light holes are on the 
opposite side of the instrument, the upper one is for 
the egress of the wind after all the rest are stopped. 
Mersennus adds that there are some persons, who by 
excavating a stick or walking-staff, have wrought it 
into an instrument of this latter kind, thereby making 
of it a kind of Bourdon, like those used by the pilgrims 
to the body of St James at Compostella, for the pur- 
pose of recreating themselves on a walk. 

For a description of the third instrument we must 
refer to the Harm. Universelle Des Instrumens a 
Vent, Prop. XXXII. where it is said to be the same 
with the first, but without the funnel. 

The Bassoon, according to Mersennus, is an in- 
strument exceeding in magnitude all others of the 
Fagot kind,* to which it is a bass, and therefore it is 
called the Bassoon ; though there is another kind of 
bassoon which he calls the Cervelat, a word signifying 
a sausage; this strange instrument is inflated by 
means of a reed resembling that of a hautboy, but 
of a larger size. The instrument itself is but five 
inches in height, and yet is capable of producing 
a sound equally grave with one of forty inches in 
length. Within it are eight canals or ducts, answer- 
ing to the number of holes in the lid or upper surface ; 
these canals it seems have a communication with 
each other, and yet are affected by the stopping of 
those on the surface of the cylinder ; some of them 
corresponding to one canal and others to others, in the 
same manner as if all were reduced into one continued 
tube.f The white circles denote the holes on the 
opposite side. The two bassoons are exhibited by 
Mersennus in this form : — 
r— . Prop. X. treats of the Tibia 

tPictavia or Hautbois de Poictou, 
T7_ a very slender hautboy ; and also 
^^^^S of the Comamusa or bagpipe, con- 
^ ^^^^ sisting of a Bourdon or drone, a 
tV * ^' small pipe in which is inserted 
' ' a wheaten straw, and another pipe 

called the Chalumeau, with seven 

im ,', holes. These two pipes are in- 
Tt^L^-^lt serted into the neck of a calf-skin 
1^^^^^ bag, resembling in shape a 
chemist's retort, on the back 
whereof is fixed the drone above 
^'^^ ' mentioned, as also a short pipe, 

through which the whole instrument is inflated by 
the mouth of the performer. There is no need to 
insert a figure of this instrument, as it differs but 
very little from the Scotch bagpipe. 

• Fagotto ia a word used by th« ItalUiu to signify b bassoon, but It 
appears above that it is common to that and all such other instruments 
as by being compacted together, resemble a fsgot. 

t Stanesby who was a diligent peruser both of Mersennus and Kireher, 
and in the making of instruments adhered as closely to the directions of 
the former as possible, constructed a short bassoon or Cervelat, such 
a one as is above described, for the late earl of Abercom, then lord 
Paisley, and a disciple of Dr. Pepusch, but it did not answer expectation : 
by reason of its closeness the Interior parts imbibed and retained the 
moisture of the breath the ducts dilated, and broke. In short the 
whole blew up. 

Mersennus adds that in Fran-'.e the country people 
make use of this instrument on holidays, and in their 
songs and dances at weddings ; nay, that they sing 
their vespers to it in churches where there are no 
organs. In the next proposition he describes an in- 
strument of an elegant form and richly decorated, 
called the Musette, the bagpipe of the French. 

In Prop. XIV. he describes the Italian bagpipe, 
called by him the Surdeline ; this is a much larger 
and more complicated instrument than either of the 
former, and consists of many pipes and conduits for 
the conveyance of the wind, with keys for the 
opening of the holes by the pressure of the fingers : 
this instrument, as also the Musette, is inflated by 
means of bellows, which the performer blows with 
his arm, at the same time that he fingers the pipe. 


Mersennus next proceeds to treat of those instru- 
ments which serve for ecclesiastical harmony ; and first 
he describes the comet. He says the use of it is to 
supply the acuter sounds, which he says in this in- 
stnmient vibrate after the manner of lightning. The 
form of the Comet in its various sizes is thus repre- 
sented by him : — 

The first figure is of a 
treble cornet, the second 
shews the lower part of 
the tenor, the third is the 
bass, of the serpentine 
form, and is four or five 
feet in length. Mersen- 
nus says that the sounds 
of the comet are vehe- 
ment, but tliat those who 
are skilful, such as Quic- 
let, the royal cometist, 
are able so to soften and 
modulate them, that no- 
thing can be more sweet. He adds that the tme 
and genuine bass of the cornet is the Serpent. Of 
this instrament Mersennus gives a particular de- 
scription in Prop. XVI. And first he exhibits it in 
this form : — 

The Serpent he says is 
thus contorted to render it 
commodious for carriage, 
its length being six feet 
and one inch. As it is 
usually made of a very 
brittle wood, namely nut- 
tree, and its thickness being 
but one line, or the twelfth 
of an inch ; it is usually 
covered with leather, and 
also strengthened with 
sinews of oxen glewed 
round the first cur\'e, 
which is the part by 
which it is held when 
transported from one place 
to another, though these precautions are unnecessary. 

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Book XIIL 

VFhen, as is frequently the case, this instrument is 
made of brass or silver. 

Mersennus mentions some peculiar properties of 
this instrument, and, among others, that the sound 
of it is strong enough to drown twenty robust voices, 
being animated by the breath of a boy, and yet the 
sound of it may be attempered to the softness of the 
sweetest voice. Another peculiarity of this instru- 
ment is, that great as the distance between the third 
and fourth hole appears, yet whether the third hole 
be open or shut^ the difference is but a tone. 

After a description of the Hunting-horn, Mer- 
sennus proceeds in Prop. XVIII. to explain the 
figure, parts, system, tones, and use of that noble 
instrument the trumpet : * he says that the system 
of this instrument is wonderful, as indeed it appears 
to be from his description of it, in which he remarks 
that its first or lowest sound is fa ur, and its next 
towards the acute, G sol re ; and that it cannot by 
any means whatever be made to utter the intermediate 
sounds RE MI FA. Again he says the third sound is 
FA UT in the acute, making a diatessaron to the 
second. He endeavours in a long discourse to assign 
reasons for the defects in this instrument ; but they 
are better accounted for in a passage above-cited 
from a paper in the Philosophical Transactions, 
written by the Hon. Mr. Roberts, describing the 
trumpet marine. 

But, notwithstanding these defects in the trumpet, 
Mersennus, in Prop. XX. speaking of a trumpet 
somewhat different from the former, intimates that 
they may in a great measure be overcome by practice ; 
and says that his imagination of the possibility of so 
doing is strongly encreased by certain letters by him 
received from Mons. Bourdelot, a most leiEtmed 
physician, resident at Rome, who therein asserts 
that a famous performer on the trumpet, Hieronymo 
!F^tino by name, had actually product from his 
instrument all the tones within its compass without 
/* intermission, joining them with those of the organ 
of St Peter's churdh at Rome, Girolamo Frescobaldi, 
the organist of that church, playing on it at the same 
time. It is true, Mersennus says, Uiat the trumpeters 
of the duke de Crequi, the French embassador, 
objected to these tones as inordinate, and indeed 
spurious ; but whether they are necessarily to be 
deemed so or not, or, in other words, whether a 
regular succession of intervals on the trumpet be re- 
pugnant to the order of nature or not, he recommends 
as a question well worthy of consideration,f 

• The trumpet ii nid by Vincentio Galilei. In his Dialogo della 
Musics, page 146, to have been invented at Nuremberg ; and there is 
extant a memoir which shews that trumpets were made to great per- 
fection by an artist in tliat city, wiio was also an admired performer on 
that instrument, it is as follows : ' Hans Meuschel of Nuremberg, for his 

* accuracy in making trumpets, as also for his sldll in playing on the 
' same alone, and in the aocompanyment with the Toloe, was of so great 

* renown, that he was firequentlv sent for to the palaces of princes the 
' distance of sereral hundred miles. Pope Leo X. for whom he had made 
' sundry trumpets <tf silver, sent for him to Rome, and after having been 
« delighted with his exquisite performance, dismissed him with a 
Vmuniiicent reward.' 

t The French horn is no other than a wreathed or contorted trumpet : 
it labours under the same defects as the trumpet itselt but these of late 
have been so palliated, as to require no particular selection of keys for 
this instrument. In the beginning of the year 177S, a foreigner named 
Spandau played in a concert at the Operaphouse a concerto, part whereof 
was in the key of C with the minor third, in the performance whereof all 
the intervals seemed to be as perfect as io any wind-instrument ; this 

Prop. XXI. contains a description of the Tuba 
tractilis or Sacbut, so called from its being capable 
of being drawn out; it is elsewhere said by Mer- 
sennus to be the true bass of the military trumpet, 
and indeed Uie similarity of sound in both seems to 
indicate no less. 

In the concluding Proposition in this book, viz., 
that numbered XX TI. he describes a Chinese instru- 
ment, which he says was sent him by an English 
gentleman named Hardy ; it consists of a large cane 
excavated and fixed to the necks of two Cucurbites, 
hollow and without bottoms; along the surface of 
the cane, but a litde distant from it, chords are 
strained by the means of pins; he adds that the 
method of performing on this instrument is by iron 
plectra fastened to the ends of the fingers. 

He also describes another instrument, which he 
says was sent to him from Rome by Giovanni Battista 
Doni, secretary to Cardinal Barberini. It was con- 
structed of the half of an Indian fruit of the melon 
kind, cleared from its contents, and afterwards covered 
on the top with a serpent's skin like a kettle-drum : 
to this was affixed on the belly of the instrument 
a handle made of an Indian reed, about twice the 
length of the body. He describes also other Chinese 
and Indian instruments, equally barbarous and ill- 
constructed with those above-mentioned. 

In the succeeding book, entitled De Organis, Cam- 
pania, Tympanis, ac csdteris Instrumentis Kpovofuyoic^ 
sen qu£B percutiuntur, Mersennus enters into a most 
minute investigation of the natures and properties of 
these several instruments, and with respect to the 
organ in particular, he is so very precise, that were 
the art of organ-building lost to the world, there is 
very little doubt but that it might be recovered by 
means of this book. 

It is impossible so to abridge this elaborate and 
curious tract, as to render it of any use to the gene- 
rality of readers, it must therefore suffice to say that 
it contains a description of the several parts of an 
organ, of the materials and dimensions of the several 
orders of pipes, with the division of the Abacus or 
key -board, and the temperament of the instrument 

Speaking of pipes, he distinguishes between such 
as are stopped at the ends and such as are open ; as 
also between pipes of wood and metal. Assigning 
the e£fects of these different materials in the pro- 
duction of tones of various kinds, he shews also the 
use of that tongue, which being inserted into the 
mouth of any pipe, causes it to yield a sound like 
that of a reed. As to the proportion between the 
length and circumference of pipes, he says it is 
a very difficult thing to ascertain, but that experience 
shews that the quadruple ratio is the cause of the 
best sound. This proportion is not taken from the 
diameter of the tube, but from the width of the plate, 
supposing it to be of metal, of which it is formed, 
which when reduced to a cylinder, bears a ratio of 
about 7 to 22 to its circumference. Nevertheless he 
says that in the first order of pipes the largest is 
sixteen feet in length ; he adds that he had seen pipes 

improvement was eifected by putting his right hand into the bottom or 
bell of the instrument, and attempering the sounds by the application of 

his fingers to diflbrent parts of the tube. 

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thirty-two feet long, but that it is not in the power 
of the ear to form a judgment of the sonnda which 
these produce; and these pipes he resembles to 
chords of such an enormous length, as make but 
twelve returns and a half in the space of a second 
of time. 

The difference of pipes in respect of the acumen 
and gravity of their sounds, depends upon their size, 
for the longer the pipe is, the slower are its vibrations, 
and consequently the graver is its sound ; and, what 
is much to be wondered at, a pipe stopped at the 
end will produce a sound an octave lower than when 

From these particulars respecting the pipes of an 
organ, their ratios, and the sounds produced by them, 
Mersennus proceeds to explain the mechanism of 
this noble instrument by a verbal description of its 
several parts, and representations thereof in diagrams. 
Such a minute description as this was necessary in 
a work that professes no less than to teach the art of 
making the several instruments of which it treats. 
In a work such as is the present, the same degree of 
precision will hardly be required, especially as a 
very accurate description of the organ is contained 
in the Facteur d'Orgues, which makes part of the 
Descriptions des Arts et Metiers, now publishing at 
Paris ; and a very satisfactory one is extant in the 
Principles of Mechanics of Mr. W. Emerson, Lond. 
quarto, 1758 ; nevertheless such a general description 
of the organ is here given as is consistent with the 
nature of the present work. 

From what has already been said of the organ, it 
appears that it is to bo considered in the several 
views of a machine and a musical instrument; the 
former of these belong to the science of mecluuiics, 
and such as are skilled therein may with wonder 
contemplate this noble effort of ingenuity and in- 
dustry ; such will be delighted to observe the means 
by which an instrument of this magnitude is inflated, 
and those contrivances of ducts and canals, whereby 
a due proportion of wind is distributed to thousands 
of pipes of different forms and magnitudes, and by 
what means is it so communicated as to be in readiness 
to obey the touch of the linger, they will wonder at 
the variety of sound produced by pipes formed of 
the same materials differently constructed, and at the 
r^ular and artful arrangement of these for the 
purpose of occupying the whole of a given space ; 
and lastlv, they will be astonished at the general and 
universal concent of parts, which renders the whole 
of this stupendous machine obedient to the will of 
the performer. 

In the consideration of the organ as a musical in- 
strument, it is to be noted that Uie sounds produced 
by it are of various kinds, that is to say, some re- 
semble those of the flute or pipe, allowing for the 
difference of shrillness and mellowness arising from 
different degrees of magnitude ; others have a sound 
arising from the tremulous motion of the air re- 

* Menennot in another place seems to contradict himself, saying that 
a corered pipe of the same height and breadth with an open <Hie, does not 
produce a perfect diapason or octave, but one that is diminished by 
a semitone, and tliat the same when twice as wide makes an octave in- 
creased by a semitone. The organ-builders, in order to avoid this, make 
the breadth of the covered pipes sesqnialtera to that of the open ones, in 
Ofdev to oonatitnte a perfect oetafve. 

sembling the human voice, others imitate the clangor 
of the trumpet ; and those orders of pipes, whether 
simple or compounded, tiiat in the oonstruction of 
the instrument are connected together or rendered 
subservient to one touch of the key, are called stops. 

The simple stops are those in which only one 
pipe answers to the touch of the key, these are the 
Dmpason,f Principal, Tierce, Twelfth, Fifteenth, 
Flute, Block-Flute, Trumpet, Clarion, Nazard, Vox- 
humana, Krumhom, and some others. The com- 
pound stops are the Comet, the Sesquialtera, Mixture, 
Furniture and sundry others ; and are so called for 
that in them several pipes are made to speak at the 
touch of a single key, as in the Sesquialtera three, 
in the Comet five, in the Mixture and in the 
Furniture three, four, or more ; and the full organ 
or chorus is compounded of all. 

Among pipes a distinction occurs, not only with 
respect to me materials of which they are formed,^ 
but also between those in which the wind is cut by 
the tongue, which is visible in the aperture of pipes 
of that class, and others where the per- ^^ 
cussion is against a reed as it is called, 
though made of brass, inserted in the body 
of the pipe, and which answers to the 
Glottis or upper part of the human larynx ; 
and of pipes thus constmcted are composed 
the stops called the Vox-humana, Begal, 
Krumhom, Tmmpet, Clarion, Hautboy, 
and many others. The figures here ex- 
hibited represent these Glottides in dif- 
ferent views, as also a pipe with the glottis 
affixed to it 

Fig. A shews the glottis of a tmmpet- 
pipe in front ; the wire is doubled at top, 
and one end thereof is bent down, and 
made to form a bar ; the front of the glottis 
is of thin brass and very elastic ; the bar 
pressing hard against tlus plate, being moved up- 
wards or downwards by the wire, opens or closes the 
aperture, making the sound either flatter or sharper, 
and this is the method of tuning pipes of this kind. 
Fig. B is a side view of a glottis with the aperture. 
In Fig. C the pipe containing the glottis is mounted 
on a canal or duct, which being placed on the wind- 
chest, conveys the wind to the aperture, which cutting 
against the end of the spring, is the immediate cause 
of that reedy tone which distinguishes pipes of this 

Of the pipes in an organ those called the Dia- 
pasons § are to be considered as the basis or foun- 
dation; above these succeed in regular order other 

t This is an improper term to signifV a single order of pipes : the 
organ-makers are betrayed into the use of it by the consideranon that it 
is the foundation of the harmony of the Instrument, the pitch of all 
the other orders of pipes being aooommodated to iL See the true sense 
of the word Diapason in a subsequent note. 

t Pipes are made of either wood or metal, some have mouths like 
flutes, others have reeds ; the smallest pipes are made of tin, or of tin 
and lead ; the sound of wooden and leaden pipes is soft, short pipes are 
open and the lone ones are stopped : tlie mouths of large square wooden 
pipes are stopped with valves of leather. Metal pipes have a little ear 
on each side of the mouth to tune them, by bending it a little In or out. 
Whatever note any open pipe sounds, when the mouth Ls stopped it wfll 
sound an octave higher, and a pipe twice Its capacity will sound an 
octave lower. 

} These are of two kinds, the open and the stoped, the latter are of 
wood, and are so called fhmi their being stopped with a tampion or plug 
of wood clothed with leather. 

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simple stops, tnned in hannonical intervals to the 
diapasons, as the tierce or third, the sesquialtera in 
the ratio of 3 to 2, or the fifth ; some in the octave, 
others in the tenth, which is the replicate of the 
third, the twelfth the replicate of the fifth, the bis- 
diapason, and so on to the twenty-second. By means 
of the Eegisters that command the several orders of 
pipes, the wind is either admitted into or excluded 
from them severally ; and we accordingly hear the 
comet, the flute, or the trumpet, &c at the will of 
the performer. When all the stops are drawn, and 
the registers open, the wind pervades the whole in- 
strument, and we hear that full and complete har- 
mony, that general and universal concent, which, as 
being per omnes, is what the ancient writers mean to 
express by the term Diapason.* 

And here it is wonderful to consider that not- 
withstanding that surd quantity in the musical 
system, which renders it impossible precisely to 
adjust the intervals that compose the diatessaron, and 
which, as Boetius observes, makes the amount of six 
sesquioctave tones to exceed the diapason, bjr the 
commixture of pipes in the manner above-mentioned, 
all the irregularities hence arising are reconciled, and 
in effect annihilated. 

Of the stops of an organ, the most usual are the 
Diapasons, the open and stopped, the Tierce, Ses- 
quialtera, Flute, Cornet, Tenth, Twelfth, Fifteenth, 
Principal, Furniture, Mixture, Trumpet, Clarion, 
Hautboy, Larigot, Vox-humana, Krumhom, and 
Nazard. The foreign organs, especially those of 
Germany, have many more, particularly that in the 
abbey church of Weingarten, a town in the Upper 
Palatinate, which has sixty-six, and contains no fewer 
tlian six thousand six hundred and sixty-six pipes, f 
The organ at Haerlem is said to have sixty stops, 
many of them but little known to the English work- 
men, among which are the Bourdon, Gemsen-hom, the 
Quintadena, Schalmey, Dulciana, Buzain, and Zink.:^ 

* The following pMsages in tome of our bett poeti ftiUy Josdiy the 
above tense of these words . — 

And 'twixt them both a quadrate waa the bate, 
Proportion'd equally by seven and nine ; 
Nine was the circle set in heaven's place, 
AU which compacted, made a goodly Djfapate, 

FAntis QuKXVX. book II. canto ix. stanza 22. 

Jarr'd against nature's chime, and with harth din 

Broke the fair mutie that all creaturet made 

To thehr great Lord, whose love their motion tway'd 

In perfect IHapaton while they stood 

In first obedience and their state of good. 

Milton, at a solemn music. 
Many a sweet rise, many as sweet a fall, 
A ftill-mouth'd JHaptuon twallowt all. CiutBAW. 
From harmony tunn heav'nly harmony 

This universal f 

From harmony to harmony 
Through all the compass of the notes it ran. 
The l>iapa$om closing fUll in man. 

Detssv, Song for St. Cecilia's day, 1687. 
t Of this instrument, the most elegant and tuperb of any in the world, 
the figure, with a particular description, is given in the Facteur d'Orgues 

X The names, as alto the etymologies of these appellationt are but 
little understood, and many of Ihem have so departed nrom their primitive 
significations, that they may be said to be arbitrary; to instance in the 
Tierce and Sesquialtera, the former can mean nothing but a third above 
the diapasons, and the latter must signify the interval expressed by that 
term which signifies the whole and ttt half, viz., the ratio of 8 to 2, or, 
in the language of musicians, the diapente or fifth ; whereas it has long 
been the practice to tune the Tierce a seventeenth, i. e. a double octave 
and a third, and to compound the Setquialtera of the uniton third 
and fifth. 
Many of the above namet betpeak their tignification, othert require 

Book XIIL 

The German organs have also keys for the feet, 
called Pedals, on invention of a German, named 
Bemhard, about the year 1400. These command 
certain pipes, which, to encrease the harmony, are 
tuned below the diapasons. 

Among the modem improvements of the organ 
the most remarkable are the Swell and the Tremblant, 
the former invented by an English artificer, consists 
in a number of pipes placed in a remote part of the 
instrument, and inclosed in a kind of box, which 
being gradually opened by the pressure of the foot, 
increases the sound as the wind does the sound of 
n peal of bells, or suppresses it in like manner by 
the contrary action. The Tremblant is a contrivance 
by means of a valve in the Port-vent or passage 
from the wind -chest, to check the wind, and admit 
it only by starts ; so that the notes seem to stammer, 
and the whole instrument to sob, in a manner very 
offensive to the ear. In the organ at the German 
chapel in the Savoy, is a Tremblant. 

In cathedral churches where there are generally 
two organs, a large and a small, the latter the French 
distinguish by the epithet Positif, the reason whereof 
we are to seek, the term being only proper and 
belonging to organs fixed to a certain place, and is 
used in contradistinction to portatif, a term applied 
to those portable ones, which, like the Regal, may 
be carried about We in England call it the choir, 
and by corruption the choir organ. 

The foregoing account, intended to supersede the 

to be explained ; the Larigot means a fliOolet. The Krumhom it an 
imitation of a pipe described by Ottomarus Luscinius, in his Musurgia, 
lib. I. pag. 20, and also in page 881 of this work, and is often corrupted 
into Cremona, from the notion that the sound of this stop resemoles 
that of a Cremona violin. 

The Nazard, or, as Mersennus terms it, the Natutat, fhmi itt muflUng 
tone, retemblet the singing of thqse who utter sounds seemingly through 
the nose. 

The word Bourdon signifies the drone of a bagpipe ; the Latin word 
for it is Bombus, as also Bombyx. Hoffinan. Lex. Univer. in Art. Mer- 
tennut in hit Latin work utes the latter. At Manchester, and also at 
Coventry, is an organ with this stop. 

The Oemsen-hom is a small pipe made of the horn of a ouadruped 
called the Gems, a Shamoy or wila goat. Luscinius describes it, and the 
stop so named is an imitation of it. See pase 881 of this work. 

The appellation of Quintadena, corruptly spelt Quintadeena, quasi 
Quinto ad una, or five to one. This it the ratio of the greater seven- 
teenth, which the word Quintadena wat doubtlett intended to bespeak, 
and the dii^wsons are the acute terms, consequently the pitch of this 
stop is a double octave and a third major below the diapasons. In the 
organ of Spitalfields church, made by Bridge, is a stop which he im- 
properly, as It should seem, called a Quintadena, the pitch of it being 
only a fifth above the diapasons. However it is the only one of the kind 
in England. 

The word Schalmey is derived from Chalumeau, and the latter from 
Calamus. The Schalmey is described by Lutciniut, Musurgia, lib. I. 
pa^. 10. and is a kind of hautboy, very long and alender. See the figure 
of It in page 381 of this work. 

The Dulcian is probably an imitation of an Instrument of Moorish 
original, called the Dul^ana, a kind of tenor4iautboy, ot, as Brossard 
describes it, a small bassoon. Mention is made of this instrument by 
Cerone, lib. XXI. cap. i. and by Cervantes in Don Quixote, 'Entre 
Morot— ee uta un genero de Dul^aynat que paracen nuettrat Chirimiat.' 
See page 444 of thU work, in not. Or it might tigniiy a atop called the 
Dulciana, oontitting of very long and narrow pipet in uniton with the 
diapaton, but that the latter is said to be a very recent invention. 

The word Buzain it a corruption of Butaun, or, at it it now tpelt, 
Potaune, wliich tignifies a Sacbut or basa-trumpet, and the stop so 
named is an imit^on of that inatrument, which tee repretented in 
pa^ 882 of thit work. 

The Zink. corruptly tpelt Cinlc, it an imitation of the Zinken horn, 
a very tmall pipe, or rather a whittle, detcrtbed and delineated ttom 
Lutciniut, page 831 of thit work. It it made of a tmall braneh of a 
deer'a horn. 

The desire of variety In the stops of an organ baa been indulged to 
a ridiculous degree. In the organ of Weingarten are stops intended to 
imitate the sound of bells, the voice of the cuckow, and the roaring of 
the sea. Other absurd fisnciet have intruded into this noMe instrument, 
such at flguret that beat time, alluded to by Dr. Donne in thete Unct >- 

* At in tome organi. puppets dance above, 

* And bellows pant below, which them do move.* Satiit II. 

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Chap. OXXVII. 



necessity of giving at large Mersennns's description, 
may serve for a general idea of the organ. The early 
fabricators of this instrument are as little known as 
celebrated by their works ; Zarlino mentions two 
persons at Rome, Vincenzo Colombi and Vincenzo 
Golonna, famous organ-makers in his time ; but 
before them, viz., towards the end of the fifteenth 
century, there flourished Rudolphus Agricola, an 
admirable artist, who made the organ at Groningen.* 
Ralph Dallans, Bernard Smith, and Renatns Harris, 
are names well known in Germany, France, and 
England, as excellent organ-makers. Of these an 
account will hereafter be given. In the mean time 
it may be observed that there is no method of 
estimating the improvement of the manual arts so 
satisfactory as that of comparing the works of modem 
artificers with those of the ancient. The mechanism 
of an organ at this day proves it to be a wonderful 
machine, constructed with great ingenuity, and most 
elegantly wrought. The following figure represents 
an organ in the time of king Stephen, taken from 
a manuscript Psalter of Eadwine in the library of 
Trinity college, Cambridge. Insig. R. 17. 1. 

The eighth and last book of the hannonics treats 
of bells and other instruments of percussion, including 
therein drums of various kinds, as also Castanets, the 
Claquebois or regals of wood described page 330 of 
this work ; and descending even to the Cymbalnm 
Orale, or Jew's-harp. 

With respect to bells, Mersennus treats of the 
different metals of which they are formed, of their 
figure, crassitude, and degrees of ponderosity as they 
respect each other in any given series. He describes 
also those peals of bells in the towers of many 
churches in Germany, called Carillons, on which, by 
the help of a contrivance of ropes fastened to the 
clappers, and collected together at the lower ex* 

• RtrooLPSirs Aoexcola was born at Bafflen in Friesland, two miles 
from Groningen. He was a learned divine, philoaopher, poet, and 
musician, and also an excellent mechanic. Thote who would know more 
of Mm than eon here he mentioned maf consult Bajfle in art. Blounfe 
Centura Celebrium Auetorum, and Dr. JorHn't Life of Eraamme. There 
are of his composition Song^ in bis native language to music in four 
parts : he is also said to have sung well, and to have had a fine hand on 
the lute. Melchior Adamus has celebrated him for his extensive learning 
and skiU in music. That he made the organ at St. Martin's church is 
aniformly believed throughout the Netherlands upon better authority 
than bare tradition ; Benthem, in bis Hollandischeu Kircfa<und Sohulen- 
fltaat, expressly asserts it ; and with him Walther agrees in the relation 
of the fact. The organ of Agricola is yet remaininff in St. Martin's 
church : some additions have been made to it since hu time, but they 
are no more to be considered as improvements, than the additions to the 
organs of Father Smith, which serve but as a foil to the unimproved part 
9f the instrument. 

tremities, tunes are played at stated hours of the 
day. This kind of practice on bells is in effect 
tolling, and not ringing, an art which seems to be 
peculiar to England, which for this reason is termed 
the ringing island. 

The ringing of bells is a curious exercise of the 
invention and memory; and though a recreation 
chiefly of the lower sort of people, is worthy of 
notice. The tolling a bell is nothing more than the 
producing a sound by a stroke of the clapper 
against the side of the bell, the bell itself being in 
a pendant position and at rest. In ringing, the bell, 
by means of a wheel arfd a rope, is elevated to 
a perpendicular; in its motion to this situation the 
clapper strikes forcibly on one side, and in its return 
downwards, on the other side of the bell, producing 
at each stroke a sound. The music of bells is 
altogether melody, but the pleasure arising from it 
consists in the variety of interchanges and the various 
succession and general predominance of the con- 
sonances in the sound produced, f 

t The invention of bells, that is to say, such as are hung in the towers 
or steeples of Christian churches, is by Polydore Vii^ and others, 
ascribed to Paulinus bishop of Nola, a city of Campania, about the year 
400 ; it is said chat the names Noise and Campanas, the one referring to 
the city, the other to the country, were for that reason given to them. 
In the time of Clothair II. king of France, and in the year 610, the army 
of that king was frighted from the siege of the city of Sens by ringing the 
bells of St. Stephen's church. Vincent, Spec. Hist. lib. XXIII. cap. ix. 
Bede relates that about the year 670, ' Audivit subito in aSre notum 
'Caropanae sonum, quo ad orationes excitari vel convocari solelMmt' 
Hist. £ccl. lib. IV. cap. xxitt. Ingulphus mentions that Turketulus, 
abbat of Croyland, who died about the year 870, gave a great bell to the 
church of that abbey, which he named Guthlac, and afterwards six 
others, vis., two which he called Bartholomew and Bettelln, two called 
Turketul and Tatwin, and two named Pega and Bega, all which rang 
together: the same author says, 'Non erat tunc tanta consonantia 
*campanarum in totA Anglift.' Ingulph. Hist. fol. 889, edit. Franc. 
Not long after, Kinseus, archbishop of York, built a tower of stone to the 
church of St. John at Beverly, and placed therein two great bells, and at 
the same time provided that other churches in his diocese should be 
frimished with bells. J. Stubbs, Act. Pont. Eborc. fol. 1700. Sea mora 
about bells In Spelman's Glossary, voce Camfaka, and in Bingham's 
Antiquities of the Christian Church, book VIII. chap. viL sect 15. 

Mention is made by St. Aldhelm, and William of Malmesbury, of bells 
^ven by St. Dunstan to the churches in the West. 

In the times of popery bells were baptised and anointed Oleo Chrismatis ; 
they were exorcised and blessed by the bishop, from a belief that when 
thofte ceremonies were performed they had a power to drive the devil 
out of the air, to calm tempests, to extinguish fire, and to recreate even 
the dead. The ritual for these ceremonies is contained in the Roman 
pontifical ; and it was usual in their baptism to give to bells the name of 
some saint. In Chauncy's History of Hertfordshire, page 383, is a relation 
of the baptism of a set of bells in Italy with great ceremony, a short time 
before the writing that book. The bells of the parish church of Winning- 
ton in Bedfordshire had their names cast about the verge of every one m 
particular, with these rhyming hexameters : — 

Nomina Campanis hec indita sunt quoque nostris. 

1. Hoc slgnum Petri pulsatur nomine Chris tL 

2. Nomen Magdalene campana sonat melode. 

3. Sit nomen Domini benedictum semper in euum. 

4. Musa Raphaelis sonat auribus Immanuelis. 

5. Sum Rosa pulsata mundi que Maria vocata. 

Weev. Fun. Mon. 122. 
By an old Chartulary, once in the possession of Weever the antiquary, 
it appears that the bells of the priory of Little Dunmow In Essex, were, 
anno 1501, new cast, and baptised by the following names:— 
Prima in honore Sancti Michaelis ArchangelL 
Becunda in honore S. Johannis Evangeliste. 
Tertia in honore S. Johannis Baptiste. 
Quarta in honore Assumptionis beate Marie. 
Quinta in honore sanote Trinitatis, et omnium sanctorum. 

Fun. Mon. 638. 

The bells of Osney abbey near Oxford were very famous ; their several 

names were Douce, Clement, Austin, Hautecter [potius Hautderi] 

Gabriel and John. Appendix to Heame's Collection of Discourses by 

Antiquaries, Numb. XI. 

Near Old Windsor is a public house vulgarly called the Bells of Bosely ; 
this house was originally built for the accommodation of Inrgemen and 
others navigating the river Thames between London and Oxford. It has 
a sign of six bells, i. e. the bells of Osney. 

In the Funeral Monuments of Weever, are the foUowing particulars 
relating to bells :— 
* Bens had frequently these inscriptions on them : — 

* Funera plango, Pnlgura frango, Sabbata pango, 

* Excito lentos, Disslpo ventos, Paco cruentos. Page ISS. 

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The Harmonie Universelle containB in substance 
the whole of the Hannonici, but is in some measure 
improved in the latter. There are nevertheless some 
tracts, and many curious particulars in the French 
which are not to be found in the Latin work. To 
instance, in Livre Septiesme, entitled Des Instrumens 

de Percussion ; in this is an account of a French 
musician bom in 1517, named Jacques Mauduit, and 
who, though not mentioned by any other writer on 
music, was styled Pere de la Musique. Mersennus 
gives him a most exalted character, and exhibits a 
Requiem in five parts of his composition. 


John Kepler, a great astronomer and mathema- 
tician, was bom at Wiel in the duchy of Wirtemberg, 
on the twenty-seventh of December, 1571. His 
father, Henry Kepler, was descended from a family 

' In the Little Sanctuary at Westminster, king Edw. III. erected a 

* CkKhier, and placed therein three bells for the use of St. Stephen's 

* ehapel : about the biggest of them were ca«t in the metal these words : — 

' King Edward made mee thirtie thousand weight and three, 

' Take me down and wey mee, and more you shall tynd mee. 

« But these hells being to be taken down in the raigne of king Hen. VIII. 

* one writes underneath with a coale :— 

* But Henry the eight, 
« WiU bait me of my weight.' Ibid. 492. 
This last distich alludes to a fact mentioned by Stow in his Survev of 
London ward of Fanrindon Within, to wit, that near to St. Paul's school 
stood a Clochier, in which were four bells called Jesus bells, the greatest 
in all England, against which Sir Miles Partridge staked a hundred 
pounds, and won them of king Henry VIII. at a cast of dice. 

It is said that the foundation of the Corsfni family in Italy was laid by 
an ancestor of it, who, at the dissolution of religious houses, purchased 
the bells of abbey and other churches, and by the sale of them in other 
countries, acquired a very great estate. 

Somerut ike protector woe a great epoUer of dkurdies amd ekapelSf emd 
Utempied to pull down the belle in all pariek ekurehee^ amd leave but one 
m a 9t«Bple, eokereat the old eommonallf/ were of ended and readif to rebel. 
Howif$ Preface to hie edUion of Stow'e Atmale, edit. 1681. 

The eacportatUm of beU metal woe temp. Hen. VIII. and Bdw. F/., 
prohibited bp etaiute and aleo bp proclamation, from an apprtheneion that 
onr enemiee might eaet it into great gwu. Str^t Bed. Mem. Vol. II. 
page 45. 

It i$ said bg eome author that npon the eurrender of a kmnh the Jbret ad 
qf the beeiegenie to eeize the belle. 

Nevertheless it appears that abroad there are bells of great magnitude. 
In the steeple of the great church at Roan in Normandy, is a bell with 
this inscription .— 

Je suis George de Ambols, 
Qui teente cinqae mille pois, 
Mes lui qui me pesera, 
Trente six mill me trovera. 

I am George of Ambols, 

Thirtie flve thousand in pols : 

But he that shall weigh me, 

Thirtie six thousand shall find me. Ibid. 
And it is a common tradition that the bells of King's college chiqm, m 
the university of Cambridge, were taken by Henry V. from somediuroh 
in France, after the battle of Aginoourt. They were taken down some 
years ago, and sold to Phelps the bell-founder in White-Chapel, who 
melted them down. 

The practice of ringing bells in change is said to be peculiar to this 
country, but the antiquity of it is not easily to be ascertained : there are in 
London several societies of ringers, particularly one known by the name 
of the CoUege Youths; of this it is said Sir Bfattbew Hale, lord chief 
iustioe of the court of King's Bench, was, in his youthfril days, a mem- 
ber ; and in the life of this learned and upright judge, written by bishop 
Burnet, some facts are mentioned which favor this relation. 

Mersennus has said nothing of the ringing of bells in changes ; nor has 
Kiroher done any thing more than calculate the possible combinations 
arising from a given number. In England the practice of ringing Is 
reduced to a science, and peals have been composed which bear the names 
of the inventors. Some of the most celebrated peals now known were 
composed about fifty years ago by one Patrick ; this man was a maker 
of barometers: in his advertisements he styled himself Torricellian 
Operator, from.Torrioelli, who invented instruments of this kind. 

In the year 1684, one Abraham Rudhall, of the city of Gloucester, 
brought the art of bell-founding to great perfection. His descendants in 
succession have continued the business of casting bells ; and by a list 
published by them, it appears that at Lady day, 1774, the fiunUy, in peals 
and odd bells, had cast to the amount of 3594. The peals of St. Dunstan's 
in the East, and St. Bride's, London, and St. Martin's In the Fields, 
Westminster, are in the number. 

It $eem» that formerlg the tuval number of a peal of belle woe five. Stow'e 
Annala, 1003. In the gear li30. a tixth beU was added to the peal office, 
in the Church of St. MicbaeTa, ComhiU, after which U was accounted the 
best ring ofbelUfor harmong and eweetneu of tone in Bnglamd. Stow'e 
Surveg, 4to.. in ComhiU Ward. 

It has been remarked, that the coropleatest and moet perfect ring of belle 
u a peal of six, in which whether ascending or descending the semitone holds 
the middle position, as U does in both the natural and the duram hexachord. 
In the motile hexachord the tritonus intervenes. Vide D. V. Holder's Trea- 
tise, on the natural grounds of Harmong. 

which had raised itself under the emperors by mili- 
tary desert, and was himself an officer of rank in the 
army, but, after a series of misfortunes, was reduced 
to die necessity of keeping a public house for the 
support of himself and his family. He died in 1590, 
leaving his son John in a very helpless and forlorn 

The necessitous circumstances of Kepler's father 
would not allow of his giving his children such an 
education as might tend to repair the ruined fortunes 
of the family : his son John, however, discovered an 
early propensity to learning, and found means, upon 
the death of his father, to put himself into a course 
of study in the university of Tubingen, where, after 
he had acquired a competent degree of knowledge in 
physics, he betook himself to the mathematics under 
the direction of Michael Moestlin, a famous professor 
there. In this branch of science Kepler made so 
rapid a progress, that in the year 1593 he was in- 
vited to teach the mathematics at Gratz in Styria. 
Being settled there, he applied himself wholly to the 
study of astronomy, and published his works from 
time to time. 

In the year 1597 he married, and became involved 
in a vexatious contest for the recovery of his wife's 
fortune, and the year after was banished from Gratz 
on account of his religion, but was soon recalled ; 
however, the growing troubles and the confusions of 
that place indined him to think of a residence else- 
where ; and as Tycho Brahe, having settled in Bohe- 
mia, and obtained from the emperor a great number 
of instruments for carrying on his pursuits in astro- 
nomy, had often solicited Kepler to come and abide 
with him, he left the university of Gratz, and removed 
into Bohemia with his fiEunily and library in the year 
1600. Kepler in this journey was seized wiUi a 
quartan ague, which continued seven or eight months; 
upon his recovery he set himself to assist Tycho 
Brahe with all his power, but there was but little 
cordiality between Uiem : Kepler was offended at 
Tycho for the great reserve and caution with which 
he treated him, and for refusing to do some services 
to his family, which he had requested of hiuL Tycho 
Brahe died in 1601, but in the performance of the 
engagement which he had entered into with Kepler 
to induce him to settle at Prague, he had, on his 
arrival in that city, introduced him to the emperor 
RudolphuB, who received him very kindly, and made 
him his mathematician, upon condition that he should 
serve Tycho by making arithmetical calculations for 
him ; in consideration thereof he was honoured with 
the title of mathematician to the emperor. Upon the 
decease of Tycho Brahe, Kepler received a command 

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from the emperor to fimBh those tables begmi by 
Tycho, which are known by the name of the Rndol- 
phine tables, and he applied himself very vigorously 
to it; but such difficulties arose in a short time, partly 
from the nature of the work, and partly from the 
delay of the treasurers entrusted with the management 
and disposal of the fund appropriated for carrying it 
on, that they were not completed till the year 1627. 
Kepler complained that from the year 1602 he was 
looked upon by the treasurers with a very invidious 
eye; and that when in 1609 he had published a noble 
specimen of the work, and the emperor had given 
orders that, besides the expence of the edition, he 
should be immediately paid the arrears of his pension, 
which he said amounted to four thousand crowns, he 
in vain knocked at the doors of the Silesian and Im- 
perial chambers, and it was not till two years after, 
that the generous orders of Eudolf^us in his favour 
were obeyed. He met with no less discoTiragement 
from the financiers under the emperor Matthias than 
under Rudolphus, and therefore, after struggling with 
pover^ for ten years at Prague, he began to think of 
removmg thence, which the emperor hearing, sta- 
tioned him at Lintz, and appointed him a salary from 
the states of Upper Austria, which was paid for six- 
teen years. In the year 1613 he went to the assembly 
at Badsbon, to assist in the reformation of the Calen- 
dar, but returned to Lintz, where he continued to the 
year 1626.* In November in that year he went to 
Ulm, in order to publish the Rudolphine Tables; and 
afterwards in 1629, with the emperor's leave, settled 
at Sagan in Silesia, where he published the second 
part of hiB Ephemerides, for the first had been pub- 
lished at Lintz in the year 1617. In the year 1680 
he went to Ratisbon to solicit the payment of the 
arrears of his pension, but being seized with a fever, 
which it is said he brought upon himself by too hard 
riding, he died there in November, in the fifty -ninth 
year of his age. 

Before the time of Kepler the opinion of astrono- 
mers was, that the orbits of the heavenly bodies were 
circular, but in 1609 he shewed from the observations 

* In a letter firom Sir Henry Wotton to Lord Bfoon is the following 
eorioiu relation rupecting Kepler, to whom Sir Henry, then being our 
ambassador to some one of tne princes of Germany, had made a Tisit. 

* I Isy a night at Lintz, the metroptdis of the Higher Austria, but then in 

* very low estate, having been newly taken by the duke of BaTaria, who, 
' Uandiente fortun&, was gone on to the late effects : there I found Kepler, 
' a man Csmous in the sciences, as your Lordship knows, to whom I pur- 
' pose to convey from hence one of your books, that he may see we have 

* some of our own that can honour our Ung, as well as he hath done with 

* his Harmonica. In this man's study I was much taken with the draoght 
' of a landskip on a piece of paper, methoughts masterly done ; whereof 
'inquirinff the author, he bewnqred with a smile, it was himself; addhig 
' he had (tone it, Non tanquam Pictor, sed tanquam Mathematlcus. This 

* set me on fire : at last he told me how. He hath a little back tent (of 
'what stuff is not much importing) which he can suddenly set up where 

* he will in a field, and it is convertible (like a vrind-mill) to all quarters 
' at pleasure, capable of not mneh more than one man, as I conceive, and 
' perhaps at no great ease ; exactly close and dark, save at one hole, about 
'an inch and a half in the diameter, to which he applies a long per- 
'spective trunk, with a convex glass fitted to the said hole, and the 
'eoncare taken out at the other end, which extendeth to about the 
'middle of this erected tent, throwh which the visible radiations of all 
'tiM objects without are intromltted, fklllng upon a paper, which Is 

* accommodated to receive them, and so he traoetn them with his pen in 

* their natural appearance, turning his UtUe tent round by degrees till he 
' hath designed the whole aspect of the field. This I have described to 
' your Lordship, because I think there might be good use made of it for 

* Chorograpy ; for otherwise to make landskips bv it were illiberal : thou^ 
'surely no painter can do them so precisely.^ ReUquse WottonianK, 
Lond. 1685, page SM. 

It does not appear that Kepler claimed the honour of this invention, 
which, though Sir Henry Wotton seems not to have known it, is ascribed 
to Batista Porta. 

of Tycho Brahe, that the planet Mars described an 
ellipsis about the sun, placed in the lowermost focus, 
and collected the same to be the case of the restf 
He also discovered this great law observed by nature 
in the revolutions of the heavenly bodies, viz. that 
the squares of their periodical times are as the cubes 
of their mean distances.^ Kepler is also said to have 
been the first investigator of the true cause of tides, 
as arising from the principle of gravitation, though 
Sir Isaac Newton so far improved upon his discoveries 
on that subject, as to make the doctrine in a manner 
his own.§ 

The most celebrated of Kepler's works are his 
Prodromus Dissertationum de Proportione Orbium 
coelestium, and his Mysterium Oosmographicum, in 
which latter, as it is said, the sublime secret of the 
five regular bodies is laid open. Of this latter work 
the auUior thought so hi^ily, that in a conversation 
with one of his friends, Thomas Lansius, he declared 
that if the electorate of 8azony were offered him on 
condition of his renouncing the honour of the disco- 
veries contained therein, he would not accept it 

Besides these and many other books on astronomy 
and other mathematical subjects, Kepler was the 
author of a work entitled Harmonices Mundi, which 
he dedicated to our king James L, the third book 
whereof, as it is on the subject of musical harmony, 
it materially concerns us so far to take notice o^ as 
to mention its general contents, and point out those 
singularities which distiuguish it 

The third book of the Harmonices Mundi is on 
the subject of those proportions which we term har- 
monical, having for its title De Ortu proportionnm 
harmonicarum, deque natura et differentiis rerum ad 
cantum pertinentium. The titles of the several 
chapters are as follow : — 

Caput I. Ortus consonantiarum ex causis suis 
propriis. II. De septem chordae sectionibus har- 
monicis, totidemque formis consonantiarum minorura. 
III. De medietatibus harmonicis; et trinitate con- 
sonantiflB. IV. Ortus et denominatio inter vallorum 
usualium sen concinnorum. V. Secto et denomi- 
natio consonantiarum per sua intervalla usualia. VI. 
De cantus generibus, dfiro et molli. VII. Proportio 
omnium octo sonorum usualium unius diapason. 
VnL Absciss!* semitoniorum, et ordo minimorum 
intervallorum in diapason. IX. De diagrammate, 
lineiB, notis, literisque sonorum indicibus ; de syste- 
mate, clavibus et seals music^ X. De tretrachordis 
et syllabis, ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. XI. De compo- 
sitione systematum majorum. XII. . De consonantiis 
adulterinis, ex compositione ortis. XIII. De cantu 
concinno simplici. XIV. De modus sen tonis. XV. 
Qui modi, quibus serviant affectibus. XVI. De 
cantu figurato sen per harmoniam. 

In the introduction to this treatise Kepler observes 
that the antiquity of music may be inferred from the 
mention of the harp and organ in the book of Genesis; 

t See his Tabulse Rudolphlnse, and Comment, de Stella Martis ; as 
also Costard's History of Astronomy, pag. 173, 174. Kepler's problem, 
and the solution of It by Sir Isaac Newton, are inserted in Kdll's Intro- 
duction to Astronomy. I<ect. xxiii. xxiv. 

t Maclanrin's Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Dis- 
coveries, page 50. 

i Cost. Hist, of Astronomy, page 267. 

Digitized by 




Book XIV 

and that from the similarity in the sonnd of the 
names and the attributes commonly ascribed to both, 
there is ground to conjecture that Jubal and Apollo 
were one and the same person; and that, for the 
same reasons, the like may be said of Tubal Cain 
and Vulcan. He then digresses to the contemplation 
of the Pythagorean Tetractys, and points out the 
mysterious properties of the number four * He also 
takes notice that Ptolemy was the first that vindicated 
the sense of hearing against the Pythagoreans, and 
received among the concinnous intervals not only the 
diatessaron, diapente, and diapason, but also the ses- 
quioctave for the greater, and the sesquinona for the 
lesser tone, and Uie sesquidecima for the semitone ; 
and added not only other superparticulars that were 
approved of by the ear, as the sesquiquarta and ses- 
quiqniuta, but also introduced some of the superbi- 
partients. By this means, he adds, Ptolemy indeed 
amended the Pvthagorean speculation, as repugnant 
to the origin of harmonical proportions, but did not 
entirely reject it as fidse ; yet he remarks that this 
same person, who had restored the judgment of the 
ears to its dimity, did however again desert it, he 
himself also insisting on and abiding by the contem- 
plation of abstract numbers; wherefore he denied 
that the greater and leaser thirds and sixths are con- 
sonances, and admitted in their stead other proportions. 

Chapter I. contains some of the principal axioms in 
Harmonics, upon which the author animadverts in a 
strain of philosophy that distinguishes his writings, 
to this purpose : — 

* The speculation concerning these axioms is sub- 

* lime, Platonic, and analogous to the Christian faith, 
' and regards metaphysics and the doctrine of the soul ; 

* for geometry, which has a relation to musical har- 

* mony, suggested to the divine nund in the creation 
'of the world what was best, most beautiful, and 

* nearest resembling God himself, and the images of 

* God the creator, as are all spirits, souls, and minds 

* which actuate bodies, and govern, move, increase, and 
' preserve them. These by a certain instinct delight 

* in the same proportions which God himself made 
'use of in the formation of the universe, whether 

* they are impressed on bodies and motions, or arise 

* from a certain geometrical necessity of matter, divi- 
' sible in infinitum, or from motions excited by matter; 
' and these harmonical proportions are said to consist 
' not in Esse, but in Fieri. Nor do minds delight 
' only in these proportions, but they also make use of 
' the same as laws, to perfect or perform their offices, 
' and to express these same proportions in the motions 

* of bodies where it is allowable. Of this the follow- 
' ing books produce two most luculent examples, the 
' one of God himself the Creator, who has regulated 
' the motions of the heavens by harmonical propor- 
' tions ; the other of that soul which we usually call 
' the sublunary nature, which stirs up the meteors ac- 

* The Pythagoreans maintained that in the first of the five regular 
solids, viz., the Tetrahedron or Pyramid, the Tetractys is to be found, 
for that a point answers to unity, a line to the aumber two, a superficies 
to three, and solidity to four. Farther they say that the Judicative power 
is fourfold, and consists in mind, science, opinion, and sense. In short, 
in physics, meUphysics, ethics, and theology, they made the number 
four an universal measure ; and scrupled not to assert that the nature of 
Ood himself Is typified by the Tetrad. 

' cording to the laws or prescripts of those proportions 
' which occur in the radiations of the stars. A third 
' example is that of the human soul, and the souls of 
' beasts in some measure, for they delight in the har- 
' monical proportions of sounds, and are sad or dis- 
' pleased with such as are not harmonical; from which 
' affections of the soul, the former are termed conso- 
' nances, and the latter dissonances ; but if another 

* harmonical proportion of voices and sounds, to wit, 
' the metrical ratio of quantities long and short be also 
' added, these affect the soul, and stir up the body to 
' dancing or leaping, and the tongue to pronunciation, 
' according to the same laws ; to this workmen adapt 
' the strokes of their hammers, and soldiers their pace. 

* All things live when harmonies subsist, but deaden 
' ^en they are disturbed.* 

As touching the nature of harmony, and that deter- 
mination which the senses make between concinnous 
and inconcinnous intervals, Kepler, as do indeed most 
other writers on the subject, resolves it into the coin- 
cidence of vibrations. 

Chap. II. contains a series of proportions tending 
to shew that for producing the consonances, seven 
sections of a chord are all that can be admitted ; in 
answer to which it need only be said that in the Sectio 
Canonis of Euclid and Aristides Quintilianus, the 
contrary is demonstrated. 

In Chap. VI. the author declares his sentiments 
with respect to the hard and soft genera of Cantus ; 
the first he says is called the soft cantus, because in it 
the intervals of the third and sixth from the lowest 
note are soft, and that the other is called the hard 
cantus for the contrary reason ; upon which he re- 
marks, that this distinction is recognized by God 
himself in the motions of the planets. 

In Chap. VII. in which the author undertakes to 
demonstrate the natural order of the concinnous inter- 
vals contained in the octave, he asserts, without taking 
notice of the division of the diapason into tetrachords, 
that it seems most agreeable to nature that whenever 
we make choice of a section, the greater intervals 
should converge towards the grave sounds. In bin 
section therefore he observes this order, greater tone 
8, 9, lesser tone 9, 10, semitone 15, 16, which he says 
is sufficient to stand forth against the authorities of 
Ptolemy, Zarlino, and Galileo, who make the lesser 
tone the lowest in position.f 

Chap. VIII. proposes a section of the monochord 
for the Testudo or lute, in which he censures that of 
Vincentio Galileo, declaring it to be an injudicious 
essay towards a temperament, and that the author was 
ignorant of the demonstrative quantity of sounds. 

Chap. IX. treats of the modem method of notation 
by lines and the letters of the alphabet, and contains 
the author's opinion touching the origin of the cliffs, 

t Kepler, with all his acuteness, seems to have been bewildered in 
this abstruse speculation : indeed so Csr as not to be able to distinguish 
between the niends and the adversaries of his doctrine ; for this very 
arrangement of the greater and lesser tone, that is to say the greater first, 
and the second next, constitutes the intense diatonic of Ptolemy, which 
had been received by Ludovico Fogliano, and recognised by Zarlino: 
nor were there any of the modems, excepting Vincentio Galileo, who 
disputed it, and he contended fbr an equality of tones ; notwithstanding 
which Kepler enumerates Galileo among the friends of Ptolemy, and, bf 
a mistaken consequence, among the adversaries of himself. See Dr. 
Wallis's Appendix to Ptolemy, page S18; and see also page Ml of tUt 
work, in not. 

Digitized by 


Chip. OXXVIH. 



which he with great ingenuity prove& to be gradual 
deviatiouB from the respective letters F and G; he 
delivers his sentiments in these words : — 

* Some things oflfer themselves to our observation 
' concerning these letters ; for first, all the letters are 

* not written on the lines and spaces which their sta- 
' tions require, but only these, F G 0, as often as there 
' is a place for one of them on the line, B also when 
' it has its sound in a space. 

' Moreover the letter G has a different character, 
' namely, the following ^ ; I suppose that this arose 
' from Uie distortion of the ancient letter 0, for as the 
' writers used broad-pointed pens, most of the notes 

* were made square for dispatch in writing; nor could 
' a round G be described with these pens : so that they 
' made the G of three little lines, one slender, and the 
' other two thick, in the room of the horns ; the pen 
' being drawn broadways thus C, the fine little line, 
' on account of their expeditious writing, was made 

* longer, and was carried above and below beyond the 
' horns thus |s ; but, in order to terminate the horns, 

* they drew little lines parallel to the first thus ^ , and 
' at length these two lines were made one, and the 
' whole character became of this form ^ , but by the 
' gaping of the quill it was frequently and at length 

* generfldly made hollow or open thus ^ . 

* It may nevertheless be questioned whether or no 
' the term musical scale might not suggest to the in- 
' ventors the character of a figure resembling a ladder, 
' such as is used by the modems, to denote Uie station 

of in the scale.' 

The conjectures of Kepler with regard to the origin 
of the character used to denote the tenor cliff are m- 
genious, but he seems to have failed in hb attempt to 
account for the form of the character (®J, which gives 
the F FA DT wherever it is placed ; for first he sup- 
poses it to have been originally the small y, and, 
secondly, that the two points behind it were intended 
to signify a reduplication of the note F ; in this he 
certainly errs, for the station of the bass cliff on the 
fourth line is but a seventh from Gamut, the replicate 
whereof is G sol, re, ut, and not F fa ut. It must 
be owned that for the origin of the above character 
we are greatly to seek, but is highly probable that 
it is a corruption of the letter F ; and that for this 
reason Guido, when he reformed the scale, found it 
necessary, in order to ascertain the denominations of 
the several chords contained in it, to affix some 
certain character to the lowest of them ; for this 
purpose he made choice of the Greek F : succeeding 
musicians found it necessary in practice to ascertain 
the place of o sol fa ut, which they did by the 
letter ; and the same motive induced them to point 
out also g SOL RB UT, by g, stationing it on the third 
line above that whereon stood : a thought then 
suggested itself that a cliff on the third line below 
C, would give the whole a uniform appearance, by 
placing the cU&b in the middle of the scale, and 
making them equidistant from each other ; and this 
was no sooner done by placing F three lines below 
C, than the whole character F on the first line of the 

stave became useless : for the note Gamut is as 
clearly determined by the station of F on the fourth 
line, as by its original character. 

Touching the origin and use of the flat and sharp 
signatures, these are the sentiments of Kepler : — 

*As to the first, b, its presence, whether it falls 

* upon a line or a space, denotes the soft cantus, and 
' its absence the hard ; and by a certain abuse the 
letter b is used for the character of the semitone or 
syllable fa. 

* When a semitone is extraordinarily constituted in 

* the place of a tone, and the syllable mi in the place 
' of the syllable fa, then the letter b, or the character 
'derived from it, is prefixed to the note, for the 

* ancients without doubt described it thus J[], but we 
' instead thereof thus 4 or x, which, as Galileus 
' imagines, should seem to say to the reader the same 
' thing as the Greek word Biaschisma formerly did, 

* for it evidently expresses a splitting, and points out 
' to us the cutting of the semitones.' 

Ohap. X. contains a comparison of the hexachords 
of the modems with the tetrachords of the ancient 
Greeks, very clearly demonstrating the superior ex- 
cellence of the hexachord system ; and here by the 
way it is to be observed that he differs from Doctor 
Wallis and many other authors, who have expressed 
their wishes that Guido, instead of six, had taken 
seven syllables into this system : further he censures 
that German, whoever he was, that introduced the 
seven syllables bo, ce, di, oa, lo, ma, ni. 

Chap. XIII. the author speaks of the manner of 
singing, which he says the Turks and Hungarians 
are accustomed to, and resembles the noises of brute 
animals rather than the sounds of the human voice ; 
but this kind of melody, rude as it is, he supposes 
not fortuitous, but to be derived from some instru- 
ment concinnously formed, which had led the whole 
nation into the use of such intervals in singing as 
nature abhors. To this purpose he relates that b«ing 
at Prague, at the house of the Turkish ambassador, at 
a time when the accustomed prayers were sung by 
the priests, he observed one on his knees frequently 
striking the earth with his hand, who appeared to 
sing by rule, for that he did not in the least hesitate, 
though the intervals he sung were wonderfully un- 
accustomed, mangled, and abhorrent, which, that his 
reader may judge of them, he gives in the following 
notes : — 

Touching that long -agitated question, whether the 
music of the ancient Greeks was solitary or in con- 
sonance, Kepler, chap. XVI, thus delivers his sen- 
timents : — 

' Although the word Harmony was anciently used 
' to signify a Cantus, yet we are not to understand 
* by it a modulation by several voices in consonance : 
' for that this is an invention of modem date, and 
' was utterly unknown to the ancients, needs not to 
' be proved.* He adds, ' It is indeed objected, tliai 
*in the republic of Plato a tying together of the 
' cantus by harmony is mentioned as if it had at thai 

Digitized by 




Book XIV, 

' time been made use of;* but this passage is to be 
' understood of instnmienta, such as the Syringa, the 

* Cornamusa, and Testudo, when one sound intonates 
' in consonance with another.' 

The author concludes his third book of the Har- 
monices Mundi with what he calls a political digres- 
sion concerning the three kinds of mediation, taken 
in part from Bodinus, who appears to be no less fond 
than himself of such fanciful imalogies. 

As there are three forms of policy or civil govern- 
ment, namely, Democracy, Aristocracy, and Monar- 
chy, he compares Democracy to arithmetical propor- 
tion, Aristocracy to the geometrical, and Monarchy 
to the harmonica!. He farther remarks that as 
all the rules of governing are comprehended under 
justice, of which there are two kinds, viz., commu- 
tative justice, which is implied in the arithmetical 
equality, and distributive m the geometrical simi- 
litude,f so there is a third species of justice made up 
of both. He says that the poets, who feign the 
three daughters of Justice to be Equity, Law, and 
Peace, do as it were make them the tutelars severally 
of arithmetical, geometrical, and harmonical pro- 
portion: and that the laws concerning marriage 
afford an example of the three proportions, for says 
he 'If patricians marry patrician wives, and plebeians 

* plebeian wives, then it is the geometrical similitude ; 

* where it is allowed to marry promiscuously, without 
' any manner of restriction, then the arithmetical 
' equality is found ; but if, as in the case of factions, 

* the poorest patricians are permitted to marry with 
' the richer plebeians, then that gives the harmonical 

* pioportion as being convenient for both.' 

Kepler pretends also to discover an analogy between 
the three kinds of proportion above enumerated, and 
the order observed in the arrangement of persons, 
distinguishing between senators and plebeians at feasts 
and at public shows. In the pursuit of this argument 
he insists on a variety of topics drawn from the 
Roman civil law, and pretends to trace resemblances 
which never did exist but in his own bewildered 

He concludes this digression with a remark that 
Bodinus beautifully compares the arithmetical equality 
to the iron ruler Polycletus, which may be broken 
Defore it can be bent ; the geometrical similitude to 
(he leaden Lesbian ruler, which was accommodated 
lo all angles; and the harmonical proportion to 
a wooden ruler which indeed may be bent, but 
immediately returns back. 

Such singularities as are discoverable in the writings 
of Kepler, could hardly fail to draw on him the 
censures of those who were engaged in the same 

« The passage bere alluded to is that which gave rise to the controversy 
between Moos. Fragoier and Mons. Burette. See page lOS, in not. 

t OrtMt eonfuriou oppean among the writert on Ethics in their dMtUm 
ttf justice, and their d^iUons of its several species. Orotius as here, 
and also P^iendorfdietinauishesU into distribuHee and commmtatHe! and 
Qronovius, the Commentator on the former, assians to distributioe fiuUee 
the aeometrical, and to commutative the arithmetical Ratio. Fide OroHus 
de Jure Belli ac Dads a Oronovis lib, I. cap, i, sect. 8. Pi^gendorf de 
Officio Hominis i Carmichaelt lib. I. cap. ii, seet. 14. Dr. More dividing 
Justice into distr^utive and correeUve, gives to the former the geometrical 
ratio 0. S, IS, ^, audio the latter the arithmetical 5, 7, 9, 11. BnchiHd 
BIh. lib. II. cap. 0, seet. 6. These analogies thus recognised are become 
scientific. Nevertheless Ote relation between qualities and quantities, moral 
actions a$td mathematical proportions, is not eteorlg diecernibie ; the latter 
an measurable, the former not. 

course of study with himself. Ismael Bullialdua 
says he abounds in fictions ; and Martinus Schookius, 
who allows him to be an able astronomer and mathe* 
matician, says that where he afiPects to reason upon 
physical principles, no man talks more absurdly, :( 
and expresses his concern that a man, in other respects 
so excellent, should disgrace the divine science of 
mathematics with his preposterous notions ; for, says 
he, what could an old woman in a fever, dream more 
ridiculous than that the earth is a vast animal, which 
breathes out the winds through the holes of the 
mountains, as it were through a mouth and nostrils ? 
Yet he writes expressly tiius in his Harmonices 
Mundi, and attempts also seriously to prove that the 
earth has a sympathy with the heavens, and by 
a natural instinct perceives the position of the stars. 
The absurdities of Kepler were such as have 
exposed him and his writings to the ridicule of 
manv a less able mathematician than himself. Mr. 
Maclaurin has remarked that he was all his life in 
pursuit of fancied analogies ; but he adds, that to 
this disposition we owe such discoveries as are more 
than sufficient to excuse his conceits. § Upon which 
it may be observed, that had he made no greater 
discoveries in mathematics than he has done in 
music, it is highly probable that the conceits had 
remained, and &e discoveries been forgotten. 


Robert Flud, Lat de Fluctibus, a very famous 
philosopher and a writer on music, was the son of 
Sir Thomas Find, knight, some time treasurer of 
war to queen Elizabeth in France and the Low 
Countries, and was born at Milgate, in the parish 
of Bearsted, in Kent, in the year 1574. He was 
admitted of St John*s college in the university of 
Oxford, in 1591, at the age of seventeen ; and having 
taken both the degrees in arts, applied himself to 
the study of physic, and spent six years in travelling 
through France, Spain, Italy, and Germany, in most 
of which countries he not only became acquainted 
with several of the nobility, but even read lectures to 
them. After his return, in the year 1605, being 
in high repute for his knowledge in chemistry, he 
proceeded in the faculty of physic, took the degree 
of doctor, was admitted a fellow of the college of 
physicians, and practised in London. He was es- 
teemed by many both as a philosopher and a physician, 
though it may be objected, that as he was of the 
fraternity of the Rosicrucians, as they are called, his 
philosophy was none of the soundest. His propensity 
to chemistry served also to mislead him, and induced 
him to refer to it not only the wonders of nature, but 
miracles, and even religious mysteries. His works, 

1 The singularity in Kepler's method of reasoning may be remarked 
in his endeavours to torture and strain the three Kinds of proportion, 
that is to say, geometrical, arithmetical, and harmonical, to a resemblance 
of the three forms of civil policy, and the practice of the Romans in their 
marriages, and the order of seating the spectators of pnblie shows and 
solonnitles; and there are many other instanoee In the Hannonicet 
Mundi, which, though they have e8ciq>ed observation, are no less 
ridienlona, as where he says, speaking of the terms Ax^yif and IIAo«ci|f, 
made use of by Euclid, that the UXokij wanders about ibe Ayoytf *iit 
caiiis circa viatorem,' i. «. as a dog about a traveller. 

§ Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, page 47. 

Digitized by 





which are very many, amounting to near twenty 
tracts, are in Latin; and it is said, that as he was 
a mystic in philosophy, and affected in his writings 
a turgid and ohscure style, so was his discourse, 
particularly to his patients, so lofty and hyperbolical, 
that it resembled that of a mountebank more than of 
a grave physician, yet it is said that he practised 
with success, and what is more, that Selden held him 
in high estimation. Mosheim asserts that the reading 
his books turned the brain of Jacob fiehmen; and 
at present it is their only praise, that for some 
time they were greatly admired and sought after 
by alchemists, astrologers, searchers after the philo- 
sophers* stone, and, in short, by all the madmen in 
the republic of letters both at home and abroad. 

Some of his pieces were levelled against Kepler 
and Mersennus, and he had the honour of replies from 
both. He wrote two books against Mersennus, the 
first intitled, ' Sophin cum Morioe certamen, in quo, 
' lapis Lydius a falso structore, Fratre Marino Mer- 
<senno monacho, reprobatus, celeberrima voluminis 
'sui Babylonici in Genesin figmenta accurate exa- 

* minat.' Franc. 1629, fol. The second, * Summum 
' bonorum quod est verum MagiaB Cabalse, Alchymn 

* Fratrum Eo«b crucis verorum veraa subjectum, in 
'dictarum scientiamm laudem, in insignis calunmi- 
'atoris Fr. Mar. Mersenni dedecus publicatum per 

* Joachim Frizium,' 1629, fol. Mersennus desiring 
Gassendus to give his judgment of these two books of 
Flud against him, that great man drew up an answer 
divided into three parts, the first of wluch sifts the 
principles of Flud*s whimsical philosophy as they lie 
scattered throughout his works ; the second is against 
'Sophiae cum Morioe certamen, &cJ and the third 
against ' Summum bonorum, <fec.' This answer, called 
Examen Fluddansd Philosophic, is dated February 4, 
1629, and is printed in the third volume of the works 
of Gassendus m folio. In the dedication to Mersennus 
is a passage in substance as follows, viz., 'Although I 
' am far from thinking your antagonist a match for 
' you, yet it must be owned that he is really a man of 

* various knowledge, known to all the learned of the 

* age, and whose voluminous works will shortly have 
' a place in most libraries. And in the present dis- 
' pute will have one great advantage over you, namely, 
' that whereas your philosophy is of a {Jain, open, 

* intelligible kind, his, on the contrary, is so very ob- 
' scure and mysterious, that he can at any time conceal 
'himself, and by diffusing a darkness round him, 
' hinder you from discerning him, so &r as to lay hold 
' of him, much less to drag him forth to conviction.' 

Dr. Flud died at his house in Coleman-street, Lon- 
don, in the year 1637, and was buried in the church 
of Bearsted, the place of his nativity. In the Athens 
Oxonienses is an account of him and a catalogue of 
his writings, but of the many books he wrote, the 
only one necessaiy to be taken notice of in this work 
is that entitled ' Utriusque Cosmi, Majoris scilicet et 

* minoris, metaphysica, physica, atque technica histo- 

* ria in duo volumina, secundum Cosmi differentiam 

* divisa. Tomus primus de Macrocosmi Historia in 

* duos tractatus divisa.* * This work was printed at 

* It Menu that tho •eoond Tolume wai oeTer published. 

Oppenheim, in a thick folio volume, and published in 
1617. It abounds with plates and diagrams of the 
most fantastic kind, and though the author was be- 
holden to a foreign press for its publication, is recom- 
mended to the patronage of his rightful sovereign 
James the First 

As to the work itself, the nature and tendency of it 
are unfolded in the following analytical distribution 
of its parts : — 

''Metaphysioo Macrocosmi et 
Creaturanim illius orta. 


PiimuB de 

Secundiis de arte 
natuTs simia 
ID Hacrooosmo 
producta et 
ID eo natrita 
ci\)ds filias 
prsBcipnas htc 
aDatomiA viv& 

Phydoo MacrocoeDii iogene- 
ratione et corraptioDe pro- 

Artem Pictoriam. 
Artem Militarem. 




The third book of the first tract is intitled De Mu- 
sica Mundana. In this discourse the author supposes 
the world to be a musical instrument, and that the 
elements that compose it, assigning to each a certain 
place according to the laws of gravitation, together 
with the planets and the heavens, make up that in- 
strument which he calls the Mundane Monochord, in 
the description whereof he thus expresses himself : 

* We will take our beginning from the matter of 

* the world, which I have made to resemble the chord 
' of the monochord, whose great instrument is the 

* Macrocosm itself, as a certain scale or ladder whereby 
' the difference of the places lying between the centre 
' and periphery of the mundane instrument is distin- 
'guished, and which difference of places we shall 

* aptly compare to the musical interviJs, as well the 
'simple as the compound. Wherefore it is to be 
' known that as the chord of an instrument in its 
' progression from T is accustomed to be divided into 
' intervals by metrical proportions, so likewise I have 
' distributed both the matter and its form into degrees 
' of quantity, and distinguished them by similar pro- 
' portions, constituting musical consonances ; for if a 
' monochord be supposed to extend from the summit 
' of the empyrean heaven to the basis of the earth 
' itself, we shall perceive that it may be divided into 
' parts constituting consonances ; and if the half part 

* thereof were touched or struck, it would produce 
' the consonant diapason in the same manner as the 
' instrumental monochord. 

' But it is to be considered that in this mundane 
' monochord the consonances, and likewise the proper 
' intervals, measuring them, cannot be otherwise de- 
' lineated than as we divide the instrumental mono- 
' chord into proportional parts ; for the frigidity, and 
' also the matter itself, of the earth, as to the thickness 
' and weight thereof, naturally bears the same propor- 
'tion to the frigidity as the matter of the lowest 
' region, in which there is only one fourth part of the 
' natural light and heat, as 4 to 8, which is the ses- 

Digitized by 




Book XIV. 

* qmtertia proportion ; in which proportion a diates- 

* saron consists, composed of three intervals, namely, 
' water, air, and fire ; for the earth in mundane music 
' is the same thing as F in music, unity in arithmetic, 
' or a point in geometry ; it being as it were the term 
'and sound from which the ratio of proportional 
' matter is to be calculated. Water therefore occupies 
' the place of one tone, and the air that of another 

* interval more remote ; and the sphere of fire, as it 
' is only the summit of the region of the air, kindled 
' or lighted up, possesses the place of a lesser semi- 
' tone. But in as much as two portions of this matter 

* are extended upwards as far as to the middle heaven, 
' to resist the action of the supernatural heat; and the 
' same number of parts of light, act downwards 
' against these two portions of matter, these make up 
' the composition of the sphere of the sun, and natu- 
' rally give it the attribute of equality, and by that 
'means the sesquialtera proportion is produced, in 
' which three parts of the lower spirit or matter of 

* the middle heaven are opposed to the two parts of 
' the solar sphere, producing the consonant diapence : 

* for such is th^ difference between the moon and the 

* sun, as there are four intervals between the convexity 

* of this heaven and the middle of the solar sphere, 

* namely, those of the entire spheres of the moon, 

* Mercury, and Venus, compared to full tones, and 

* the half part of the solar sphere, which we have 
' compared to the semitone. But as the consonant 
' diapason is constituted of the diatessaron and dia- 
' pente, therefore this consonant diapason must neces- 
' sarily be there produced; and this is the most perfect 
' consonance of matter, which can by no means acquire 
' its perfection unless it fills up its appetite in the 

* solar form. Moreover, this middle heaven, though 
' its most perfect consonance ends in its heart, namely, 
' the sun, and thence begins its motion to the formal 

* diapason, yet it sounds out nothing else than the 
' consonant diapente in its concavity, as well above its 
' sphere of equality as below it ; which consonant 

* therefore suits better with this place than any of the 
' other consonants, because it is less perfect, and is 
' placed in the middle between the perfect and imper- 
' feet : thus also this heaven, although it be perfect 

* and free from corruption, is said to be less perfect 
' with regard to the upper heaven, and obtains the 
' middle situation between both heavens, namely, the 
' perfect and imperfect' 

The definition which Boetius gives of mundane 
music, so far as relates to the motion of the celestial 
orbs, is founded in the Pythagorean notion of the 
music of the spheres, and in this sense it has a literal 
signification ; but when he speaks of the composition 
of the elements, the order of time, and the succession 
of the seasons, and of the regularity, order, and har- 
mony observable in the operations of nature, it is 
evident he makes use of the term in a figurative sense. 
In like manner do those who speak of human music, 
moral music, and, as Kepler and others do, of poli- 
tical music ; but this author not only supposes the 
world to be a musical instrument, but proceeds with- 
out any data, to assign to the four elements and to the 
planets, certain stations, and to portion out the heavens 
themselves ; and having distributed the several parts 

of the creation according to the suggestions of his 
own fancy, he pretends to discover in this distribution 
certain ratios or proportions in strict analogy with 
those of music, which he exhibits in the following 
diagram : — 

The mundane monochord thus adjusted and divided 
into systems of diatessaron, diapente, and diapason, 
is not to be considered as a subject of mere specula* 
tion ; and it will be perceived that the author has not 
been at the pains of stringring his instrument for no- 
thing ; for the soul or spirit of the world, according 
to 1dm, is a formal substance, striking on the chord 
of the mundane instrument, which is a material sab- 
stance, produces music: light therefore, says our 
author, acts on the mundane instrument just as the 
breath or spirit of a man acts on the air when he sings. 

In Chap. IV. the author undertakes to de- 
monstrate his whimsical hypothesis by the figure 
of a pipe or flute in this form, from which he 
says it appears that the true proportion of the 
whole world may be collected ; this boasted 
demonstration is in the words following : — 

* The pipe here spoken of is divided into three 
' regions or parts, the two lower whereof have 
' each three holes, denoting the beginning, 
' middle, and end of each region ; but the upper 

* region, consisting of one great hole only, ex- 
' I tresses the nature of the empyrean heaven, 
' whose every part is of the same condition, or, 

* as it were, most replete with the divine unity. 
' Bat as this instrument is not moved by its 

Digitized by 



Chap. OXXX 



' own natnre, nor sonnde of itself without a moving 
' soul, 80 neither can the world, or the part of the 
' world move bnt by the immense mind or sonl : as 
' therefore the highest mind, €rod, is the summit of 
' the whole machine, and as it were beyond the ex- 

* treme superficies of the world, makes the joints of 

* the world to exhibit his. music, graver in the lower 
' part, and acuter and clearer the nearer the parts 
' approach to the summit itself ; so likewise when 
' the musician blows life and motion beyond the con- 
' tent of the pipe, and in its summit, the farther the 
' holes are from that blowing power, the more grave 
' are the sounds that are produced ; and the higher 

* tney ascend towards the point of inspiration, the 
' more are they acute. And in the same manner as 
' the great aperture near the top of the pipe gives as 
' it were life and soul to the lower ones, so likewise 
*the empyrean heaven gives soul to all the lower 
'spheres. O how great and how heavenly is this 

' contemplation in a subject seemingly so trivial, . 
' when it is diligently and profoundly considered by 
' an intelligent mind !' 

Were it possible to convey an idea in words of the 
nature of that folly and absurdity which are discover- 
able in the writings of this enthusiast, the foregoing 
extract from this work of his might be spared ; but 
his notions, as they elude all investigation, so cannot 
they even be stated in any words but his own, and 
this must he the apology for inserting them. 

Tract II. part ii. of this work, agreeably to t^e 
analysis above given of it, is on practical music. In 
this he enters largely into the subject, and from the 
manuscript of Waltham Holy Cross, which it is evi- 
dent he had made use of, gives the whole doctrine of 
the Cantus Mensurabilis, with the diagrams relating 
to it, and among the rest that of the triangular shield, 
exhibited in page 248 of this work, the invention 
whereof he ascribes to one Robert firunham, a monk. 

He describes also the musical instruments of the 
modems, namely, the Barbiton or lute, the Orpharion 
and Pandora ; and under the pneumatic class, the 
Regals, as also pipes of various kinds. Of the Sis- 
trena or Cittern these are his words : ' Bistrena est 
' instrumentnm musicum ex quatuor chordis metallis 
' duplis consistens, et tonsoribus commune ;' most 
exactly corresponding with what has been already 
observed on this silly instrument, which is now be- 
come the recreation of ladies, and by the makers is 
ignorantly termed the Guitar. 

The rest of this tract, excepting those whimsical 
devices, such as musical dials, musical windows, mu- 
sical colonnades, and other extravagancies with which 
the author has thought proper to decorate his work, 
contains very little that deserves notice. 

Upon the whole Flud appears to have been a man 

of a disordered imagination, an enthusiast in theology 

and philosophy : as such he is classed by Butler, with 

Jacob Behmen and the wildest of the mystic writers : 

' He Anthroposophus and Flud, 

* And Jacob Behmen understood ;' 

HuDiBRAs, Part I. Canto i. 

Notwithstanding which, Webster, in his Displaying 

of supposed Witchcraft, asserts that he was a man 
acquainted with all sorts of learning, and one of the 
most Christian philosophers that ever wrote. 


GiROLAMO Fresoobaldi (a Portrait), a native of 
Ferrara, was bom in the year I60I, and at the age of 
about twenty -three was organist of the church of St. 
Peter at Rome. He is not less celebrated for hia 
compositions for the organ, than for his exquisite skill 
in that instmment He was the first of the Italians 
that composed for the organ in fugue ; and in this 
species of composition, originally invented by the 
Germans, he was without a rival. 

Of many musicians it has been said, that they were 
the fjAthers of a particular style, as that Palestrina 
was the father of the church style, Monteverde of 
the dramatic, and Carissimi of the chamber style : of 
Frescobaldi it may as truly be said that he was the 
father of that organ-style which has prevailed not 
less in England than in other countries for more than 
a hundred years past, and which consists in a prompt 
and ready discussion of some premeditated subject m 
a quicker succession of notes than is required m the 
accompaniment of choral harmony. Exercises of 
this kmd on the organ are usually called Toccatas, 
from the Italian Toccare, to touch ; and for want of 
a better word to express them, they are here in 
EngUmd called Voluntaries^ In the Romish service 
they occur at frequent intervals, particularly at the 
elevation, post communions, and during the ofiferings ;* 
and in that of our church, in the moming prayer, 
after the psalms and after the Benediction, or, in other 
words, between the first and second service ; and in 
the evening service after the p8alms.f 

In the year 1628, Bartolomeo Grassi, organist of 
St Maria in Acquirio in Rome, and who had been a 
disciple of his, published a work of Frescobaldi en- 
titled 'In partitura il primo libro delle canzoni a una 
' due tre e quatro voci. Per sonare con ogni forte di 
' stromentL' At the end of the book is an advertise- 
ment from Grassi, in which he says that the compo- 
sitions contained in it are in the grand gusto, and, 
having been universally applauded, are to be looked 
on as models of perfection. It seems from the title 
of the work that these originally were vocal compo- 
sitions, but that, for the improvement of the studious 
in music, Grassi had published them in score, reject- 
ing the words, and in this form ^ey met ^th such a 
favourable reception, that he expressly tells us he had 
printed them three times. 

The f(41owing composition is taken from a work of 
Frescobaldi printed at Rome in 1637, entitled^ * 11 
' secondo libro di Toccata, Canzone, Versi d'Hinni, 

* Magnificat, Gagliarde, Correnti et altre Partite d'ln- 

* tavolatura di Cimbalo et Organo,* and is the third 
Canzone in that collection. 

■ A eollectkm of thti kind was published in the year 1716, bj Domenleo 
ZlpoH. organist of the Jesuits' church at Rome with this title, * Sonat* 
'd'lntavolatura per Organo, e Cimbalo, parte prima, Toccata, Vers!, 
'Cansone, Olfertorio, Blerasioni, Post-Communio, e Pastorale.' 

t This order was settled at the Restoration. See The dirine Senrloaa 
and Anthems usually sung in hU M^|estiea Chapel, and aU Cathodial*, 
ftc by James Clifford, Lond. 1664. 

Digitized by 




Book XIV. 

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fl^ — ^ 

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1 ,"■■ b 



T - 

g J ' 


1- P 



"T ■ h- 

— f^t J r J 


J — — 


1 J Kfe 

C^ ot 

r ^^ 

=i «- 

— • s — 



1 J ■•'* 



^^ — « 

— t^c 

' «— i 

Chap. GXXX. 



„ f^^-P- f 

ii^minigf,? ri^/'^^ii^fTy'i 




Book XIV. 

Kbnb' De8 Oartbs, the famous French philosopher 
and mathematician, the particulars of whose life and 
character are very well known, was the author of a 
treatise entitled Musicn Compendium, written when 
he was very young, and in the year 1617, and, which 
is very extraordinary, while he was engaged in the 
profession of a soldier, and lay in garrison at Breda. 
The subject matter of this tract is distributed under 
the following heads : De numero vel tempore in sonis 
observando. De sonorum diversitate circa acutum 
et grave. De consonantiis. De octavft. De quint&. 
De quart&. De ditono, terti& minore, etsextis. 
De gradibuB sive tonis musicis. De dissonantiis. 
De ratione componendi et modis. De modis. 

The above-mentioned tract, although compre- 
hended in fifty-eight small quarto pages, contains 
a great number of very curious particidars relating 
to the science pf music* The observations of the 
author on the effects of various measures, as contained 
in the following passages, are new and judicious, 
and in the words of his translator are these : — 

' We say in the generall that a slow measure doth 
'excite in us gentle and sluggish motions, such as 
' a kind of languor, sadnesse, fear, pride, and other 

* heavy spd dull passions : and a more nimble and 
'swid measure doth proportionably excite more 

* nimble and sprightly passions, such as joy, anger, 
'courage, (fee. the same may also be sayd of the 
' double kind of percussion, viz., that a quadrate, or 
' such as is perpetually resolved into equals, is slower 
' and duller than a tertiate, or such as doth consist 
' of three equal parts. The reason whereof is, because 
'this doth more possesse and employ the sense, 
' inasmuch as therein are more, namely 3, members 
' to be adverted, while in the other are only 2.' 

In his enumeration of the consonances, he, contrary 
to the sense of all other writers, from John De Muris 
down to Mersennus, excludes the unison, and for 
this very good reason, that ' therein is no difference of 
' sounds as to acute and grave ; it bearing the same 
' relation to consonances, as unity doth to numbers. 

Of the two methods bv which the diapason or 
octave is divided, the arithmetical and geometrical, 
the author, for the reasons contained in the sixth of 
his Prsenotanda, prefers the former ; and for the 
purpose of adjusting the consonances, proposes the 
division of a chord, first into two equal parts, and 
afterwards into smaller proportions, according to 
this table : — 


































' There are nftyertheleM tome ilngiikurltiei In It, of which the foUowinc 
Baysenreasatpeeiioeii: * Thit only thing leemi to lender the Toieeof 

The advantages resulting from the geometrical 
division appear in the Systema Participato, men- 
tioned by Bontempi, which consisted in the division 
of the diapason or octave into twelve equal semitones 
by eleven mean proportionals ; but Des Cartes re- 
jects this division for reasons that are very far from 

A translation of this book into English was, in 
1653, published by a person of honour, viz., William 
Lord Brouncker, president of the Royal Society, and 
the first appointed to that office, with animadversions 
thereon, which show that his lordship was deeply 
skilled in the theory of the science ; and although he 
agrees with his author almost throughout the book, 
he asserts that the geometrical is to be preferred 
to the arithmetical division : and, as it is presumed, 
with a view to a farther improvement of the Systema 
Participato, he proposes a division of the diapason 
by sixteen mean proportionals into seventeen equal 
semitones; the method of which division is ex- 
hibited by him in an algebraic process, and also in 

Ain>REA8 Hammerschmidt, a Bohemian, bom in 
1611, and organist, first of the church of St Peter at 
Freyburg, and afterwards of that of St John at 
Zittau, is celebrated for his assiduity in the cul- 
tivation and improvement of the church -style in 
Saxony, Thuringia, Lusatia, and other provinces in 
Germany. Mattheson applauds in the highest terms 
that zeal for the glory of God, which he has mani- 
fested in his Motets for four, five, and six voices. 
He died in 1675; and in the inscription on his 
monument in the great church at Zittau. of which 
he was organist, he is styled the German Orpheus. 

JoHANN Andbbas Hbrbst [Lst Autumuus,] was 
born at Nuremberg in the year 1588. In the year 
1628 he was appointed chapel-master at Francfort 
on the Maine, and continued m that station till 1641, 
when he was called to the same office at Nuremburg. 
However, in 1650, he thought fit to return to Franc- 
fort, at the solicitation of the magistrates and others 
his friends; and, being by them reinstated in his 
former dignity, he continued in that station till the 
time of his death, in the year 1660. He was ex- 
cellently skilled in the theory of music ; and in the 
art of practical composition had few equals, and was 
besides, like most of the Germans, a sound and 
judicious organist In the year 1643 he published 
m the German language a book entitled Musica 
Poetica; and ten years after, a translation either 
from the Latin or the Italian, for it is extant in both 
languages, of the Arte prattica e poetica of Giov. 
Chiodino, in ten books. Herbst was also the author 
of a tract entitled ' Musica moderna prattica, overo 

* maniere del buon canto,* printed at Francfort in 
1658, in which he recommends the Italian manner 
of singing. His other works are a small tract on 
Thorough-bass, and a discourse on Oounterpoint, 
containing directions for composing ' h mente non k 
penna.' Of his musical compositions, the only ones 

* men the most grateftil of all other toundt, that it holds the greateet con- 

* forraity to our iphits. Thus also Is the votoe of a friend more gratefiil 
"""I that of - 

Ln Yields n 
< with a wolfs skin he beaten upon in the same loom.' 

' than that of an enemy, flroro a sympathy and dispathv of auctions : by 
< the same reason, perhaps, that it is conceived that a drum headed with 
' a sheep's skin fields no sound though strucken. if another dram headed 

Digitized by 


Chap. OXXXI. 



extant in print are Meletemata sacra Davidis, and 
Saspiria 8. Gregorii ad Ghristam, for three voices ; 
these were printed in 1619, as was also a nameless 
composition of his for six voices. Vid. DrandiL BibL 
Ckss. pag. 1649. 

JoHANK Jacob Frobbroer, a disciple of Fres- 
cobaldi, and organist to the emperor Ferdinand HI. 
flourished about the year 1655. He was a most 
admirable performer on, and composer for the organ 
and harpsichord. Eardier, in the Musurgia, voL L 
page 466, has given a lesson of his upon ur, rb, mi, 
FA, 80L, LA, abounding with a great variety of 
fuguing passages that manifest his skill in the in- 
strument Mattheson ascribes to him the power of 
representing on the organ, by a certain imitative 
faculty, which he possessed in an eminent degree, 
even the histories of particular transactions ; as an 
instance whereof he refers to an allemand of his 
where the passage of Count Thum over the Rhine, 
and the danger he and his army were in, is very 
lively represented to the eye and ear by twenty-six 
cataracta or falls in notes, whioh it seems Froberger 
was the better able to do, he having been present 
with the Count at the time.* Mattheson takes notice 
that Froberger, in the composition of his lessons, 
made use of a stave of six lines for the right, and 
one of seven for the left hand ; to which he might 
have added, that his master Frescobaldi used a stave 
of eight lines for the left hand.t 

JoHANKES HiERONTMus Kapsbergbr, a German of 
noble birth, celebrated by Kircher and others, was 
not more fiunous for the number and variety of his 
compositions, than for his exquisita skill and per- 
formance on almost all instruments, more particularly 
the Theorbo-lute, which appears to be a modem in- 
vention. The author of it was a Neapolitan musician, 
of whose name no account remains. As to the in- 
strument, it is well known to be of the lute-kind ; 
and as the improvementa made in it wrought no 
essential change in ita form, it might well have re- 
tained ita primitive name ; but the person, whoever 
he was, that improved it, by doubling the neck, and 
lengthening the chords, thought himself warranted in 
giving it the appellation of the Theorbo, for no better 
reason than ita resemblance to an utansil, a kind of 
mortar used by glovers for the pounding of perfumes, 
and which is called Tiorba. The instrument thus 
improved seemed to rival the Clavicymbalum or harp- 
sichord; Kapsberger laboured to recommend and 
bring it into practice, and in this he succeeded, for 
Kircher says that in his time it was deservedly pre- 

* It Mcmt that numr < 
this kind. Dietrich Buxtehude of Lnheck, in tiz saita of loMons for 
the harpsichord, haa attempted to exhibit the nature and motions of tho 
Janets : and Johann Kuhnau of Leipaic published six sonatas entitled 
BUtUek€-Hi$toritrh wherein, as Francis Lustig asserts, is a lively rt- 
piesentation in notes of David manfiilljr flghting with Qollalu Mosik- 
knnde, page S78. 

t The studies of Freseohaldi and Frobergor contributed neatly at this 

" * I berore had " 

time to bring the harpsioliord into general use, which 
almost appropriated to the practice of ladies ; as did i 
woriunanship of the Rucliers, harpsichord- maken of Antwerp,' their 

almost appropriated to the practice of ladies ; as did also the exquisite 

Dship of the Ruckers, harpsichord- maken of Antwi 
contemporaries : there were three of the name and ftmily, ris., the 

Cither, nwtned Hans, and two sons, Andreas and Hane, who, for dis. 
thictkm sake, wrote his Christian name as the Oermans do, Johaan, and 
assumed for the initial of it, J. instead of H. The harpsichords of the 
Ruckers have long been valaed for the ftillness and sweetneeo of thdr 
tone, but are at this time less in use than formeriy, on account of ttio 
■■rrofwuMi <rf their ownpaaa, eomparid with the modem ones. 

ferred to all other instrumenta; no one being bo 
adapted to the diatonic, chromatic, and enarmonic 
division. He assisted Kircher in the compilation of 
the Musurgia. 

It appears by a list which Walther gives of his 
works, that Kapsberger was both a voluminous and a 
multifarious composer. Many of his compositions 
are for the lute in tablature, others for the church, as 
masses, litanies, and motata ; others for the theatre, 
and some for public solemnities. Several of his vocal 
compositions are to poems and verses of Cardinal 
Maffeo Barberini, afterwards pope Urban VIIL and 
there is of his composition a work entitled ' Coro 
'musicale in nuptiis D D. Thaddei Barberini et 
' Anns Column^,' printed at Rome in 1627, from 
which particulars it might be inferred that he stood 
in some degree of favour with the Barberini fsmily. 
Nevertheless he is represented by Doni, who being 
so much with the cardinal, must have known 
Kapsberger very well, as a man of great assurance, 
which he manifested in his attempto to get banished 
from the church the compositions of Palestrina. The 
method he took to effect this purpose is related in 
page 427 of this work. 

Gbrardus Johannks Voesius, a native of a town 
in the neighbourhood of Heidelberg, a man of uni- 
versal learning and great abilities, published at Am- 
sterdam, in 1650, a work entitled De quatuor Artibus 
popularibus, in which is a chapter De Musice. Great 
erudition is manifested in this tract, and also in ano- 
ther of his entitled De universsB Mathesios Natura et 
Constitutione. The titles of the several chapters 
therein contained relating to music are as follow, vis.. 
Cap. XIX. De musicsd contemplative objecto; ac 
duplici ejus Kpirripif ; et pro eo variantibus musicorum 
sectis. aX. De musices antiquitate; et quantum 
ea PythagoriB debeat, et quis primus de rousicia 
scripserit. Item alii aliquot veteres musices scrip- 
tores : sed qui injuria teoaporum deperierint. XXI. 
De utilitate musices. XaII. De musices partibus, 
generibus ; ac prsecipuis ejus, quos habemus, scripto- 
ribus. LIX. De musicis Grsecis priori hujus operia 
parte indictis. LX. De musicis Li^nis antea omissis. 
in these tracta are contained a great variety of curious 
particulars relating to music and musicians, and such 
as have written on the science, in chronological suc- 
cession, from the earliest times down to his own. In 
the course of his studies at Dort, which he began 
about the year 1590, he made a considerable progress 
in the science of music, for which he seems to have 
entertained a more than ordinary affection. An in- 
timate friendship subsisted during the whole of his 
life between him and Erycius Puteanus, a fellow stu- 
dent with him at Dort, who being eminently skilled 
in the theory of music, is supposed to have assisted 
him in his researches into those authors who have 
treated on the subject. About the year 1600 he was 
chosen director of the college of Dort, being then 
but twenty-three years of age ; and in 16H he was 
appointed director of the theological college which 
the States of Holland had then lately founded in the 

Digitized by 



Book XIV 

nniveraity of Leyden. Vossine, before this appoint- 
ment, had attached himself tq the profession of divi- 
nity, and had taken the side of Arminins at the 
famous synod of Dort, held in 1618. The principles 
which he avowed, and, above all, a history of the 
Pelagian Controversy, which he published in that 
vear, recommended him to the favour of Laud, who 
being archbishop of Canterbury in 1629, procured 
for him of Charles I. a prebend in the church of 
Canterbury, with permission to hold it notwitlistand- 
ing his residence at Leyden. Upon this promotion 
he came over to England to be installed ; and having 
taken the degree of doctor of laws at Oxford, returned 
to Leyden, from whence he removed, in 1633, to 
Amsterdam, and became the first professor of history 
in the college then newly founded in that city. He 
died at Amsterdam anno 1649, aged seventy-two 

Giovanni Battista Doni, a Florentine by birth, 
and descended from a noble family, though not a 
musician by profession, is celebrated for his skill in 
the science. He was much favoured by Cardinal 
Barberini,* and, at his recommendation, was appointed 
secretary to the college of cardinals. Being a man 
of very extensive learning and great ingenuity, and 
finding the fatigues of his employment a great inter- 
ruption to his studies, he quitted it, and retired to the 
city of his nativity, and ended his days there, being 
not much above fifty years of age. It appears by an 
account which Doni has given of himsdf and of his 
studies, that in his younger days he learned in France 
to play on the flageolet and the lute ; and, in his 
more advanced age, to sing, to ^ich end he made 
himself perfect in the practice of solmisation ; that 
he also attained to some proficiency on the harpsi- 
chord ; and, notwithstanding the little time he had 
to spare from his important occupation, he applied 
himself with an uncommon degree of assiduity to 
the study of the science of harmony, in the course 
whereof he, parUy at his own, and partiy at the ex- 
pence of others, constructed a great number of 
instruments of his own invention. 

In this account which he gives of himself, Doni 
professes to have directed his studies towards the 
restitution of the ancient practice, for which it must 
be confessed he seems to have entertained too great 
a fondness. He ascribes to the envy and malice of 
the world the ill reception that his labours met with, 
and intimates a resolution that he had taken of la3dng 
down his employment, and retiring to Florence, with 
a view to prosecute his studies, and keep up the re- 
membrance of his family, which was become desolate 
by the immature death of two brothers. 

In the Notitia Auctorum of Cardinal Bona is this 
character of Doni, ' De musica, modisque musicis 
' antiquis et novis doctissime scripsit, doctius scrip- 
* turns si Gneca eruditione prasditas suisset' And 
Meibomius, in the preface to his edition of the ancient 

■ Cardinal Barberfni, afterwards pope Urban VIII., as appears by 
many pasaaftes fai his writings, was a lover of music. When MUton was 
at Rome he was introduced to him by Lucas Holstenius, the keeper of 
the Vatican library ; and the Cardinal, at an entertainment of muitic 
performed at his own expence, received him at the door, and taking him 
by the hand, brought him into the assembly. Toland's Life of Milton, 
8vo. 1761, page IS. 

musicians, exp-essly says that he did not understand 
the Greek language. 

In the year 1635 Doni published at Rome a dis- 
course entitied ' Compendio del Trattato de' Generi 

* e de* Modi della Musica, con un Discorso sopra la 
'perfettione de* Concenti,' and dedicated it to his 
patron Cardinal Barberini. The following are the 
tities of the several chapters of the Compendium. 
Cap. I. Quanto mal' intesa sia hoggi la materia de* 
generi e de' modi II. Quanto sia grande la diver- 
sity tra i modi antichi ed i modemi. III. Altre 
dififerenze tra i modi antichi ed i nostri. IV. Che 
per la restauratione de' generi, e de* modi gl' instru- 
menti d' archetto sono piu k proposito de gl* altri : e 
dell' origine dell' organo. V. Con quali mezsi i 
generic e modi si possino anch' hoggi pratticare. VI. 
Come nolle viole suddette si debbono segnare le voci 
ed intavolarle. VII. Della vera dififerenza de' tuoni 
e modi ; e dell' intavolatura^ e connessione loro, con 
le giuste distanze. VUL Quanto sia commoda et 
utile, la predetta divisione. IX. Altre considera- 
tion! intomo le dette viole. X. Della divisione de 
gl' organi ed altri instrumenti di tasti per 1' uso de' 
generi e de' tuonL XI. Della divisione harmonica 
de gl' instrumenti di tasti. XII. Dell' uso et utilitk 
di qnesta divisione. XIII. Del modo d' accordafe 
r organo perfetto. XFV. Catalogo delle oonsonanze 
di ciascuna voce de' tre sistemi. XV. Sommario 
de' Capi piii principali, che si contengono nell' opera 

This book is of a very miscellaneous nature ; the 
avowed design of it is to shew that the music of the 
ancients is to be preferred to that of the modems ; 
and in the course of tiie argument many particulars 
occur wotthy of notice. The author censures Vicen- 
tino for his arrogance and his vain attempt to intro- 
duce into practice tiie genera of the ancients, but 
commends Domenico Zampieri the painter, better 
known by the name of Dominichino, for a like 
attempt, and for the invention of a kind of viol much 
better calculated for that purpose than the archicem- 
balo of Vicentino. He says that Hercole Bottrigaro 
understood the doctrine of the Genera better than 
any other of the modems ; and of Zarlino and Salinas, 
that the first was the prince of practical, as the other 
was of theoretic musicians. 

Together with this treatise is printed a tract en- 
titled Discorso sopra la Perfettione delle Melodic, at 
the beginning whereof the author treats of the 
madri^-style in musical composition, and of those 
particulars that distinguish the Canto Figurato from 
the Canto Ecclesiastico ; the invention of which last 
he says necessarily followed from the use of the organ. 
The passage is curious, and is as follows : — 

* It is not difficult to trace the origin of this kind 
' of music, for as organs in churches have been in use 

* ever since the time of pope Vitalianus, to which 
'instrument this kind of harmony, the Concenti 
' Madrigaleschi, seems to belong, seeing that the 
' voices may be lengthened at pleasure, and fugues, 
' imitations, and such like artifices introduced as on 

* the organ ; it is very probable that the symphony 
' peculiar to the organ might by degrees be transferreC 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXXL 



' to vocal performance, taking for a theme or subject 

* some motet, anthem, or other sacred words, in a rude 
' and awkward kind of counterpoint. That this was 
' the case I am very certain, having remarked that 
' concenti of this kind were called Orgaiia. In a 

* volume in the Vatican library marked No. 5l20, 

* containing, amon^ others, sundry treatises on coun- 
' terpoint, is one with this title : 

" Sequitur Regula OrganL" 

* And a little after it is explained, according to the 
' way of those times, Organum, Cantus foetus et ordi- 
' natus ad rectam mensuram, videlicit, quod unus 
' punctus sit divisus ab alio : that is to say, that a 

* note, for notes at that time were marked with points, 
' whence proceeds the word Gontrapunto, in one part 

* should not correspond with a note in the other, nor 
' be of the same measure. Hence we may see that 

* by Organum, in that age ihev meant the Gontrapunto 
' diminutivo,* which, accoraing to Bede and more 

* ancient writers, is better called Discantus; for where 
' he says that music is practised ** concentu, discantu, 
** organis,** I should think he means material organs, 
' as he makes use of the plural number. But when 

* Guido, who lived between the time of Bede and that 
' anonymous author, whom I am now citing, says, as 

* he does in the Micrologus, chap, xviii. " Diaphonia, 
" vocum disjunctio sonat, quam nos organum voca- 
** mns f it seems he can mean nothing but that style 
' of vocal composition in which diverse airs are given 
' to the different parts, according to the meaning of 
' the above-mentioned contrapuntist But, as we have 
' presupposed with others, that this kind of music 

* cannot be much more than two hundred years old, 
'we may believe that Guido understood the term 
'Gontrapunto diminutivo in the sense which the 
' Greek word Diaphonia, signifying Dissonance, seems 
' to imply, and in which Franchinus uses the word 
' Organizare. This modem kind of concentus how- 
' ever does not in reality consist in this, nor in the 
' connection of several airs together, but in the sing- 
' ing of musical words artfully ranged, and different 
' passages at the same time, with many repetitions, 
' fugues, and imitations, in such a manner, that in 
' regard to the material part of the concentus, viz., 
' the sounds and consonances, one can hardl;^ hear any 
' thing more delightful. But that which gives form 
' and soul to music suffers remarkable imperfections, 
' for by the utterance of man^ things together the 
' attention of the hearer is disturbed, and then so 
' many repetitions are frivolous and seem affected ; 
' words also are curtiuled, and the true pronunciation 
' thereof spoiled. I do not dispute wheUier this kind 
' of music has been properly introduced, but this I 

* know very well, that it has been in use only these 
' few centuries ; for as in ancient times nothing but 
' the plain and simple cantus was heard in churches, 

and that rather by connivance than nnder the sanc- 
tion of public authority ; so even now it is rather 
tolerated than approved of by the church in sacred 
subjects, in which it seems to have had its origin.* 
He ascribes to Giulio Caccini the invention of 

■ CoimiAnniTVt dimivutits is a term ated by KIreher and othen to 
•ignifjr that kind of mosk where a given plaiiwaoag is broken or divided 
into notes of a less value: it is the same with Contrapunctus floridus, an 
example whereof is given in page S28 of this work. 

Recitative, and for the practice of it celebrates Giu- 
seppe Genci, detto Giuseppino, as he does Ludovico 
Viadana for the invention of thorough-bass. 

He censures the old German musicians for setting 
to music such words as these, Liber Generationis Jesu 
Ghristi Filii David, &c as also the use of such forms 
of speech as the following, which it seems were 
common at Rome in his time, Le Vergini del Pales- 
trina, Le Vergini dell' Asola, instead of Le Vergini 
del Petrarca, modulate 6 messe in musica dal Pales- 
trina, dall' Asola, &c He says that the Ganzones of 
Petrarch, Guarini, Tasso, and Marino, as set to music 
iu the form of madrigals, are the finest of modem 
vocal compositions : and he mentions the following 
of Petrarch as peculiarly excellent, 'Italia mia,' 
' Tirsi morir volea,' and * Felice chi vi minu'f He 
intimates that for accompanying the human voice, the 
Tibia is the fittest instrument ; and concludes vnth 
the mention of an instrument invented by himself, 
and called the Lyra Barberini, which participates of 
the sweetness of both the harp and lute ; at the end 
of this tract is a sonnet written by the author's patron, 
Gardinal Barberini, who while the book was printing 
was elected pope and assumed the name of Urban 
Vm., set to music, at the instance of Doni, in four 
parts, by Pietro Eredia; and, as it is said, in the 
ancient Dorian and Phrygian modes. 

In the year 1640 Doni published his ' Annotazioni 
' sopra il compendio de' generi, e de' modi della mu- 
'sica,' and, together wiUi these, sundry tracts and 
discourses, that is to sav, ' Trattato de' tuoni o modi 
*veri,* inscribed to his friend Pietro della Valle. 
' Trattato secondo de' tuoni, o harmonic de gl' antichi, 
' Al rev. P. Leon Santi. Discorso primo dell' inutile 
' osservanza de' tuoni, 6 modi hodiemi ; Al Sign or 
' Galeazzo Babbatini a Bergamo. Discorso secondo, 
' sopra le consonanze ; Al Padre Marino Mersenne a 
'Parigi. Discorso terzo, sopra la divisione eguale 
' attribuita ad Aristosseno; Ai Signor Piero de' Bardi 
' de' Gonti di Vemio k Pirenze. Discorso quarto, 

* sopra il Violone Panarmonico ; Al Signor Pietro 
'della Valle. Discorso quinto, sopra il Violino 
' Diarmonico ed la Tiorba a tre manichi. A' Signori 
' Dominico e Virgilio Mazzocchi.' In this last dis- 
course the author describes an instrument of his own 
invention, resembling in shape the Spanish guitar, 
but having three necks, each of them double, like the 
Theorbo and Arch-lute; the use of which instrument 
is by a different temperature or disposition of the 
frets on each of the three necks, to enable the per- 
former to play at his election in either the Dorian, the 
Phrygian, or the Hypolydian mode. ' Discorso sesto, 
' sopra il Recitare in scena con 1' accompagnamento 
'd' Instrumenti musicali; All' illustriss. et excel- 

* lentiss. Signore il Sig. Don Gamillo Golonna. Dis- 
' corso setdmo, della Ritmopeia de' versi Latini e 

* della melodia de' Gori Tragichi ; Al Signor Gio. 

* Jacomo Buccardi.* The annotations, and also the 
tracts abound with curious particulars relating to the 
music and musicians of the author's time. 

f The second of these madrigals, set hj Lvca M armsio for Ave voice*, 
is printed in the Harmonia Celeste, and, with the English words * Tbirsis 
to die desired,' in the Musica Tnmsalpina. It is divided into three partx, 
and il one of those madrigals of Lura M arenxio which Peacham bak 

Digitized by 




Book XIV. 


In the year 1647 Doni pabltshed a treatise entitled 
De Praestantia Musicae veterie, in three books ; this 
work is written in dialogue, and is a very learned 
disquisition on the subject of music, as well ancient 
as modern; the interlocutors are Charidonis, by 
whom is characterized the author himself ; Philopo- 
nus, a man of learning, Polyaenus, a friend of both, 
and Eumolpus a singer. 

In this curious and entertaining work the subject 
is discussed in the way of free conversation, wherein, 
although the author professes himself a strenuous 
advocate for the ancients, great latitude is given in 
the arguments of his opponents, and particularly of 
Philoponus, who is no less a favourer of the modems. 
The argument insisted on in the course of this work 
is, that the musical faculty was treated of more skil- 
fully by the ancient Greeks and by the Romans than 
at this day ; and that in the construction and use of 
such instruments as the Oythara and Lyra, and pipes 
of all kinds, they were equal at least to the moderns ; 
but in •such as are made to sound by mutual percus- 
sions, as the Oymbala and Grotala, they far exceeded 

The data required and granted for this purpose 
are, first, that almost all the more elegant arts and 
faculties, and among those that of music, grew 
obsolete, and at last entirely perished bv the in- 
cursions and devastations of the Barbarians, who 
miserably over-ran and laid waste Greece and Italy, 
and all the provinces of the Roman empire. Secondly, 
that by so many plunderings, burnings, slaughters, 
and subversions, and changes of languages, manners, 
and institutions, the greatest part of the ancient 
books in all kinds of learning perished ; so that not 
even the thousandth part escaped ; and those that 
were saved were almost all maimed and defective, or 
loaded with errors, as they came down to us ; and, 
as it always happens, the best were lost, and the more 
unworthy shared a better fate in this general ship- 
wreck. Thirdly, that those who are to be called 
ancients, as far as relates to this subject of enquiry, 
are only such as flourished in Greece and Italy 
before these devastations; for those who lived be- 
tween them and our forefathers, in whose time 
literature and music began again to flourish, are not 
properly to be called ancients, nor are they worth 

As this treatise is written in dialogue, it is some- 
what difficult so to connect the speeches of the several 
interlocutors, as to give them the form of an argu- 
ment. The principal question agitated bv them is 
simply this, Whether the music of the ancients or of 
the moderns is to be preferred : Doni, in the person 
of Chariaorus, takes the part of the ancients ; and 
Philoponus is a no less strenuous advocate for the 
modems. Indeed the whole force of the argument 
rests in the speeches of these two persons, those of 
the other two being interposed merely for the sake 
of variety, and to enliven the conversation. For this 
reason it will perhaps be thought that the best 
method of abridging this tract will be by giving 

first the substance of Gharidoras*s argument in favour 
of the ancients, and opposing to it that of Philoponus 
in defence of the modems, and this is the course we 
mean to pursue. 

Charidonis asserts that as Pythagoras was the 
parent and founder of music, we are not to wonder 
that the most learned writers on the subject of har- 
monics were those of his school. Of these he says 
Archytas of Tarentum, Philolaus of Crotona, Hip- 
pasus Metapontinus, and Eubulides were the chief. 
He adds that the Platonics also, and many of the 
Peripatetics were great cultivators of the science of 
harmony ; but that of the writings of these men there 
are no remains, excepting one little book, the nine- 
teenth of the problems of Aristotle. Of the later 
philosophers he mentions Plutarch, who he says 
wrote a book on music, yet extant, full of things 
most worthy to be known. Of Aristoxenus he 
speaks with rapture, styling him the prince of 
musicians, and cites St. Jerome's opinion of him, 
that he was by far the most learned philosopher and 
mathematician of all the Greeks. He highly ap- 
plauds Ptolemy of Pelusium, whose three books of 
Harmonics he says are full of excellent learning, but 
rather obscure, notwithstanding the noble commen- 
taries of Porphyry on the first of them. With him 
he joins Aristides Quiutilianus, Alypius, Bacchius, 
Gaudentius, Cleonides, Pappus Alexandrinus, Theo 
Smyrnaeus, Diophantus, Adrastus, Diodes, Gemimus, 
Nichomachus, and others. He greatly commends 
the five books, De Musica, of Boetitis as a very 
elegant, ingenious, and learned work. He says it 
was drawn from the manual of Nichomachus, and 
laments that the author did not live to complete it. 
As to the rest of the Latin writers, St Augustin, 
Martianus Capella, Cassiodoms, and Bede, whom he 
reckons among the semi -ancients, he says their 
writings contain nothing either learned or notable ; 
and tbat Varro, Apuleius, Albinus, and other 
Romans that laboured in this field, and whose works 
are since extinct, were more learned than any of 

To the more ancient of the monkish writers on 
music, namely, Odo of Cluni, Berno the abbat, and 
Guido Aretinus, Notgerus, Hucbaldus, and some 
others, Charidorus allows some degree of merit ; but 
of Franco of Cologne,* Philippus de Caserta, Mar- 
chettus Paduanu6,Prosdocimus Beldimandus, Johannes 
de Muris, Anselmus Parmensis, and others of the old 
Italian writers, he says they did not even dream of 
what eloquence or polite learning was : nor does he 
scruple to censure even Franchinus himself for making 
use of the word Manerium instead of Modum, Trite- 
chordium, Baritonantem, Altisonantem, and some 
others, as he does also Glareanus for the same reason. 

He mentions also a certain modem auth6r, but 
conceals his name, who in treating of the genera, 
asserts that the enarmonic genus is so called, for that 
it is as it were without harmony, ignorantly supposing 
the syllable ^n to be privative like in, as when we 
say ineptus insulsus, (fee. and of anotner, who in a 
pretty large volume says that the diatonic was so 

* Franco wm of Liego, not of Cologut. Bee page 176 of this wotk. 

Digitized by 


Chap. CXXXll. 



called, becaose Dia in Greek signifies the number 
Six, and Tonicum resounding. 

He censures severely Nicola Vicendno for his 
absurd opinions, and for arrogating to himself the 
title of Archimnsicus ; the passage is given at length, 
in page 396 of this work. 

He says that Gra£farel, a most learned Frenchman, 
had commented on the music of the Jews; and 
praises the two books of Mersennus in French and 
in Latin, which he says the author sent Eim as a 
present; and adds that the same person translated 
Bacchius into French. 

Then follows a curious account of a musical im- 
postor, and of his attempt to introduce a new tuning 
of the organ in one of the principal churches in 
Rome, in these words : 'You remember that a certain 

* ragged old man came into this city not long since, 
' who knew nothing more than to play tolerably on 
' the Polyplectrum, and yet would obtrude as a new 
' and most useful invention that equality of the semi* 

* tones which is commonly, but unjustly attributed to 
' the Aristoxeneans, and is falsely imagined to be 
' found in the division of the keys of the organ, and 
' that he attemperated his instrument accordingly. 
' You know what crouds he gathered together, and 
' what a noise he made, and when he had insinuated 
' himself into the acquaintance of Chserilus, whom 
' you know to be a most audacious and impudent man, 
' that boasts of a certain counterfeit species of erudi- 

* tion, but chiefly of his proficiency m the study of 

* poetry and music, in the circles and courts of princes, 

* what think you he did ? He extorted money from 
'the French orator, whom he worked for on that 
' foolish and tedious drama, which was exhibited on 
' the birth-day of the Dauphin by the chorus of the 
' Roman singers ; and when the good singers were 
' frettmg and fuming, as resenting such roguery, and 
' the best of them were so incensed, as to be ready to 
' tear ofif their cassocks for being compelled to sing 
'to such ill temperated organs, he at length, by 

* prayers, promises, small gifts, and boasting speeches, 
'drew the musurgists over to his opinion, and so 
< softened, by frequent and gratuitous entertainments, 

* that noble organist Psycogaurus, who presided over 
' the music of the palace, that he was not ashamed, 
' contrary to the faith of his own ears, to extol to the 
' best of princes this invention : and he also reported 
' abroad that the old man had been presented with a 
' golden chain of a large price, that by this lie the 
' imposter might gain credit among the unskilful. 
' And that the farce might be the better carried on, 
' the san^e person introduced to his friends this old 

* man rather burdened than honoured with a chain of 

* great weight, hired from some Jewish banker. But 
' you will say that this is ridiculous : yet ought we 
' rather to weep than laugh at it; for he had prevailed 
' BO far that the same pnnce, who, as chance would 
' have it, was repairing at that time the choir and 

* musicrgallery in one of the chief and most ancient 

* cathednds in the city, gave orders for the reducing 

* of the noble organ in the same to that dissonant 

* species of temperature ; and it actually hsA been 

* executed had not our Donius prevented it' 

Doni then relates an attempt of Eapsberger to in- 
troduce his own music into the chapel of a certain 
bishop in prejudice to that of Palestrina, an account 
whereof has been given in the life of Palestrina, 
herein before inserted in this work. 

After some very severe reflections on the conduct 
of Eapsberger, he proceeds to censure Fabio Colonna 
in these words : ' But lest I should seem to attack 
' this our age too fiercely, hear what had liked to have 
' happened in the Borghesian times.* Fabio Colonna, 
' a man well known, and a diligent searcher into na- 
' ture, died lately at Naples; he, incited by an iroma- 
' ture and depraved ambition, being at that time but 
' a young man, published a certain book relating to 

* theorical music, entitled Sambuca Lyncea; and I do 
^ ' not know that a more foolish or unlearned one has 

' appeared for some time before ; and there were not 
' wanting some unskilful judges who persuaded pope 
' Paul to send for this man from Naples, and adlow 
' him a large stipend for superintending the construe- 
' tion of an organ in the Vatican church, at a large 
' expence, according to his own system ; and the 
' thing would have been done, had not that prince 

* refiised to be at the expence of it.' 

Charidorus then breaks out into an eulogium on 
Olympus, the reputed inventor of the enarmonic 
genus, whose music he says was pathetic and divine. 
He then appeals to one of the interlocutors in these 
words : * You best can judge, O Philoponus, whether 
' this character be due to &e symphonies of lodocus 
' and Johannes Mouton, and tibe rest of that class ; 
'for I am persuaded you are conversant in their 

* works, remembering that I once saw a collection of 
' Masses composed by them severally, and printed by 
' the direction of pope Leo X. in curious types, lying 
'on a table in your study.* Philoponus answers, 

* There is really nothing of this kind to be found in 
' them, yet the authors you mention were possessed 
' of the faculty of harmony ; and a marvellous felicity 
' in modulating and digesting the consonances, afford- 

* ing great delight to the hearing ; but the elocution 

* is barbarous and inconcinnous ; and as for moving 
' the affections, they never so much as dreamt of iC 

Charidorus again recurs to the ancient musicians, 
of whom he gives a long account from Homer, Plato, 
Plutarch, Cicero, Quintilian, Seneca, Athens&us, and 
other writers. Speaking of the modems, he cele- 
brates Ercole as a skilful organist; but, as to the 
modern theorists, he says, that excepting Jacobus 
Faber Stapulensis, Salinas, Zarlino, Vincentio Galilei, 
Michael Praetorius, Mersennus, Bottrigaro, and some 
very few others, their works contain only trivial and 
common things, and what had been said a hundred 
times over. He adds that nobleness of birth and 
a liberal education in musicians conduce much to the 
elegance of their modulations ; as a proof whereof he 
says, some have observed that the compositions of 
the prince of Venosa, and of Thomas Peccius, a 
patrician of Sienni^ in Tuscany ,f had in them some- 

* Paul V. who at that time was Pope, was of the BorghesUn fomily, 
being son of Antonio Boiffaete of Sienna ; he was elected anno 1605, and 
died in I«S1. Bee R7caiit*s Lives of the Popes, page 2S7. 

t ToMASO Pxccx, though hat little known, la oelebnited by Kiicher an 
an exoeUmt musidan : there is extant of his composition a book of 
Madrigals, pubUshed at Venioe in 1600. 

Digitized by 




Book XIV 

what that was not vulgar nor plebeian, but that 
Bounded elegant and magnificent 

Charidorus complains of the want of some severe 
law to repress that efifeminate and light music which 
then prevailed ; and says that that most wise pope 
Marcellus II. had determined to correct the licentious- 
ness of the musicians according to the opinion of the 
holy council of Trent But that he suffered himself 
to be imposed on by the cunning of one musician,* 
and the glory of such a work to be snatched out of 
his hands. 

Book II. contains the argument of Philoponus, in 
which he undertakes to point out the defects of the 
ancient music, and to shew the superiority of the 
modern. To this end he infers that the ancients 
must have been unacquainted with music in con- 
sonance from this circumstance, that they never 
looked on the ditone and trihemitone, nor the greater 
and lesser sixth, as consonants ; and in support of 
his opinion adduces the testimony of Zarliuo and 
Galilei, both of whom say that, among the ancients, 
if at any time two singers were introduced, they did 
not sing together, but alternately. Philoponus next 
observes that the ancient musicians were ignorant of 
those graces and ornaments which we call Passaggios, 
and of those artful and ingenious contrivances, fugues, 
imitations, canons, and double counterpoints ; and 
that the superiority of the modem music may be 
very justly gathered from the great plenty, variety, 
and excellence of instruments now in use, more 
especially the organ ; whereas among the ancients 
the principal were the lyre and the cithara, which 
were mounted with very few chords. 

As another proof of the superiority of the modem 
music, he mentions the extension of the scale by 
Guido Aretinus to the interval of a greater sixth 
beyond that of the Greeks, his invention of the 
syllables, and, lastly, the modem notation or method 
of writing down music. 

Philoponus proceeds to celebrate the modem 
writers on music, namely, Salinas, Zarlino, and 
Ghililei, as also the composers of songs both sacred 
and profane, that is to say, Adrian Willaert, Pales- 
trina, Oristoforo Morales, Luca Marensio, Pomponio 
Nenna, Tomaso Pecci, and the prince of Venosa, 
Cyprian de Rore, Felice Anerio, and Nanino, Filippo 
de Monte, and Orlando de Lasso. For the in- 
vention and improvement of Recitative he applauds 
Giulio Caccini, Jacopo Peri, and Claudio Monteverde; 
and for their singing, Suriano, and another named 
Theophilus ; as aJso two very fine female singers, 
Hadriana Baroni, and her daughter Leonora, in these 
words *If by chance we bring women into this 
* contest, how great will be the injury to compare 
' either Hadriana or her daughter Leonora f with the 

* Who this cunning musiciiin was we are at » Iom to guess. It Is said 
tf Palestrina, that pope Marcellus II. being about to banish music out of 
the church, was induced to depart from a resolution which he had talcen 
for that purpose by that fine mass of his composing, entitled Missa Pa^ 
Ifarcelli. See page 411 of this work. 

t AsEiAMA of Mantua, for her beauty sumamed the Fair, and her 
daughter Lsonoea Baroitx: the latter of these two celebrated persons 
it bv Bayle said to have been one of the finest singers in the world ; 
A whole volume of poenu in her praise is extant with this title. ' Applausi 
'pol^ticaalleglorie dclla SIgnora Leonora Baroni. Nicius Erythraeus,' 
in his Pfnarotheca II. page 427, 12mo Lips. 17tS. alludes to this work, 
Mying. * Legi ego, in theatre Eleonors Barons, cantricis eximise, in quo 

•ancient Sappho? or if, besides the glory of well 
' singing, you think a remarkable skill in music is 

* necessary, there is Francesca, the daughter of Caccini, 

* whom I have just now praised.' 

He then celebrates Frescobaldi as an admirable 
performer on the organ, and others of his time for 
their excellence on other instruments ; and remarks 
on the great concourse of people at the churches of 
Rome on festival days upon the rumour of some 
grand musical perfonfiance, especially when new 
motetti were to be sung. 

Charidorus to these arguments of Philoponus re- 
plies ; and first he asserts that although the ditone, 
trihemitone, and the two sixths were not known to 
the ancients as consonances ; and for this he cites the 
testimony of Galilei, and Salinas, lib. II. cap. ii. 
page 60, who indeed says the same thing, but gives 
this awkward reason for not enumerating these in- 
tervals among the consonances, namely, that those 
who thought them such were unwilling to contradict 

'omnes hie Romse, quotquot ingenioetpoSticorfkcultatisIaudepraeBtant, 

* carminibus, turn Etrusce turn Latini scriptis, singulari ac prope divino 

* muliens illius canendi artificio tanquam faustos quoadam elamores et 
*plausius edunt; legi, inquam, unum Lselii (Guidiccionis) epigramma, 
' ita purum, ita el^ns, ita argutum, ita venusturo, prope ut dixexim* 

* nihil me vidlsse, in eo genere, elegantius neque politius.^ 

FuItIo Testi has also celebrated her in the following sonnet :— 
8e r Angioletto mia tremolo, e chiaro, 

A le stelle, onde scese, il canto Invia, 

Ebbra del suono, in cui ad ste«sa obblia. 

Col Ciel pensa la Terra irne del paro. 
Ma se di sua Virtik non ponto ignaro 

L' occhio accorda gU sguardi 4 l' armonia, 

Tri tl concento, e II fulgor dubbio d se sla 

L' udir pii^ doloe, 5 il rimirar piii caro. 
Al divin lume, t le celesti note 

De le potenze sue perde il vigore 

L' alma, e dal cupo ten suelt« si seote. 
Deh, fkmmi cieeo, 6 famml sordo. Amore: 

Che distratto in piA sensi (oimi) non pot« 

Capir tante doleexze un picciol core. 
Poesie Liriche del Conte D. Fulvlo Testi, Yen. 1691, peff. S6I. 

Among the Latin poems of Milton are no fewer than three entitled ' Ad 
Leonoram Rome canentem,' wherein this ladv is celebrated fbr her 
sbiging, with an allusion to her mother's exquisite performance on the 
lute. Doni was acquainted with them both ; and ft may be supposed 
that they severallv perfonned in the concerts at the Barberini palace. 
Mention has already been made of Milton's being introduced to one of 
these entertainmeoU by the Cardinal himself; and it is more than pro- 
bable that at this or some other of them he might have heard the mother 
play and the daughter sing. 

A fine eulogium on this acoompUshed woman is contained in a Dis- 
course on the Music of the Italians, printed with the life of Malherbe, 
and some other treatises at Paris, 1672, in I2mo, at the end of which are 
these words : * This discourse was composed by Mr. Muigars, prior of 

* St. Peter de Mac, the king's interpreter of the English language, and 
' besides so fkmous a performer on the viol, that the king of Spun and 
'several other sovereign princes of Europe have wished to hear him. 

* The character given by this person of Leonora Baroni is as follows : 
*' She is endowed with fine parts ; she has a very good Judgment to dis- 
" tinguish good from bad music ; she understands it perfectly well ; and 
** even composes, which makes her absolute mistress of what she Hngs, 
" and igives her the most exact pronounciation and expression of the 
"sense of her words. She doev not pretend to beauty, neither is she 
" disagreeable, or a eoquet. She sings with a bold and generous modesty, 
" and an agreeable gravity ; her voice reaches a large compass of notes, 
*' and it exact, loud, and harmonious ; she softenes and raises it without 
*' straining or making grimaces. Her raptures and sighs are not las- 
"civious; her looks nave nothing impudent, nor does she transgress 
** a virgin modesty in her gestures. In passing ttxmx one key to another 
"she shews sometimes the divisions of the enharmonic and chromatie 
" kind with so much art and sweetness, that every body is ravished with 
" that fine and difficult method of singing. She has no need of any 
" person to assist her with a Theorbo or viol, one of which is necessary 
*' to make her singing complete ; for she plays perfectly well herself on 
" both those instruments. In short, I have had the good fortune to hear 
"her sing several times above thirty different airs, with second and 
" third stanias composed by herself. I must not forget to tell you that 
** on^ day she did me the particular favour to sine with her mother and 
"her sister. Her mother played upon the lute, her sister upon 
" the harp, and herself upon the Theorbo. This concert, composed of 
"three fine voices, and of three different instroments, so powerftilly 
" transported my senses, and threw me into such nmtnres, that I forgot 
"my mortality, and tbooghi mya^ already among the aagela eqjoyuf 
" the felicity of the blessed.' " Bayle, Art. Bakomz, in not. 

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the doctrines of the Pythagoreans, who allowed ot 
no other consonances than the diatessaron, diapente, 
And diapason ; yet npon this fonndation he scruples 
not to assert, and that in terms the most positive, that 
the ancients were acquainted with and practised music 
in consonance. 

He then enters into a long discourse on the Tibi» 
of the ancients, the genera and their species, and 
other particulars of the ancient music. To what 
Philoponns had advanced in favour of Suriano and 
Theophilus, Charidorus answers that the complaint 
of Ariadne, written by Ottavio Rinuccini, and set to 
music by Claudio Monte verde, is more to be esteemed 
than any canon of either of them. 

He commends that triumvirate, meaning, as it is 
supposed, Giulio Caccini, Jacopo Peri, and Claudio 
Monteverde, who revived the monodical or recitative 
style, but he adds, that what they did was not so 
much the eflfect of their own judgment and industry, 
as of the advice and assistance of the learned men 
then at Florence. 

Of symphonetic mosic, the excellencies of which 
Philoponns had so strongly insisted on, Charidorus 
seems to entertain no very high opinion ; for he says 
that were the musicians in general to make their 
compositions as fine as those of Cypriano de Rore ; 
yet because the melody is required to be distributed 
through all the several parts, for if one part be highly 
finished, the rest will sing unhandsomely, the grace 
and beauty of the work will not shine forth. And 
as to that variety of motion and difference in the 
time of notes, and those sundry points and passages 
which constitute the difference between figurate and 
plain descant, he says that they produce nought but 
confosion, and that they render only an enervate kind 
of music ; and that as Uiose who labour under a fever 
have an inordinate and inconstant pulse, so in this 
kind of harmony, the numbers being inordinate 
and confused, that energy which so greatly affects 
and delights onr ears and minds is wanting, and 
the whole becomes a confused jargon of irregular 

In the course of his reasoning Charidorus fre- 
quently cites Plato, Aristotle, Nichomachus, Aris- 
tides Qmntilianus, Aristozenus, Bacchius, Plutarch, 
Ptolemy, and others of the Greek writers on music ; 
and after collecting their sentiments, he opposes to 
them those of Guido Aretinos, Bartolomeo Ramis, 
Spataro, and Steffsmo Vanneo ; for as to Franco and 
Johannes De Muris, and the rest of that class, he 
says they are half ancient, and totally barbarous ; 
and adds, that among the ancients the very women 
were skilled in harmonics, for that Porphyry, in 
his Commentaries on the Harmonics of Ptolemy, 
mentions one Ptolemais, a certain woman, who treiUed 
accurately on the elements of the Pythagorean music. 
Speaking of the metrical part of music, he says that 
the ancients were very exact and curious in their 
phrase, and in their pronunciation, and examined the 
momenta of times, accents, letters, and syllables, but 

■ Thia otJ!)«etion lays » ground for a SQ6|Hcion that Doni was an in- 
conpctent Judj^e of the merits of muRleal composition ; for who does not 
Me, with respect to the power of moving the afllections, the difference 
UA m mu mefe melody aad musk in oonsonance, and the preference due 
to the latter? 

that the modems pay but little attention to these 
matters : yet he says that through the endeavours of 
the Florentine Academy, a more distinct and ele^nt 
pronunciation in the monodical cantus or recitative 
began to be esteemed. He adds, that recitative thus 
improved was introduced by a young man named 
Loretus, before-named, whom Nicola Doiii, a relation 
of the author, very kindly entertained at his house 
for some years, and caused to be assisted in his 
musical studies. 

Charidorus then bewails the fate of modem music, 
in that it is no longer as it was wont to be, the sister 
of poetry ; and observes that the ecclesiastical songs 
are deficient both in purity of phrase and elegance 
of sentiment: and as to harmony of numbers, he 
says it is not to be looked for, for that they are 
written in prose, in which so little regard is paid to 
concinnity or aptness of numbers, that there have not 
been wanting musicians who have set to music in 
parts, the genealogy of Jesus Christ, consisting wholly 
of Hebrew names.f 

He then enters largely into the consideration of 
the Melopoeia and Rythmopoeia of the ancients, and 
next of the Progymnastica, or rudiments of music ; 
he says that the practice of singing was much more 
aptly and expeditiously taught by the ancient Greeks 
than, by the modem Latins, with the help of the six 
syllables invented by Guido, or by the later Germans 
and French with that of seven : and he asserts, with 
the greatest degree of confidence, that the noviciate 
of the younger students in music would be much 
shortened were two of the six syllables of Guido 
cut off; and as to the practice of solmisation, his 
sentiments are as follow : * What that monk Aretinus 
'boasts of his invention, saying that it greatly con«- 

* tributed to facilitate the learning of music, is 

* partly tme and partly false : it is tme when com- 
' pared with the ages next immediately l>«fore him, 

* in which the ancient progymnastical syllables were 

* out of use ; but false when compared with the prac- 
' tice of the ancient Greeks and Romans, who made 

* use of these four syllables, ta, ta, te, te ; and if, 
' following their example, the system of Guido were 
'reduced to the ancient measure, it would be far 
' more commodious.' 

In the third and last part, Doni, in the person of 
Charidoms, cites from Suetonius a passage wherein 
it is related of Nero, that in order to enable him to 
sing the better, he not only abstained from fruit and 
such kind of food as had a tendency to hurt his voice ; 
but to improve it suffered a leaden plate to be fixed 
on his breast, and made use of vomits and clysters.J 

To this discipline of Nero, ridiculous as it was 
severe, and the servile condition of singers in ancient 
Greece and Rome, Charidoms opposes the licentious 
and disorderly lives of those of modern Italy, of 
whom he gives the following account : — 

* In these our days the singers are generally of the 

f Doni here alludes to a composition In Glareanus of lodocus Pratensla, 
to the words of the flrst chapter of the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

t The author gives not the least intimation to favour the notion that 
the practice of castration, with a view to the preservation of the voice, 
was in use among the ancients ; but he speaks of the practice of in- 
Hbulation for a similar purpose, as mentioned by Juvenal, and refers to 
Celsns for a particular description of the method of performing the 

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Book XIV. 

' lower class, yet are their masters unable to keep 
' them under restraint; and their insolence is such as 

* scarcely to be borne with. You see those nice 

* eunuchs, who every one of them make more money 
' than ten singing masters, how daintily they live, 
' how much they boast of themselves, what little ac- 

* count they make of other men, and that they even 
' deride such as are learned. I say nothing of their 

* morals, since what is seen by every body cannot be 

* denied. When the princes Barberini have on certain 

* festival days given to the public musical dramas, 

* have you not seen some of them contesting with 
' those lords, impudently thwarting them, and endea- 

* vouring to get admitted whomsoever they pleased 

* into the theatre ? when tickets of admission were 
' made out they have not been content with a few, but 

* were ready to tear more out of the hands of such 
' as were appointed to distribute them.' 

He says that Vitruvius relates that he had been 
told by the son of Masinissa, king of Numidia, who 
made him a visit, and stayed some days at his house, 
that there was a certain place in Africa, Pliny calls it 
Zama, where were fountains of such a nature, that 
those who were born there and drank of the water 
had excellent voices for singing; and that he himself, 
at Luneburg, a city of Savoy, seated under the very 
Alps, had been at a fountain, the water whereof pro- 
duced similar effects ; and that coming there on a 
certain festival in the evening, he found some of the 
inhabitants singing praises to God with voices sweet 
and musical to a wonderful de^ee, and such as he 
conceives those of the singers in ancient Greece and 
Rome to have been. 

He says that notwithstanding the great number of 
singers at Rome, there were in his time very few 
whose voices were perfect and sweet He adds that 
the silence of the ancients in this particular implies 
that the practice of castration, for the purpose of 
meliorating the voice, was not in use among the an- 
cient Greeks and Romans; but contradicts the vulgar 
opinion of its effect, insisting that the voices of 
women and boys are in general more sweet than those 
of eunuchs, the singing of whom together in large 
companies he resembles to the noise of a troop of 

Philoponus having in his argument insisted largely 
on the exquisite performance of many modem musi- 
cians on various instruments, Charidorus replies that 
the best of them are not to be compared to those 
among the ancients, who played on the lyre and the 
tibia. He says that the English are allowed to excel 
on the flute ; and that there are many in that king- 
dom good performers on the comet, yet he cannot 
believe that the English artists are equal to the an- 
cient players on the tibia, namely, Antigenides, 
Pronomus, and Timotheus. 

Speaking of instmments, he says there are manv 
particulars relating to the constraction of them, which 
are unknown to the modem artificers, as namely, that 
the best strings are made when the north, and the 
worst when £e south wind blows ; and that the bel- 
lies of lutes and viols, and other instmments of the 
fididnal kind, should be made of fir, cloven and not 

sawed, lest the fibres should be cut across in 

He says it is no wonder that the tibiss of the an- 
cients excelled so greatly those of the modems, seeing 
that the old Greeks and Romans were most diligent 
and curious about them ; for they were constmcted 
of box, the wood of the Lote-tree, of silver, and of 
the shank-bones of certain animals, that is to say, 
deer and asses, and of a Grecian reed, still in use 
among the nations of the East, excelling all the rest 
in sweetness, as he judges from having once heard an 
Englishman play on a pipe of this kind. 

He greatly laments, that although Vitmvius has 
given a description of the ancient hydraulic organ, 
we, at this distance of time, are incapable of under- 
standing the terms made use of by him for explaining 
it, and that the diagrams representing the several 
parts of it are lost He adds, that the organ men- 
tioned by Zarlino in his Sopplimenti, affords no 
argument to conclude that those of the ancients were 
not greatly superior to it 

He next proceeds to censure the musicians of his 
time for the licentiousness and levity of their compo- 
sitions, in these words, ' Despising the most sweet 
' motets of Prenestinus and Morales, and others which 

* they call too old, and studying novelty, they daily 
' obtmde their own symphonies, which they steal here 
' and there, and afterwards tack together in a pitiful 
' manner. Who taught them,' exclaims he, *to adapt 

* to a joyful modulation and concentus, that sad and 

* moumful petition of Kyrie Eleison ? Or, on the 
' other hand, to make sad and moumful that clausula 

* of Mary's song, the Gloria Patri, which is full of 

* exultation ? yet this they daily practise.' f 

At the end of this treatise of Doni, De Prsestantia 
Music® veteris, is a catalogue of the author's writings 
on the subject of music, amounting to no fewer than 
twenty-four tracts, reckoning many that were never 
published, and a few that he did not live to complete. 

From the account above given of Doni it must 
appear that he was very deeply skilled in musical 
science, and that he had diligently pemsed as well 
the writings of the ancients as the modems on the 
subject Pietro della Valle, the famous traveller, 
who was intimately acquainted with him, bears a very 
honourable testimony to his character, for be says he 
had * conginnta a gran bontk e integrity di costumi 
' profondissima emdizione, con esatta notizia della 
' lingua Greca, delle mattematiche, della teoria musi- 
' cale, della poesia, dell' istoria, e di ogni altra facoltk 
' che a cib possa giovare; con 1' ajuto e comoditk che 

* ha avuto di vedere molti bei libri reconditi e non 

* Thii remark, if attended to, will be found to amount to nothing; for 
the fibres of the wood are as much cut across by the smoothing or work- 
ing the belly of such an instrument as by sawing. 

t Both the otfjections implied In these queries are well founded, but 
the latter on)y of them will hold at this day ; for the public ear is too 
depraved to bear pathetic music. As to the former objection, it arose 
flrom the practioe of assimilating the music of the church to that of the 
theatre: and this abuse has so prevailed, that the Kyrie Eleison is now 
frequently set to a movement in Jig-dme. In a mass of Pergolesi, one 
of the most pathetic of modem composers, the Gloria Patri is a togue in 
chorus, and the Amen a minuet. Oraun's celebrated Te Deum is of 
a lighter cast than any opera of LuDy, Bononcini, or Handel : in it that 
most solemn clause, ' Te ergo quasumus, tuis famulis subveni, quot 
' pretioeo sanguine redemisti,' is set to a movement in triple time, in the 
lightest of all the keys. vis. Eh with the greater third, and with an 
accompaniment by a German flute. The church-musSe Hi Pens ot 
Lisbon it for the moet part in the same stytau 

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* pubblicati alle statnpe, massiiuamente autori antichi 
' Greci nella Vaticana e in molt' altre librerie faniose.' 
This character of Don!, given by one who was 
intimate with him, and well knew the estimation he 
was held in at Rome, is in some measure confirmed 
by Meibomins, althoirgh he had no other foundation 
for his opinion than that intrinsic evidence of learn- 
ing, industry, and ingenuity contained in the writings 
of Doni ; for he says that none of the age he lived 
in had written with more learning or elegance than 
ho had done ; and that had he been better skilled in 
Greek literature, and known at least the first princi- 
ples of the mathematics, he would have performed 
greater things. A few years ago the musical tracts 
of Doni were collected, and published in Italy, in 
two volumes folio, with a portrait of him. 


Athanasivs Kircher waa bom at Fulda in Ger- 
many, on the second day of May, 1601. At the age 
' of seventeen he entered into the society of the Jesuits, 
and, after going through a regular course of study, 
during which he shewed most amazing parts and in- 
dustry, he became a teacher of philosophy, mathema- 
tics, and the Hebrew and Syriac languages, in the 
university of Wirtsburg in Franconia. In the year 
1B31, when the Suedes entered Grermany under 
Gustavus Adolphus, he retired into France, and set- 
tled in the Jesuits' college at Avignon, and remained 
there till lt>35. He was then called to Rome to teach 
mathematics in the Roman college, which he did six 
years; afterwards he became professor of the Hebrew 
language in that city, and died there in the month 
of November, 1680, having written and published 
twenty-two volumes in folio, eleven in quarto, and 
three in octavo. The chief of his works are, the 
MuBurgia Universalis. Primitin Gnomic« Catop- 
trics. Prodomus Copticus. Ars Magnetica. The- 
saurus Lingn» iEgyptiacae. Ars magna Lucis et 
Umbrae. Obeliscus Pamphilius. Oedipus i£gyp- 
tiacus, tom. IV. Itiuerarium Ebctaticum. Obeliscus 
^gyptiacus. Mundus subterraneus, tom. II. China 
Illustrata. Phonurgia nova. Kircher was more 
than ordinarily addicted to the study of hieroglyphical 
cliaracters ; and it is said that certain young scholars 
caused to be engraved some unmeaning fantastic 
characters or figures upon a shapeless piece of stone, 
and buried it in a place which was shortly to be dug 
up ; upon digging the place the stone was found, 
and was by the scholars that had hid it, carried to 
Kircher as a most singular antique, who, quite in 
raptures, applied himself instantly to explain the 
hieroglyphics, and, as he conceived, made it in- 

As the Musurgia is dispersed throughout Europe, 
and is in the hands of many persons, a general view 
of it may suffice in this place. It is dedicated to 
Leopold, archduke of Austria, afterwards emperor 
of Germany, who was not only a patron of music, 
but an excellent performer on the harpsichord. Of 
its nature and contents an accurate judgment may be 
formed by the perusal of the following Synoposis 
prefixed to the first volume. 

MusuRoiJB Universalis, 


Quorum septem primi Tome 1. Reliqui tres Tome II. 

Liber I. Physiologicus, 8oni naturalis Genesin, naturam 
et proprietatem effectusque demonstrat. 

Liber II. Philologicus, soni artiiicialis, sive Musicse pri- 
mam institutionem propagationemaue inquirit. 

Liber III. Arithmeticus, motuum harmonicorum scien- 
tiam per numeros et novam Musicam Algebraicam docet 

Liber iV. Geometricus, intervallorum consono disso- 
nonim originem per monochordi diviaionem Geometri- 
cam, Algebraicam, Mechanicam, multiplici varietate 

Liber V. Organicus, Instrumentorum omnis generis 
Musicorum structuram novis experimentis aperit 

Liber VI. Melotheticus, componendanmi omnis eeneris 
cantilenarum novam et demonstrativam methodnm 
producit: continetque quicquid circa hoc negotium 
curiosum, rarum et arcanum desiderari potest. 

Liber VII. Diacriticus, comparationem veterit Musicse 
cum modema instituit, abusus detegit, cantus Eccle- 
fliastici dignitatem commendat, metnodumque aperit, 
qua ad patheticee Musics perfectionem tandem per- 
veniri possit. 

Liber Vtll. Mirificus, novam artem Musarithmicam 
exhibet, qua quivis etiam Musiese imperitus, ad per- 
fectam componendi notitiam brevi tempore pertingere 
possit, continetque Musicam Combinatoriam, Foeticam, 
khetoricam, Pan^lossiam Musarithmicam omnibus 
Unguis novo artificio adaptat. 

Liber IX. Magicus, reconditiora totius Musicte arcana 

fruducit ; continetque PhysioWiam consoni et dissoni ; 
'rseterea Magiam Musico-medicam, Phonocampdcam, 
sive perfectam de Echo, qua mensuranda, qua con- 
stituenda doctrinam, Novam Tuborum oticorum, sive 
auricularium, fabricam ; item Statuarum, ac aliorum 
Instrumentorum Musicorum Autophonorum, seu per 
se sonantium, uti et sympathicorum structuram curiosis 
ac novis experientiis docet. Quibus adnectitur Cryp- 
tologia musica, qua occult! animi conceptus in diitans 
per sonos manifestantm*. 
Liber X. Analogicus, decachordon naturae exhibet, quo 
Deum in 3 Mundorum Rlementaris, Coelestis, Archetypi 
fabrica ad Musicas proportiones respexisse per 10. 
gradus, veluti per 10. Naturse Registra demonstratur. 

Re^istrum I. Symphonismos Elementorum,^^ 

sive Musicam Elementarem. 
Registrum 2. Coelorum admirandam Sym- 

phoniam in motibus, influxibus effectibusque. 
Re^trumS. Lapidum, Plantarum, Anima- 

hum, in Physico, Medico, Chymico negotio. 
Registrum 4. Musicam Microcosmi cum 

Megacosmo, id est minoris cum majori 

Registrum 5. Musicam Sphigmicam, sive 

pulsuum in venis arterisque se manifest- 

antem. ^exhibet, 

Registrum 6. Musicam Ethicam in appetitu 

sensidvo et rationali elucescentem. 
Registrum 7. Musicam Politicam, Monarch!- 

cam, Aristocraticam, Democraticam, Oeco- 

Redstrum 8. Musicam Metaphysicam, sive 

Potentiarura interiorum ad Angelos et 

Deum comparatam. 
Registrum 9. Musicam Hierarchicam, sive 

Angelorum in 9 choros distributorum. 
Registrum 10. Musicam Archetypam, sive 

Dei cum uiiiversa natura concentum. 

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Book XIV. 

In the preface to the Mnsurgia the author relates 
that he had been assisted by many professors of the 
musical science in the compiling of his work, that is 
to say, by Antonio Maria Abbattini, chapel-master 
of St. John de Lateran and St. Lawrence in Damasus, 
and afterwards of St. Maria Maggiore, and to Pietro 
Heredia of Rome, in the ecclesiastic and motetic 
styles ; by Pietro Francesco Valentini, and Francesco 
Picerli, in what relates to canon; by Hieronymus 
Kapsberger in the organic style; and by Giacomo 
Carissimi in tlie recitatives and the more abstruse 
parts of musical composition ; and for this assistance 
he makes a grateful acknowledgment 

He apologizes for waiting on music, himself not 
being a musician, by the example of the prince of 
Venosa, who, though not a musician by profession, 
was admirably skilled in the science, and was also 
an excellent composer : he adds, that neither Ptolemy 
nor Alphonsus were astronomers or musicians by 
profession, and yet the one wrote on Harmonics, and 
the other compiled Astronomical tables. For his 
own part, he says, that from his youth he had assi- 
duously applied himself, not only to learning and the 
sciences, but to practical music, his skill in which 
can only be judged of by the contents of his work ; 
nor is it, he says, the practice alone that he has 
laboured to cultivate, but he has treated largely of 
the theory, without which the knowledge acquired 
by practice will be of little avail. 

He takes notice that Mersennus had then lately 
given to the world a large volume entitled Harmonie 
tJniverselle, which he says is a most excellent work, 
but that it does not so much regard the practical 
musician as the philosopher. 

Before we proceed to an 
account of this elaborate and 
entertaining work, it may be 
observed that even the title- 
page suggests a subject of , 
enquiry sufficient to awaken i 
curiosity, namely, the following ' 
emblematical device, which 
Kircher found engraven on an 
antique gem. 

This figure of a lyre with 
one string broken, and a grasshopper or rather butterfly 
over it, alludes to a relation of Strabo to the follow- 
ing purpose. In Locris, one of the chief cities of 
Greece, dwelt Eunomus, an excellent musician ; there 
lived also at the same time, in the neighbouring city 
of Rhegium, one of the same profession, named 
Aristonus, who had challenged Eunomus to a trial 
of skill in their art; Eunomus represented to his 
rival that nature was against him in this contest ; for 
that on his side of the river Alax, which divides 
Locris from Rhegium, the grasshoppers sang, but 
that on the side where Aristonus dwelt they are 
flilent : this did not discourage Aristonus ; the contest 
began, and while Eunomous was playing, a string of 
his lyre broke, when presently a grasshopper leaping 
upon the instrument, supplied the melody of the 
broken chord, and enabled Eunomus to obtain the 

• Heylin. In hit Connofraphy. «dit. 1709. page 63, relating tbli story, 

In Chap. II. of the same book Kircher gives the 
anatomy of the ear ; and delineates, with seemingly 
great exactness, the organ of hearing in a man, 
a calf, a horse, a dog, a hare, a cat, a sheep, a goose, 
a mouse, and a hog. 

From the organs of bearing he proceeds, Chap. 
XI. to describe the vocal organs in the human species, 
and in Chap. XIV. those of other animals and insects, 
particularly the frog and the grasshopper : he is very 
curious in his disquisitions touching the voice and 
the song of the nightingale, which he has endeavoured 
to render in notes borrowed from the musical scale.f 
In the same manner he has exhibited the crowing of 
the cock, the voice of the hen after laying, her 
clucking or call to her chickens, the note of the 
cuckow, and the call or cry of the quaiL 

In the same chapter he also takes notice, bnt 
without assenting to it, of tliat general opinion, that 
swans before death sing most sweetly, which besides 
that it is of very great antiquity, has the authority 
of Plato in its favour, and is upon relation delivered 
by Aldrovandus, concerning the swans on the river 
Thames near London. Notwithstanding which, from 
the difference in opinion of writers about it, who 
severally . affirm that some swans sing not till they 
die, others that they sing, yet die not ; and for other 
reasons, Sir Thomas Brown hesitates not to reject it 
as a vulgar error in these words : * When therefore 

* we consider the dissention of authors, the falsity of 
' relations, the indisposition of the organs, and the 
' immusical note of all we ever beheld or heard of ; 
' if generally taken, and comprehending all swans, or 
' of all places, we cannot assent thereto. Surely he 
' that is bit with a Tarantula shall never be cured by 
'this musick;} and with the same hopes we expect 

* to hear the harmony of the spheres.* § 

In Book II. Kircher treats of the music of the 
Hebrews, and exhibits the forms of sundry of their 
instruments; from hence he proceeds to the music 
of the Greeks, of which in this place he gives but 
a very general and superficial account. 

In Book III. he enters very deeply into the doctrine 
of Harmonics, first explaining the several kinds of 
proportion, and next demonstrating the ratios of the 
intervals. In Chap. VIII. of this book he exhibits 
the ancient Greek scale and that of Guido in a col- 
lateral situation, thereby demonstrating the coinci- 
dence of each with the other. This book contains 
also a system of musical arithmetic, drawn from the 
writings of Boetius and others, in which are con- 
tained rules for the addition, subtraction, multipli- 
cation, and division of intervals by means of characters 
adapted to the purpose. 

•ays he does not insist on the belief of the reader, but he asserts that 
very good aothors have said that on the Locrian side of the river Alax 
the grasshoppers do merrily sing ; and that towards Rhegium they are 
always silent. He adds, that the story, whether true or false, is worthy 
to have been eelebnted by the Muse of Strada in the person of the poet 

t The song of the nightingale, as given by Kircher. is T«ry elaborate, 
and must have cost him much pains to get it into any form ; it seems to 
correspond very well, with respect to the measure or time of the note* 
which ciinstitute the several strains ; but the division of our scale is too 
gross for the intervals, whieh are smaller than any to be found either 
there or in the more minute divisions of the ancients, the enarmonk 
not excepted. 

} Sir Thomas Brown, though he r^ected the lisble of the aloflBg of 
swans, gave credit to that other of the Tarantula 

{ Enquiry into vulgar Errors, book III. chap zxnL 

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This book contains also a very precise designation 
of the genera with their several colours or species, 
as they are found in the writings of the Greek har- 

From the Genera Kircher proceeds to the roodee 
of the ancients, which, with Ptolemy, he makes to 
be equal with the species of diapason ; from hence 
he digresses to those of the moderns, which, with 
Glareanns, he makes to be twelve in number. 

Book IV. is wholly on the division of the mono- 
chord, and directs the method of finding the intervals 
by various geometric and algebraic processes. 

Book V. entitled De Symphoniurgia, contains 
directions for the composition of music in conso- 
nance, a practice, which, after a very laborious search 
and enquiry, he pronounces the ancient Greeks to 
have been absolutely ignorant of. To the examples 
of ancient notation, by points on the lines, and not the 
spaces of a stave, which he had found in the Dialogo 
della Musica of Vincentio Galilei, he adds another, 
which he had procured from a friend of his, the 
abbot of the monastery of Vallombrosa, consisting of 
a stave of two lines only, with points on each, and at 
different stations on the space ; this example, which 
is inserted in a former part of this work,* he makes 
to be of greater antiquity than the improvement of 
the stave by Guido. 

From this method of notation he says the term 
Counterpoint, so well understood at this day, is de- 
rived. And here Kircher takes occasion to mention 
John de Muris as the original inventor of the cha- 
racters for notes of different lengths. Enough has 
been said in the course of this work in refutation of 
that popular error, and to prove that the invention is 
not to be ascribed to De Muris, but to Franco of 
Liege, who flourished in the same century with 

In this book Kircher explains with sufficient ex- 
actness the nature of Counterpoint, both simple and 
(igurate ; as also of Fugue, by him termed Contra- 
puntus Fugatus ; and delivers in general terms the 
precepts for composition in two, three, four, and 
more parts. 

In the course of this book he gives various ex- 
amples of the ecclesiastic and theatric styles, and 
celebrates for their skill in the former, Orlando 
de Lasso, Arcadelt, lodocus Pratensis, Palestrina, 
Suriano, Nanino, Christopher Morales, Cifra, and 
tnanv more ; and for the madrigal -style the prince 
of Venosa, Horatio Vecchi, and others. 

Towards the close of this book he speaks of that 
spurious kind of fugue called Fuga in Nomine ; and 
not only explains the nature of canon, but gives ex- 
amples of canons, wonderful in their contrivance, 
and mentions one that may be song by twelve million 
two hundred thousand voices. 

In Book VI. he treats of instrumental music, and 
of the various instruments in use among the modems. 
Almost the whole of this book is Uken from the 
Latin work of Mersennus, and it is but in few in- 
stances that Kircher differs from his author. At the 
end of this book, following the order of Mersennui, 

• Pact 151. 

he treats of bells, and gives a particular description 
of the great bell at Erfurth ; he says it was cast in the 
year 1497, by Gerard Wou de Campis, at the ex- 
pence of the neighbouring princes and noblemen, 
and citizens of Erfurth; that it is in thickness a 
quarter and half quarter of an ell, its height is four 
ells three quarters, and its exterior periphery four- 
teen ells and a half, and its weight two hundred and 
fifty -two hundred. 

Kircher says that it requires twenty-four men to 
ring or strike this bell, besides two others, who on 
each side shove forward the tongue or clapper,f and 
that the sound of it is plainly to be heard at the 
distance of three German leagues ; he says that its 
fundamental note is D sol rb, but that it gives also 
F FA DT, making a consonance of a minor third.^ 

In Book VII. is a comparison between the ancient 
and modern music: with respect to the former the 
following are his sentiments : — 

*The whole of the Greek monuments of the 
' ancients that are extant are the writings of Aristides 

* Quintilianus, Manuel Briennius, Plutarch, Aristotle, 

* Callimachus, Aristoxenus, Alypius, Ptolemy, Euclid, 
' Nichomachus, Boetius, Martianus Capella and some 
' others, who flourished in the last age ; several of 
' whose Greek manuscripts are bound up together in 

* one huge tome, in the library of the Roman college, 
' where they are kept as a great treasure ; and if you 
' carefully compare all those authors together, as 

* I have done, you will find nothing so different in 

* any of them but what may be found in all the 
' rest. For except the analogous, ccelestial, humane, 
' and divine music, they all, in the first place, dwell 

* on the various composition, division, and mixture 

* of the tetrachords and systems of the diapason : 

* secondly, they all apply themselves with great care 
' to the determination of the different tones or modes: 

* and, thirdly, all their industry is employed in com- 
' pounding and determining the three genera, the 
' diatonic, chromatic, and enarmonic ; and in sub- 

* dividing the most minute intervals. Boetius seems 
' to have snatched the palm from them all by his 
' most exact and ingenious description ; for he has 

* so fully delivered the precepts of the ancient musi- 

* cians, so clearly explained what was obscure, and 
*so dexterously supplied what was defective, and 

* written so perfectly in that most learned work of 
' his, that while he shews he let none of the ancient 

* music be hid, he seems not only to have described, 
' but also to have restored the music of the ancients, 

t Klrcher's exprettion in the original is, 'Ut plene exaudiatur, et 
■ tufficienter ooncutiatur k 24 honiinibua compulMnda eat, prater quoa 
*bini aiii requiruntur, qui ex utroque latere linguam impellant;' and 
thia sugKesta a doubt whether in fact this beil is ever rung at all or not ; 
to ring a bell, in propriety of speech, is bj means of the rope and the 
wheel to raise it on its axis, so as to bring it to a perpendicular situation, 
that is to saT, with iu rim upwards; the pull for this purpose givet 
a stroke of the clapper on one side of the bell, and its descent to iu 
original pendent situation occasions another on the other side. The 
•coon of twentj-four men in Kircher's account is not clearly 
described, but that of the two men whose employment it ia to shove th« 
clapper against the side of the bell, does most ulainly bespeak the act of 
tolling and not ringing, a practice which it is said to be peculiar to 
England, which for that reason, and the dexterity of its inhabitants In 
composing and ringing musical peals wherein the sounds interchange in 
regular order, la called the ringing island. 

} Whoever Is desirous of knowing mere about bells, mayconsntt 
Hieronymus Magius. De Tbitinnabulis. Amstel. 1664, tn which book are 
many euriooa particuiari relating to them. 

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Book XIV. 

'by adding to the inventions of those that went 
'before him several things discovered by himself; 
' so that whatever is dispersed in all the rest, may 
'be seen collected, encreased, and digested with 
' exquisite care in Boetius.' 

In this book he gives from Alypins some frag- 
ments of antiquity as specimens of the characters 
for the notation of music in use among the ancient 
Greeks; these are inserted in an earlier part of this 
work. Here also he takes occasion to describe the 
various kinds of dancing-air in practice in his time ; as 
namely, the Galliard, Courant, Passamezzo, the Alle- 

mand, and Saraband ; of all which he gives examples, 
composed purposely by his friend Kapsberger. 

This book is of a very miscellaneous nature ; and 
it must here suffice to say, that besides a general 
enumeration of the most eminent musicians of the 
author's time, it contains a great variety of fine 
compositions selected from their works; among which 
are a madrigal of five parts, composed by the emperor 
Ferdinand ill., and an air in four parts by Lewis 
XIII. king of France, which he found in Mersennus, 
and is here inserted : — 

TU crois 6 beau So - leil 

Qu*a ton es - clat rien n'est pa - reil. 

He mentions also that his Catholic majesty, the then 
king of Spain, had with great ingenuity composed 
certain litanies, but that he could not procure them 
time enough to insert in his work.* 

The second volume begins with Book VIII. en- 

* The abore air is fnterted both in the Haimonlci and Harmonie 
Univeraelleof Meraennui, and if by him tenned a royal Cantilena: he 
(rives It in two fonns, viz.. simply, as orisinally composed by the king, 
and with variations on the two first strains by the Sieur de la Barre, 
organist to the king ftod queen. These variations, consisting of dimin- 
utions to the amount of sixty-four notes to one measuie or semibreve, 
are calculated for the harpsichord, and reduce the air to the form of 
a lesson. And here, to obviate a doubt of the pMsibiiity of depressing 
sixty-four keys in so short a time, Mersennus assures his reader that he 
had frequently sera Barr6 do it. He also celebrates another excellent 
performer, who, exoepiing Barri, he says had not his equal in the world, 
the younger Cappella, styled le Baron de Chaubonniere : the father of 
this person was living at the time when Mersennus wrote his book ; he 
was then fourscore years of age, and had been clavicymbalist to Henry I V. 
The son told Mersennus that in his performance on the harpsichord ht 
had been much more skilfUl and able than himself; and that he despaired 
of attaining to the saoM degree of perfection, or of ever meeting with 
his equal. 

^~r — • — P" 

Lewis XIII. Kino of Fbancs. 

titled De Musurgia Mirifica; in this are contained 
tables of the possible combinations of numbers as 
they respect the musical intervals; as also a very 
minute investigation of the rythmic art, in which the 
quantities which constitute the various kinds of metre 
in the Greek and Latin poetry are explained and 
illustrated by the characters used in musical nota- 
tion ; with some curious observations on the Hebrew. 
Syriac, and Arabic poetry, and also on that of the 
Samaritans, Armenians, and other Orientals. 

In Book IX. is a chapter intitled De Sympathise et 
Antipathise sonorum ratione ; the experiment therein 
described is wonderfully curious. It supposes five 
drinking-glasses of the same magnitude and capacity; 
the first filled with aqua vit», the second with wine, 
the third with aqua subtilis, and the fourth with 
some thick fluid, as sea-water or oil, and the fifth or 

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middle one with common water; in which case, if 
a finger be wetted and rubbed round the edge of the 
water-ghws the following effecta will be produced, 
viz., the aqua vittt in the first glass will be pro- 
digiously agitated, the wine in the second but gently 
shaken, the aqua subtilis in the third shaken in 
a less degree, and the sea-water or other fluid in the 
fourth scarcely at all. From this experiment it 
may be supposed the invention of music on glasses 
is derived. He then produces a great variety of 
instances of the wonderful eflfects wrought by music, 
beginning with the dispossession of Saul as recorded 
in sacred writ, which he endeavours to account for 
mechanically. In the same manner he reasons upon 
the fall of the walls of the city of Jericho at the 
sound of the trumpets of the priests; ascribing all 
to physical or mechanical causes; and, in short, 
arguing upon principles that tend to destroy in both 
instances the credit of the narration. But to prove 
that music has power as well to excite as to subdue 
evil affections, he by way of contrast to the case of 
Saul, cites from Glaus Magnus and Krantzius the 
story of Ericus king of Denmark, already related in 
page 493 of this work. 

Seeing how particular Kircher is in his relation 
of the effects of music on the human mind, it can 
hardly be supposed he would omit to mention that 
instance of the wondeHul efficacy of it in the cure of 
the frenzy, which is said to be occasioned by the bite 
of the Tarantula; and accordingly he describes the 
various symptoms that are brought on by the bite of 
that insect, and refers to histories where an absolute 
cure had been wrought by the sole power of music* 

* Kircher has illustnted his account of the Tarantula by histories of 
cases ; and first he speaks of a girl, who being bitten by this insect, 
could only be cured by the music of a drum. He then proceeds to 
relate that a certain Spaniard, trusting to the efflcacy of music in the 
cure of the frensv occasioned by the bite of the Tarantula, submitted to 
be bitten on the hand by two of these creatures, of different colours, and 
possessed of diflerent qiuUities ; the venom was no sooner diffused about 
his body, than the symptoms of the disorder began to appear; upon 
which harpers, pipers, and other musicians were sent for, who by various 
kinds of music endeavoured to rouse him from that stupor into which he 
was fkllen: but here it was observed that the bites of the two insects had 
produced contrary eSfects. for by one he was incited to dance, and by the 
other he was restrained therenom : and in this confiict of nature the 
patient expired. 

The same account of the Tarantula is given in the Phonurgla nova of 
Kircher, with the addition of a cut representing the insect in two 
positions, the patient in the action of dancing, together with the musical 
notes of the tune or air, by which in one instance the cure was effected. 

In tbe Musurgia Kircher attempts mechanically to account for the 
cure of the bite of the Tarantula bv music : he says of the poison, that it 
w sharp, gnawing, and bilious, and that it is received and incorporated 
into the medulla^ substance of the fibres. With respect to the musio, 
he says that the sounds of chords have a power to rarUy the air to a 
oertaui harmonical pitch ; and that the air thus rarified, penetrating the 
pores of the patlenf s body, affects the muscles, arteries, and muiute 
fibres, and incites him to dance, which exercise begets a perspiration, in 
whicti the poison evaporates. 

Unsatiafoctory as this theory appears, the belief of this strange 
phenomenon has prevailed among the ablest of modern physicians. 
Sir TJuubmlBuuiQ^ so far from disputing It, says that since many attest 
the ftfCt from experience, and that the learned Kireherus hath posidvely 
avenrec*. it, and set down the songs and tunes solemnly used for tbe cure 
of the disease ; and since some also affirm that the Tarantula Itself will 
dance at the sound of music, he shall not at all queation it. Enquiiiea 
into Vulgar Errors, book III. chap, xxviii. 

- pV • • 

Farther, that eminent Italian physician of the last century, BaglJ vi y 
a native of Apulia, tbe country where the Tarantula is producSSTnaa 
trritten a dissertation 'De anatomu morsu et effectibus Tarantuls.' 
In this he describes the region of Apulia, where the Tarantula is pro- 
dnced, with the anatomy and figure of the insect and its eggs, illustrated 
by an engraving ; he mei«tions particularly the symptoms that follow 
frmn the bite, and the cure of the disease by music, with a variety of 
histories of cures thus wrought, many of them communicated by persona 
who were eye-witnesses of the process. 

Ludoviena ^n'*^* * Celestlne monk of Apulia, published at Naples 
la tbe year 1700, a treatise upon this Spider, In which he not only 
anawen the dbjectiona of thott who deny the whole thing, but gives, 

"^ The account which he, and indeed other writers, 
gives of the process, is in short this : the symptoms 
of the disorder appearing, which in general are vio- 
lent sickness, difficulty of breathing, and universal 
faintness ; a musician is brought, who tries a variety 
of airs, till at last he hits upon one that rouses the 
patient from his stupor, and urges him to dance, the 
violence of which exercise produces a proportionable 
agitation of the vital spirits, attended with a conse- 
quent degree of perspiration, the certain presage of 
a cure. 

The remaining part of this book is a disquisition 
on Echos; and to this purpose the author relates from 
Cardan a pretty story, which does not shock our cre- 
dulity like many others in hib work ; and is here 
given in the words of the relater : ' A certain friend 

tnm his own knowledge, several instances of persons who had suffered 
this way, some of whom were of great families, and so far firora being 
dissemblers, that they would ar any rate, to avoid shame, have concealed 
the misfortune which had befallen them. 

The honourable Mr. Robert Bjoki^Jn his trestise of languid and 
unheeded Motions, speaking of fheblte of the Tarantula, and the euro 
of the disease which follows It, by means of music, says that having 
himself had some doubts about the matter, he was, after strict enquiry, 
convinced that the relations in the main were true. 

Lastly, Dr. Mead, in his Mechanioal Account of Poisons, Lond. 1747. 
has given UTUIiy bn the Tarantula, containing the substance of the 
above relations, which he endeavoun to confirm by his own reasoniatf 

Notwithstanding the number and weight of these authwities, and the 
general acquiescence of learned and ingenious men in the opinion that 
the bite of the Tarantula is poisonous, and that the cure of the disorder 
occasioned by It is effected by music, we have reason to apprehend that 
the whole is a mistake. 

In the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1672, page 4066, is an 
extract of a letter flrom nr Thonyii rnrnajio^ a Neapolitan physician, to 
John Doddington, Eaq. Kil lliajesty's resident at Venice, communicated 
by the latter, in which, speaking of his intention to send to Mr. Dodding- 
ton some Tarantulas, he says, * Mean while I shall not omit to impart 
' to you what was related to me a few days since by a Judicious and un- 
' prqudlcate person ; which is, that being in the country of Otrantu, 
' where those insects are in great numbers, there was a man, who thinking 
' himself stung by a Tarantula shewed in his neck a small speck, about 

* which in a very short time there arose some pimples ta\l of a seroos 
'humour; and that in a few hours after that poor man was sorel^- 

* afflicted with very violent symptoms, as syncopes, very great agitations, 
' giddiness of the head, and vomiting ; but that without any inclination 

* at all to dance, and without all desire of having any muaical instru- 
*ments, he miserably died within two days. 

' The same person affirmed to me that all those who think themselves 
' bitten by Tarantulas, except such aa for evil ends feign themselves to 
<be so, are for the most part young wanton girls, whom the Italian 
' writer calls Dolce di Sale ; who, by some particular indispodtion flsUing 

* into this melancholy madness, persuade tht^mselves, according to the 
' vulgar pr^udice, to have been stung by a Tarantula. And I remember 

* to have observed in Calabria some women, who, seised on by some such 

* accidents, were counted to be possessed with the Devil, it being the 

* common belief in that province that the greatest part of the evils which 
' afllict mankind proceed fh>m evil spirits.' 

He mentions also a particular kind of tumour to which the people of 
Calabria are subject, called in their language Coccia Maligno; and 
which, if attended with certain svmptoms, brings on death. He says 
that the common opinion of this distemper Is, that it befalls those only 
who have eaten the fiesh of anhnals that have died a natural death ; 
which notion he affirms to be false, with a remark, that of many strange 
effeeta we daily meet with, the true cause not being known, some one is 
assigned upon no better ground than vulgar prejudice, which he believes 
to be the only foundation for the common opinion touching the cause of 
that distemper, which appears in those that think themselves stung by 
the Tarantula. 

Hr. Scrap, an ItaUan phvsidan, as It seems has written an ingenious 
book! n Which he has effectually exploded this ophiion as a popular 
error; and In the Philosophical Transactions. No. LX. for the year 1770, 
pag. S86, is a letter from Dominico Cirillo^ M.D. professor of natural 
hii>tory in the university of Naples, "wherein taking notice of Serao's 
book, he says that having had an opportunity of examining the effects of 
this animsLjn the province of Taranto, where it is found in great 
abundanceJhe finds that the surprizing cure of the bite of the Tarantula 
by music. His not the least truth in it *, and that 'it is only an invention 
of the people, who wagt to get a little money bv dancing when they say 
the Tarantism begins. jHe adds, *I make no doubt but sometimes the 

* heat of tbe climate contributes very much to warm their imaginatlona, 

* and throw them into a delirium, which may be in some meaiure cured 
' by music ; but several experiments have been tried with the Tarantula, 

* and neither men nor animals sfter the bite have had any other com- 
' plaint than a very trfling inflammation upon the part, like those pro- 
'lluced by the bite of a scorpion, which go off by themselves without any 

* danger at all. In Sicily, where the summer is still warmer than in any 
' part of the kingdom of Naples, the Tarantula is never dangerous. And 

* mnak ia never employed for tbe cue of the pretended Tarantism.' 

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Book XIV 

* of mine having set out on a journey, had a river to 
' croBS, and not knowing the ford, cried out Oh, to 

* which an echo answered Oh; he imagining it to be 
'a man, called out in Italian Onde devopassar? it 

* answered pasm; and when he asked qut? it replied 

* gtdi ; but as the waters formed a deep whirlpool 

* there, and made a great noise, he was terrified, and 

* again asked Dew passar qui ? The echo returns 
'passa guL He repeated the san^ question often, 
' and still had the same answer. Terrified with the 
' fear of being obliged to swim in case he attempted 

* to pass there, and it being a dark and tempestuous 
' night, he concluded that his respondent was some 

* evil spirit that wanted to entice him into the torrent, 

* wherefore he retumeil, and relating the story to 
' Cardan, was convinced by him that it was no demon, 

* but the sport of nature/ 

From this account of a natural, Kircher proceeds 
to a description of an artificial echo, namely, that in 
the Villa Simonetta near Milan ; and of a building 
at Pavia, mentioned by Cardan in his treatise De 
Subtilitate, which would return a sound thirty times. 
As also that at Syracuse, by some called the Prison, 
and by others the Ear of Dionysius, described by 
Mirabella in his Ichnography of Syracuse. 

From Phonic and Acoustic buildings, Kircher 
proceeds to a description of Phonotactic machines, 
which by the rotation of a cylinder produce music 
from bells, and organs constructed for the purpose ; 
and here he gives a very particular description of 
wiiat he calls a Cymbalarian machine, in the form of a 
star, in the church of the monastery of Fulda, so con- 
trived, as that by the motion of a cylinder round its 
axis, music is produced from a number of small bells. 

He next describes an instrument, contrived to re- 
semble in the sound of it a concert of viols ; it is in 
fact a harpsichord with a circular belly, under which 
is a wheel, one sixth part whereof rises al>ove the 
belly of the instrument The strings, which are re- 
quired to be of the intestines of animals, like those 
of the harp, are strained into contact with the edge 
of this wheel, which being rubbed with powder of 
rosin, produces from each a sound like that of a viol. 

In this chapter Kircher mentions a contrivance of 
his own, an instrument which a few years ago was 
obtruded upon the public as a new invention, and 
called the harp of iEolus, of which he thus speaks. 

* As the following instrument is new, so also is it 

* easy to construct and pleasant, and is heard in my 

* museum, to the great admiration of every one. It 
' is silent as long as the window, in which it is placed, 

* remains shut, but as soon as it is opened, behold an 
' harmonious sound on the sudden arises tliat asto- 

* nishes the hearers; for they are not able to perceive 
' from whence the sound proceeds, nor yet what kind 
' of instrument it is, for it resembles neither the sound 
' of a stringed, nor yet of a pneumatic instrument, 

* but partakes of both. The instrument is made of 
' pine wood ; it is five palms long, two broad, and 
' one deep ; it may contain 

* fifteen or more chords, all 
' equal, and composed of 
' the intestines of animals, ^ 

* as appears in this figure. 

A K 

' The instrument is A B C D, the pegs C A, the 
bridges I K and that at the other end parallel with 
it : the chords being put round the pegs, and ex* 
tended over the bridges, are fastened io keys at B V: 
the roses are F P P ; and near S is a handle by 
which it may be suspended. The method of tuning 
it now remains, which is not, as in other instruments, 
by thirds, fourths, fifths, or eighths, but all the chords 
are to be tuned to an unison, or in octaves. It is 
very wonderful, and nearly paradoxical, that chords 
thus tuned should constitute different harmony. As 
this musical phenomenon has not as yet been ob- 
served by any one that I know of, I shall describe 
the instrument very minutely, to the end that it may 
be searched into more narrowly, and the effects pro- 
duced by it accounted for. But first I shall shew 
the conditions of the instrument, and where it 
ought to be fixed. 

' The instrument is to be situated in a close place, 
yet so that the air may on either side have free 
access to it : in order to which it may be observed 
that the wind may be collected by various methods; 
first by canals that are made in the form of cones 
or shells, or else by valves ; for example, let there 
be two valves, E F and 
B V D, as in the 
figure below, so joined 
together in P and V 
D, that they may how- 
ever leave a passage for 
the wind into the space 
between the two parallel 
boards F R and V D. 

' Let the valves be placed on the outside, and the 
parallel boards on the inside of the room, at the 
back of which the instrument is to be fixed, at the 
chink S N, but so as to be turned against tlie chink 
in an oblique situation, that the wind being collected 
by the valves, and forced between the narrow part 
between the boards B V and E F, and going out 
through the chink, may strike all the chords of the 
instrument S N P. When it is thus disposed 
you will perceive an harmony in the room in pro- 
portion as the wind is weaker or stronger ; for 
from time to time all the chords having a tremulous 
motion impressed upon them, produce a corres- 
pondent variety of sounds, resembling a concentus 
of pipes or flutes, affecting the hearers with a strange 
In this book we also meet with a discourse on the 
ancient hydraulic organ, which, from the description 
of it by Vitruvius, Kircher laboured to construct , 
but both his explanation, and the figure of the in- 
strument, which he was at tlie pains of delineating, 
and has given in the book, appear to be nothing 
more than an exercise of that imagination, which 
was ever at work and employed in solving difficulties. 
Book X. is on the subject of Analogical music, 

" It may here be remarked that many Inttmments, tuppoeed to be of 
very tate invention, are to be found deicrlbed in the wHtingt of Mer- 
•ennus and Kircher. The short banoon, and the perpendicular harpsi- 
chord are instances to this purpose. The Lyrichoni. as it is called, lately 
constructed by Plenins. is evidently borrowed from an instrument 
mentioned in a preceding page ; and the harp of JBolus, *o much cele- 
brated as a modem disoovery, Is no other than the Uistrunient bcra 
described by Kiroher. 

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as the author affects to term it, and tends to demon- 
strate the harmony of the four elements, and of the 
planetary system. He labours also to prove that 
the principles of harmony are discoverable in the 
proportions of our bodies, and in the passions and 
affections of the mind ; and even in the seven sacra- 
ments of the Romish church. From these he pro- 
ceeds to the consideration of political and meta- 
physical harmony; and, lastly, to that harmony, if 
any one can understand what it means, which subsists 
in the several orders of intellectual beings, and which 
is consummated in the union between God and the 

In the year 1673 Kircher published his Phonurgia 
Nova, a work in which he explains the nature, 
properties, powers, and effects of sound. 

In the Phonurgia Nova, Sect. V I. Cap. i. the author 
gives a very circumstantial account of tlint useful 
instrument which we call the Speaking Trumpet, 
the invention whereof is generally ascribed to a native 
of this country, Sir Samuel Moreland,* but Kircher 
claims it as his own. 

And first he relates that the motives for his attempt 
were drawn from that branch of the science of optics 
called catoptrics, and the structure of those tubes, 
by the help whereof curious men make observations 
on the sun ; and that he conceived a possibility of 
magnifying sound by methods similar to those where- 
by bodies are, at least to our view, encreased beyond 
their true dimensions. How far his reasoning. was 
just, or whether the sciences of optics and acoustics 
are founded on the same principles or not, it is not 
necessary here to enquire, but that he succeeded in 
his endeavours, and was the inventor of the instrument 
here spoken of, he does most positively assert. 

He says, that in order to attain the end proposed, 
he made experiments with cylindrical, conic, and 
elliptic tubes, both simple and contorted, or twisted 
like a screw, but that he found that one of a cylindri- 
cal form succeeded best; and that this he improved by 
continuing it in length beyond that proportion which 
at first he thought sufEcient for his purpose. His de- 
scription of the instrument, and his relation of its 
effects are not a little curious, and are in these words : 

* Of this insminient an aecount was published at London In the year 
1671. wherein the author relates several experiments made by him with 
this instrument, the result thereof was, that a speaking trumpet con- 
atructed by him, being five feet six inches long, twenty-^ne Inches 
diameter at the greater end. and two inches at the smaller, being tried 
at Deal castle, was heard at the distance of three miles, the wind blowing 
from the shore. Together with the book, which is a thin folio, entitled 
Tuba Stentoro-Phonica, printed for the famous Moses Pitt, bookseller 
In St. Paul's church yard, was sold at his shop, the instrument itself. 
price 21. 5«. 

In the Philosohical Transactions, No. HI, for the year 1678, is a letter 
fjrom Mr. J. Conyers, containing an account of what he calls a Reflecting 
Trumpet, consisting of two parts, the outermost a large concave pyramid, 
about a yard long, open at the base, and closed with a flat but concave 
bead at the top, the figure then resembling a tall and very slender bell. 
Within this it Is said a tube was fastened, which was continued 
tram the top of the cone some inches below the base, and then returned 
at right angles. The letter says that this instrument was tried at 
Arundel-house in the Strand, where the meetings of the Royal Society 
were then held ; and although the wind was coutrsry, and very strong, 
:he sound thereof was disunctly heard across the garden of the uSd 
bouse, even to the other side of the Thames ; whereby it appeared, that 
a reflecting trumpet made after this, or some like manner, of wood, tin, 

Swter, stone, earth, or of bell-metal, would carry th" voice as far, if not 
rther, than the long one, invented by Mr. Samuel Moreland. 
The same periwn attempted to improve the spetUring.trumpet, by con- 
structing it with three angular arches, instead of one reaching almost 
from one end to the other: but he found that little was gained by this 
*ajiatioD of the instrument from its original form. 

* There was a repository in my museum, in onr 

* college at Rome, partetl from the rest of the build- 
' ing by a wall that had a gate in it ; and at the end 

* of the repository was a window of an oval form, 
' looking into the college garden, which garden was 

* about three hundred palms square. In this window 

* I fixed a conic tube, composed of iron plates, 

* twenty-two palms in length, the aperture whereof* 
' for speaking, exceeded not a quarter of a palm ; 

* the body of the tube was about one palm in diameter, 

* but it was gradully encreased towards the further 
' end to the diameter of three palms. The instru- 

* ment thus constructed was placed in the window in 
' a direction towards the garden. 

* The Janitors or porters of our college had fre- 
' quent occasions to speak to me, either to notify the 
' approach of a stranger, or upon matters of a do- 

* mestic concern ; and as it was inconvenient for 
' them to be continually coming to me, they called 

* to me from the gate, and I, being in my chamber, 

* heard them clearly and distinctly, and answered 

* them through the tube, and was heard by them.'f 

*To those who visited my museum, and were 
'astonished to hear the effect of this instrument, 

* I explained the contrivance of it ; and it is scarce 

* credible how many persons were drawn from distant 
' cities to see and hear it.' 

After having given this history of the invention 
of the Speaking-Trumpet, Kircher proceeds to refute 
the opinion that it was first discovered in England, 
in these words : ' I have here thought proper to 

* communicate to the reader a description of this 

* instrument, that he niinfht not persuade himself that 

* this was a new invention, brought out of England, 

* but that it was exhibited by me in our college at 

* Rome twenty-four years before the time when it is 

* said to have been invented in England ; and this 

* many persons now living, both our own fatliers, and 
'also strangers, who deigned to visit my museum 

* filled with rare curiosities, are able to testify.* $ 

He then proceeds to relate that having been com- 
pelled to remove his museum to another part of the 
college called the Gallery, he made improvements 
in the tube, adapted to that place ; and that he made 
a statue, the lips and eyes whereof, by a secret con- 
trivance, were made to move, and that by means of 
the tube, he uttered through it feigned and ludicrous 
consultations, with a view to shew the fallacy and 
imposture of ancient oracles. 

He says that, with a desire of knowing the efiicacy 
and power of the conic tube, he ascended the very 
high mountain of St. Eustachius, and took with him 
one of fifteen palms in length ; and that in speaking 
through the same, he and his companions made 
themselves heard at different stations, two, three, 

t This passage is veiy obscure in the original, and leaves it a question 
whether Kircher and the porters spoke through one or different instru- 
menu of the same kiad : the latter is the most probable. 

t To corroborate this assertion, sundry passages, extracted from th« 
wmings of other persons, are prefixed to the Phonurgia, as namely 
Jacobus Albanus Ohibbesius, Oaspar Schottus, and Franiacus Eschin- 
ardiu ; these impori that the instrument called the Tuba Sientorophonica 
was invented by Kircher twenty years before the time when a description 
of it was published at London by Sir Samuel Moreland. 

Kircher's museum was, as he intimates, a very curious one. A eaU- 
logue of it was published at Rome in the year 1700. 

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Book XIV. 

four, and five Italian miles distant from the place 
whence the sound was uttered; and that by means of 
the tube alone they called to the people of the neigh- 
bouring villages for necessaries, and were supplied ; 
and farther, invited above two thousand of them, as 
by a voice from heaven, to ascend the mountain, and 
celebrate the feast of Pentecost, during which solem- 
nity Kircher and his companions sung litanies through 
tubes of this kind constructed by him. 

The works of Kircher are either on subjects of the 
most remote antiquity, or such as from their very 
nature seem to elude all enquiry ; nevertheless, for 
his Musnrgia Universalis, the world is under great 
obligations to him. In thus availing himself of the 
researches of other learned men, and also of all the 
assistance that he could possibly derive from an ex- 
tensive correspondence, and the communications of 
persons the most eminent of his time in the theory 
and practice of music, he has exhibited such a fund 
of instruction and entertainment ; such a diversity of 
curious particulars relating to the principles and 
gradual progress of the science, and such a number 
of curious anecdotes respecting the professors of his 
time, and the opinions entertained of their works, 
that we know not which to admire most^ his inge- 
nuity or industry. 

But notwithstanding the merits of Kircher in these 
and other instances, the Musurgia soon after its pub- 
lication was very severely censured by a man who 
had pursued the study of music with no small degree 
of assiduity, namely, Marcus Meibomius. of Am- 
sterdam, of whom and his writings here follows an 


Marcus Mbibomius, a celebrated philologist and 
critic, was a native of Tonningen, in Holstein. In 
his advanced years he settled at Stockholm, and be- 
came a favourite of Christina, queen of Sweden. 
Having made a deep research into the works of the 
Greek writers on music, he contracted an enthusiastic 
fondness for the music of the ancients, and entertained 
an opinion not only of its superiority to that of the 
moderns, but that he was able to restore and introduce 
it into practice. The queen, who by frequent con- 
versations with him had been made to entertain the 
same sentiments on the subject as himself, was easily 
prevailed on to listen to a proposal of his, which was 
to exhibit a performance of music, under his direc- 
tion strictly conformable to the practice of the an- 
cients ; and, to crown all, he, who had but a bad 
voice, and had never in his youth been exercised in 
the practice of vocal music, was to sing in it. To 
this end instruments of various kinds were made at 
the expence of the queen, and under the directions 
of Meibomius ; and public notice was given of a 
musical performance that was to captivate and asto- 
nish all that should be so happy as to hear it On 
the appointed day Meibomius appeared, and address- 
ing himself to sing, was heard with patience for a 
short time ; but his performance and that of his aux- 
iliaries was past enduring : neither the chromatic nor 

the enarmonic genus suited the ears of his illiterate 
auditory, and the Lydian mood had lost its soothing 
power. In short, his hearers, unable to resist the 
impulses of nature, expressed their sense of the per- 
formance by general laughter. 

Whatever were the feelings of the people, Meibo- 
mius was but little disposed to sympathize with 
them : their mirth was his disgrace, and ha felt it but 
too sensibly : for seeing in the gallery Mens. Bour- 
delot the younger, a physician, and a rival of his in 
the queen's favour, he immediately imputed the be- 
haviour of the people to some insinuations of his to 
the prejudice ot the performance ; and without being 
restrained by the presence of the queen, ran up to 
him, and struck him a blow on the neck ; and, to 
avoid the consequences of his rashness, quitted the 
city before he could be called to account for it, and 
took up his residence at Copenhagen. In this latter 
city Meibomius was well received, and became a 
professor at Sora, a college in Denmark for the in- 
struction of the nobility. Here he was honoured 
with the title of counsellor to the king ; and soon 
afler was called to Elsineur, and advanc^ to the dig- 
nity of Architeloni, or president of the board of 
maritime taxes or customs ; but neglecting tlie duty 
of his employment, he was dismissed, and upon that 
occasion quitted Denmark. Soon after this he settled 
at Amsterdam, and became professor of history in 
the college there ; but refusing to give private in- 
struction to the son of a burgomaster of that city, 
alledging that he was not used to instruct boys but 
students, he was dismissed from that station. Upon 
this he quitted Amsterdam, and visited France and 
England, but afterwards returned to Amsterdam, and 
led a private life, and died in 1710 or 1711, having 
attained to a great age. He assisted in the publica- 
tion of an edition of Vitruvius at Amsterdam, in 
1643, wherein he has endeavoured to rectify such 
passages as related to music, and were misunderstood 
by former editors. But his great work was his edition 
of the seven Greek authors who had wrote on music, 
namely, Aristoxenus, Euclid, Nicomachus, Alypius, 
Gaudentius, Bacchius, and Aristides Quintilianus, of 
which it is here proposed to give a brief account It 
was published at Amsterdam in the year 1652, and 
contains a general preface to the whole, and also a 
preface to each of the treatises as they occur, with a 
Latin translation of the Greek text, and copious 
notes, tending to reconcile various readings, and ex- 
plain the meaning of the several authors. The work 
is dedicated to Christina, queen of Sweden, in an 
epistle that abounds with flattery, and is not more 
hyperbolical than pedantic ; for, after enumerating 
her virtues, and celebrating her wisdom and learning, 
he says of her, ' tibi Hypatse Diapason, Diapente, ac 
* Diatessaron consonent.* In the general preface the 
author is very severe on the modem musurgists; and 
takes occasion to mention Kircher, whom he taxes 
with ignorance of Grecian literature. He then pro- 
ceeds to relate that Vitruvius, in his treatise De 
Architectura, lib. V. cap. v. had promised a short 
but solid doctrine of harmonics, drawn from Aris- 
toxenus, in order to determine the consonances of 

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Cma?. CXXXIV, 



those echoing vessels which he proposed to place in 
the theatres of Rome ; which doctrine, hy a fate 
common to the works of ancient authors, came to the 
hands of Meibomins obscured with foul defects, and 
that he laboured for three years to restore it ; but 
that Kircher, who also applied himself to the same 
laudable endeavour, has rendered the whole doctrine 
of Vitruvius erroneous. He farther censures Kircher 
for disregarding the niceties of grammar, and for the 
use of what he calls barbarous terms, such as Sesqui- 
tertias, Sesquiquartus, Sesquioctavus, instead of Super- 
tertias, Superquartus, Superoctavus. He adds that 
the word Musurgia, the title of Kircher*e work, and 
which he uses for Opus de Musica, is not warranted 
by the authority of any one Greek writer, but is 
repugnant to the analogy observed in the formation 
of compound words, and signifies a musical operation. 
Again he censures Kircher for this passage in the 
Musurgia, page 133, 'Aristoxenus semitonia putat 
' esse dimidia tonorum. Hunc secutus Martianus 
'Felix turpiori adhuc errore lapsus deprehenditur, 
' qui non modo tonum in duas osquales, sed in 3 et 4 

* dirimit atque secat partes.' * What fouler error,* 
says Meibomius, * could this man, Kircher, fall into, 
' than to imagine that Martianus Capella, who was 
'a mere copier of Aristides Quintilianus, and not 

* a very exact one neither, should be the inventor of 

* any thing new in music ? Did Kircher,' exclaims 
Meibomius, 'ever read Aristoxenns, or any of the 
' ancients ? Did he ever read Boetius, who in express 
' words attiibutes this division to Aristoxenus, in 

* lib. V. cap. XV ?' He proceeds to censure Kircher 
for his ignorance in the Greek language, as also for 
the many errors which he says are to be found in 
that plate in the Musurgia which exhibits the ancient 
Greek musical characters. And here Meibomius 
takes occasion to mention a visit which Ismael 
Bnllialdus made him at Amsterdam, in the autumn 
previous to the publication of his book, and of the 
conversation between them : he says that Bnllialdus 
informed him that Mersennus was then employed in 
translating Bacchius into the French language ; and 
that upon Meibomius*s shewing him many remarks 
which he had made on Bacchius, Gaudentius, Euclid, 
and other ancient writers, Bnllialdus generally ac- 
quiesced in his opinions. He remarks that Kircher, 
in the Musurgia, page 139, mentions Archytas, 
Didymus, Eratosthenes, and other authors, whose 
manuscripts he says he has in possession : ' I think,* 
says Meibomius, 'he must in this particular be 
' mistaken ; for, excepting their several divisions of 
' the three genera, which are to be found at the end 

* of Ptolemy's second book of Harmonics, there are 
' no writings on music of either of these three persons 
' recorded to be extant,* and he wishes that Kircher 
would publish them for the satisfaction of himself 
and others.* He says that the world is greatly 
mistaken in supposing that Guido enlarged the ancient 
system by the addition either of chords below or 
above it; for he asserts that they assumed a chord 
below Proslambanomenos, and afterwards rejected 
it, as producing a confused and undistinguishable 

* This rifinark li Jottly founded, for tho aathon thoreia mentioned 
an envmmited MQong the Seriptoret perditL 

sound ; but that Guido reassumed it, and marked 
it with the Greek letter F; and that the ancient* 
proceeded farther in the acutes than Guido did, he 
says is evident from the tables of the three genera. 

In this preface Meibomius takes occasion to in- 
troduce the Te Deum with ancient musical notes, 
concerning which he says there is no doubt but that 
this melody was used by St. Augustine and St. Am- 
brose, though perhaps it may have been corrupted 
in some measure since their time. At the close 
of this general preface he mentions that French 
translation of Bacchius by Mersennus, of which he 
had received information from Ismael Bnllialdus, and 
says that immediately upon notice of it he sent to 
Paris for the book. He charges Mersennus with 
having omitted many difficult passages and mistaken 
others ; and concludes, that if he had seen this 
translation before he had finished his notes on 
Bacchius, they would have been much fuller by his 
observations on the errors of Mersennus. 

Besides the general preface of Meibomius, he has 
given one also to each of the Greek authors published 
by him : these chiefly relate to certain manuscripts 
of each, with which he was furnished by many learned 
men his contemporaries, whom he celebrates ; among 
whom are Daniel Heinsius, Claudius Salmasius, and 
our countrymen Selden and Dr. Gerard Langbaine. 

To his edition of the seven Greek authors Mei- 
bomius has added a treatise De Musica of Martianus 
Mineus Felix Capella, that is to say, lib. IX. of that 
author*s work, entitled De Nuptiis Philologi» et 
Mercurii. Martianus Capella has in some sort 
abridged Aristides Quintilianus; and it seemed 
right to Meibomius to give the work at large, and 
also the abridgement, with notes on each. The 
treatise De Nuptiis Philologi» et Mercurii is in 
Latin ; an account of it, as also of its author, is 
elsewhere given in this work. The edition published 
by Meibomius of the seven Greek authors, with a 
translation, and also of Martianus Capella with notes, 
was doubtless a very considerable acquisition to the 
science of music : the manuscripts of each of them 
had been brought into Europe by those learned 
Greeks who escaped at the sacking of Constantinople, 
and settling in Italy, became the revivers of learning ; 
these were by accidents of various kinds dispersed ; 
copies were made of them, which inevitably multi- 
plied various readings ; few persons knew where to 
find them ; and they never having been brought to- 
gether into one point of view, the very existence of 
some of the tracts which Meibomius has given to the 
world was a matter of doubt with the learned. 

But notwithstanding the care and industry of 
Meibomius, manifested in the publication of this work, 
his manner of introducing it is justly reprehensible ; 
for his general preface abounds with invectives 
against all who presumed to think less highly of 
the ancient music than himself, more especially 
Kiroher. The Musurgia of Kircher is to be con- 
sidered as an original work, very comprehensive in 
its extent, and formed from a great variety of 
materials; in the compilation of it, it must be 
supposed that the author attended more to the sub- 

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Book XIV. 

jftct matter of it than to the style : it appears there- 
fore a very pedantic and froward behaviour in 
Meibomins to object to the Mnsurgia, which abounds 
with learning, and a great variety of curious and 
entertaining particulars, the want of that grammatical 
nicety and exactness, which few, except men of 
narrow and contracted minds, are apt to excel in. 

But it is not of Kircher alone that Meibomius 
affects to speak in terms of contempt : Mersennus, 
who was possesed of more musical science than any 
man of his time, has hardly escaped his censure for 
errora pretended to be made by him in his translation 
of Bacchius; nor has his friend Ismael Bullialdus 
met with better treatment in respect of his version 
of Theo. Smymseus. Indeed little less than such 
behaviour to those who differed from him was to 
be expected from a man so bigoted as Meibomius 
appears to have been, and whose irascible teniper 
seems, by the relation contained in the account of his 
life, to have been incapable of restraint within the 
bounds of decency. 


PiBTRO Mekgou, a musician and matheitoatician 
of Bologna, was the author of a work entitled Specu- 
lationi di Musica, printed at Bologna in the year 
1670. In the proem to this book he gives an ac- 
count of himself and the course of his studies to the 
following efifect, viz., that he began to sing when he 
was ten years old ; and being arrived at the age of 
eighteen, applied himself very closely to the study 
of the theory of music ; and at the end of fourteen 
years, that is to say, in the year 1658, having, as 
he conceived, made very important discoveries, he 
undertook to read public lectures on music in several 
schools, wherein, besides his own doctrines, he endea- 
voured to explain those which Zarlino and Gralileo 
had taught before him : That having instructed 
a gentleman, namely, Signor Ercole Zani, in the 
elements of music, this person directed a monochord 
to be made for the purpose of discovering the nature 
of consonance and dissonance, and the physical causes 
that render them severally grateful, or the contrary, 
'^o the sense of hearing ; but that in this enquiry 
they could never satisfy themselves, they having all 
along taken that for granted which they found to be 
wrong, namely, that concord arises from the frequent 
union of two sounds striking at the same instant the 
external drum of the ear : That Signor Ercole being 
however resolved to find out the truth, proposed 
what should have been thought of before, that is to 
gay, to see and examine the organ of hearing ; they 
therefore applied to Gio. Galeazzo Manzi, a skilful 
anatomist, and a doctor of physic in the university 
of Bologna, who demonstrated to them that in the 
human ear there are three small bones bound together ; 
and that in the ear are contained not only one Tym- 
panum, as other professors have thought, but two 
drums, the one, with respect to its situation in the 
ear, external, the other internal : and that the same 
person likewise shewed to them the cavity of the 
ear and its mouth ; and that after having made his 

observations thereon, the author began to commit to 
writing his speculations, which he encreased after- 
wards by degrees, adding thereto whatever he 
thought necessary to the elucidation of his subject. 

The proem to this work is succeeded by what the 
author tenns the Natural History of music, in which 
are many curious particulars, the result of his ana- 
tomical researches; the purport of it, as it is given in 
the Philosophical Transactions, is as follows : — 

* A sound begins from the collision of two parts of 

* the air, which separating, make a vacuum as to the 

* air, in which vacuum two other parcels of air meet 
' and strike each other ; and because the two first 

* parcels of air incline to return to the centre of the 

* collision, but cannot, because their room is taken 
' up, they part from the centre by lines curved, and 

* as it were recurring to their first place ; in the 
'doing whereof they make a collision with those 

* parts of the air, which have possessed themselves 

* of their room, and thus the species of sound are mul- 

* tiplied and extended. These curved lines are more 

* waving near the centre of the collision, as being 
' more stretched long- ways than spirally, and less 

* waving where they are farther fVom the centre ; in 

* which latter lines the inclination to return towards 
' the centre is prevalent above the impetus of receding 

* from it ; so that at last they return back towards 

* the centre. Thus of the species of sound there is 

* filled a sphere of air, or such a part of a sphere of it, 

* as this motion of the air can without impediment 

* spread itself through. In the like manner two 

* sounds from two centres, one within the sonorous 

* sphere of the other, begin and are distributed 

* through the small particles of the air, in such a 

* manner, that some of the pulses are affected by one 

* sound, and others, without confusion, by another ; 
' and that the pulses of the acuter sound are swifter, 
'and complete their pulses in a shorter time timn 

* those of a grave sound, which are slower and longer. 

* The Aura or subtile matter in which these motions 

* of the air are made, according to its comparable 
' subtility, and that property it has of being altogether 

* indifferent to any condition of bodies, and suited 
' exactly to represent any motion, or stamp, or weight 

* of other bodies, among which it is found ; this Aura 

* does not impede, but assists the two motions pro- 

* duced by these two sorts of pulses, it being affected 

* by all the intermediate motioils. There may be 
' also more sounds than two distributed through the 

* particles of the air, yet not without some confusion ; 

* and the more sounds there are, the more irregular 

* will the distribution of the pulses be, especially near 

* the centres themselves where the sounds begin. 

* The ear is an organ by which a man placed in a 

* sonorous sphere perceives and judges of sounds and 

* their habitudes, whether of consonance or dissonance. 

* This organ has three parts, the exterior, without 
*the cavity of the ear, and visibly extant on the 
'head; the middlemost, which is the cavity itself* 
' and the innermost, which being within the cavity, 

* is a bone, resembling in substance a spunge, in 

* which is a cavern recurring to the hollow part <»f 
' the ear, and shaped like a knot of ribbons ; and in 

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'all the holes of this spungy-like bone are found 
' webs stretched out, that inclose the air. The 
' middle part is closed up by two membranes, called 

* drums, which are stretched over the cavity .of the 
' ear ; and of these two the one is external, at the 

* bottom of the exterier part of the air ; and the 

* other internal, upon the mouth of the cavern : 
' between these drums are three small bones tied to 
' one another, and to the drums, and fastened in two 
' points to the sides of the cavity, and movable, so 
'that if the outward drum be made to shake, the 
'inward must shake also, and that twice as often. 

* The mclination of these two drums is to move in 
' duple proportion,* but the exigency of the instru- 

* ment moves them differently from their inclinations : 
' so that this is the sensitive organ in which the soul 
' perceives what is acted there. Between these 

* drums is no air,t properly so called, but only an 
'Aura,^ which seconding the inclinations of the 
'drums to motion, and the motions themselves, 
'preserves all the intermediate inclinations and 
' motions ; and the mind is able to contemplate the 
' intermediate inclinations and motions of the Aura. 
' If the ear be within a sonorous sphere, the particles 
' of the air affected by the sound enter at the ex- 
' temal part of the ear one after another, passing in 
' order through the spiral ways tliat are there to the 
'bottom of the ear, and striking the drum, after 

* which they issue out by other spiral ways, and give 
' place to other particles of air. The external drum 
' behig struck once, shakes frequently, and, by means 
' ol these three little bones the internal dnim answers 
' to it in a double frequency ; and the Aura in the 
'cavern of the internal part of the ear, goes and 
'comes alternately through its knot-like passage; 
'spreading itself through the other ways of the 
'spungy -like bone, and, being repercussed to the 
'webs tbat inclose it, rebounds and multiplies the 
' sound, until another parcel of air follows and strikes 
' the drum, and causes the shaking as before. But 
'if the ear be within two sonorous spheres, the 
'affected pulses that cause the sound succeed the 
'one the other, and by turns strike the outward 
' drum ; and, by the exigencies of the alternations, 

* the ratios that are not expressible by numbers, are 
' yet by the shakings of the drum rendered capable of 
' being numbered.* 

The above extracts contain in substance the 
doctrines delivered in that part of the work now 
under consideration, which the author calls his 
Natural history of music; and these being pre- 
mised, he gives a very particular description of the 
ear, together with the phenomena of sound, and of 
the hearing of sounds, especially two together, in 
which description occur many new principles, by 
him laid down as the chief foundation of the whole 

■ Ital. Proportione dimldlati della doppia. 

t Though the author will admit of no atr property so called between 
the drama, yet he admits of ah- in the caverns, and within the Os 
petrosum, the inward part of the ear, because the drums would have no 
I at all if there were nothing but Aura ; forasmuch as this Aura, 

though it may be moved by any other thing, yet It cannot be a means to 
eouTey motion from one body to another : It is, says be, the internal 
InstTument of the mover that lodges there within, but not of any mover 
tbat is without. 

I AvAA, a gentle gale or blast of wind, Altlerl. 

work : after which he treats of musical intervals, 
their perfections, and measure ; explicating his doc- 
trine by many theorems, giving withal definitions of 
the several intervals, and taking particular notice of 
six sorts of them, for which having found no names, 
he has thought fit to borrow names from colours. 
Next he discourses at large of the tnie numbers for 
the musical intervals, shewing withal between what 
numbers the species of each interval are most perfect. 
Further he treats of musical chords ; then of singing, 
and of the modulations of tune ; which latter he 
distinguishes from singing in general, by observing 
that modulation is a succession of sounds, impre*«Hing 
itself so strongly upon the sense that we are able to 
repeat it. 

Besides this the author discourses amply of con- 
sonance, and of harmonical proportions ; as also of 
the passions of the soul, shewing how they are con^ 
cerned in, and wrought upon by music ; after which 
he gives a table of the several musical chords suited 
to Uie several affections, and concludes with a brief 
discourse on the music of the modems. § 

JoHANN HosENMULLER was a Saxou by birth, and 
a joint professor of music with Tobias Michaelis in 
the academy of St. Thomas at Leipsic, until, being 
suspected of an unnatural vice, he was imprisoned ; 
but he found means to escape, and fled to Hamburg. 
After some stay in that city he went to Italv, where 
he was greatly esteemed for his skill and performance 
on the organ, and published many compositions, 
particularly Sonate da Camera k 5 Stromenti, and 
a collection of airs of various kinds. At length he 
became chapel-master in the great church at Wolfen- 
buttle, and died in the year 1685. 

JoHANN Theil, of Naumburg, was the son of 
a tailor, and was bom on the twenty-ninth day of 
July, 1646. He received his first instructions in 
music from 8cheffler, at that time the principal 

musician of that city, and completed his studies in 
the universities of Halle and Leipsic. From thence 
he went to Weissenfels in Saxony ; and under Schutz, 
the chapel-master there, perfected himself in the art 
of composition. Being thus qualified, he removed to 
Stettin in Pomerania, and became a teacher of music ; 
and, among many others, had for his pupils Dietrich 
Buxtehude, afterwards the famous organist of the 
church of St. Mary in Lubec ; and Zachau, the first 
preceptor of Handel. In the year 1673 Thiel became 
chapel -master at Gottorp; but being driven thence 
by the wars, he went and settled at Hamburg, where 
he continued for some years to teach the science of 
music. In the year 1685 he accepted a call from the 
magistracy of Wolfenbuttle to the office of chapel - 
master, in the room of RosenmuUer, then lately 

I An account of this treatise of MengoH is given in the PhOoeophical 
Transactions, vol. VIII. No. C. page 6194, which, for the purpose of the 
above article, has been compared with the original. At the close of the 
acoount is this singular passage : ' Now whether this author has by all 

* these speculations and pains given a perfect scale of music according 
'to the true proportione of sounds (which is a great desideratum in 

* music) we must leave to the Judgment of the groat masters, ospecially 

* the Judicious and extraordinary skilful musician Mr. John Birohensha, 

* who it is still hoped, if he be competently encouraged and assisted, will 
' in duo time publish a complete system of music' Of this man an 
aeoount wiU hereafter be given, as also of the boasting proposal here 
alluded to, which, for want of encouragement, or perhaps other reasons, 
was never fulfilled. 

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Book XIV 

deceased, and held it for some years ; after which 
he went into the service of Christian 11. duke of 
Mersebnrg, and continued therein till the death of 
that prince. In the course of these his employments 
he made a great variety of compositions for the 
church, most excellent in their kind. For one mass 
of his, which was performed in the chapel of the 
Imperial court, he received at the hands of Heer 
Schmeltzer, a present of an hundred Rix-doUars. 
Many other presents he received from the emperor 
Leopold, and the queen of Prussia, both of whom 
entertained a great regard for him, and set a great 
value on his works. His compositions are chiefly 
masses, in some of which he professes to imitate the 
elegant and majestic style of Palestrina. He was 
also the author of a most valuable work, of which 
the following is the title at large. ' Novae Sonatss 
* ' rarissimffi artis et suavitatis music», partim 2 vocum, 
'' cum simplis et duplo inversis Fugis ; partim 3 
' vocum, cum simplis, duplo et triple inversis Fugis ; 

* partim 4 vocum, cum simplis, duplo et triple et 

* quadruple inversis Fugis ; partim 5 vocum, cum 
' simplis, duplo, triple, quadruple aliasque variegatis 
' inventionibus et artiBciosis Syncopationibus. Summa 
*60 Sonata. Accedunt SO'Praeludia 2, 3, 4 et 5 

* vocum, cum simple, et duple syncopate Contra- 

* puncto. 50 Allem. et totidem Cour. 2, 3 et 4 
' vocum, cum brevibus Fugis similibusque aliis in- 
' ventionibus suavissimis. 50 Aris et 50 Sarah. 2, 
' 3 et 4 vocum, singularis gratissimseque suavitatis. 
' 50 Ghique 2, 3, 4 et 5 vocum, cum simplicis et 
' duplo variique generis inversis Fugis.' 

From the clear evidence of deep learning and 
a prolific invention contained in these his works, 
•Theil is justly ranked among the first of the German 
musicians. He had a son named Benedict Frederic, 
who had been a theorbist in the chapel of the duke 
of Wolfenbuttle, and afterwards became organist of 
the church of St. Wentzel in Naumburg, at whose 
house in that city Thiel died, in the year 1724, 
having attained the age of near fourscore, leaving 
behind him the character of a sound musician, and 
a virtuous and good man. 

There was another famous musician contemporary 
with him above named, Andrew Theil, the author of 
a fine collection of lessons, entitled fteuet CUbiett 
Vbttstg, published in the year 1696, of whom notice 
is taken by Walther. 

Fribdrich Wilhqlm Zachau, bom at Leipeic in 
the month of November, 1663, was the son of a musi- 
cian, and was by him instructed in the rudiments of 
music till he was of an age sufficient to entitle him 
to a reception into the public school at Leipsic, where 
he attained to a competent skill in the science, and 
became an excellent performer on the organ and 
other instruments. He finished his studies in music 
under Theil at Stettin, and in the year 1684 was 
called to the office of organist of the church of Our 
Lady, at Halle in Saxony, and continued therein till 
the day of his death, which was the fourteenth of 
August, 1721. He composed many pieces for the 
church, and some lessons for the clavier or harp- 
sichord. His eminence in his faculty occasioned 

a great resort of young persons to him for instruction ; 
and it is no small addition to his reputation that he 
was the master of Mr. Handel. 

JoHANN Philip Ejiieobr, the son of an eminent 
merchant of Nuremberg, bom the twenty-sixth day 
of February, 1649, began to learn the clavier or 
harpsichord when he was but eight years of age, 
of Johann Drechsel who had been a disciple of 
Froberger. At the age of sixteen he was placed 
under the care of Johann Schroder of Copenhagen, 
organist of the church of St. Peter in that city: 
after five years continuance there, during which time 
he received considerable improvement under the 
royal chapel -master Forster, he went to Holland, 
and from thence to Bareith, where he became first 
chamber-organist to the Margrave, and afterwards 
chapel-master in that city. In the year 1672 he 
went to Italy, and at Rome considerably improved 
himself by the instmctions of Abbatini, and Pasquini 
the fapious performer on the harpsichord. On his 
retum homewards he stayed some time at Naples, 
and took lessons from Rovetta, the organist of the 
church of St Mark in that city. After a stay of 
some months he retumed to Germany, determined 
to settle at Vienna, where he had no sooner arrived 
than he was invited by the emperor to court, who, 
after hearing him, presented him with a purse of 
ducats and a gold medal and chain: he continued 
in the service of the emperor some years, retaining, 
with the permission of the Margrave, his place of 
chapel-master of Bareith. Afterwards being invited 
to settle at Halle, he went thither, and at length 
became chapel-master to the elector of Saxony at 
the court of Weissenfels, which function he exercised 
near forty years, and died in the month of February, 

The works of Krieger are of various kinds ; they 
consist of Sonatas for the violin and viol da gamba. 
Field Music, or Overtures for trumpets and other 
sonorous instraments; Latin and Grerman Psalms set 
to music ; and, lastly. Songs in the several dramatic 
entertainments composed by him, entitled Flora, 
Cecrops, and Procris. Lessons of his for the harp- 
sichord are also to be met with in manuscript, which 
have a masterly appearance ; but it is no where 
said that he published any compositions for that 


Jean Baptistb Lully (a Portrait^ a celebrated 
musician, was bom at Florence in the year 1634, of 
obscure parents ; but discovering, even in his infancy, 
a propensity to music, a Cordelier, who had taken 
notice of him, undertook, for no other consideration 
than the hope of making him one day eminent in the 
science, to teach him the practice of the guitar, an 
instrament then mnch in use in most parts of Italy. 

It happened that while Lully was under the tuition 
of this benevolent ecclesiastic, a French gentleman, 
the Chevalier Guise, then upon his travels, arrived 
at Florence ; this person, upon his taking leave of 
Mademoiselle de Montpensier, a courin of Lewis XIY, 

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Chap. CXXXVI. 



at Paris, had been requested by her to find out some 
pretty little Italian, to be about her person in quality 
of a page ; and though the countenance of Lully did 
by no means answer to the instructions he had re- 
ceived, his vivacity and ready wit, and, above all, 
the proficiency which he had attained to on an in- 
strument as much the favorite of the French as of 
the Italians, made him forget all other considerations ; 
and, trusting to these recommendations, he easily 
persuaded Lully, then about ten years of age, to 
follow him to Paris. Upon his arrival there, Lully 
met with but a cool reception from the lady for 
whose service he was intended. She liked not his 
appearance, which was mean and unpromising ; and, 
declining to retain him as a servant about her person, 
she assigned him a station which she thought best 
suited with his appearance, in her kitchen, and com- 
manded the officers of her household to enter him in 
their books as her under-scuUion. 

Neither the disappointment which he had met 
with, nor the sordid employment to which he was 
destined, affected the spirit of Lully : in the moments 
of his leisure from the kitchen he used to scrape 
upon a scurvy fiddle, which the strong propensity 
that impelled him to music made him contrive to 
procure. A person about the court, the Count de 
Nogent, as it is said, happened to hear him, and in- 
formed the princess that her scullion had boUi talents 
and a hand. She thereupon employed a master to 
teach him the violin; and Lully in a few montlis 
became so good a proficient, that he was sent for up 
to the chamber from whence his figure had before 
banished him ; and now behold him in the rank of 
musicians. But an unlucky accident, and his own 
indiscretion, occasioned his discharge from her service. 
The following stanza of Bardou will explain it : — 

Mon coeur outr6 de d^plaisirs, 
Etroit si gros de sea soupirs ; 
Voyant v6tre coeur si farouche : 
Que Tim d'eux se voyant r^duit 
A ne pas sortir par la bouche, 
Sortit par un autre conduit. 

A sigh of this nature, which had escaped his 
mistress in her private closet, was very plainly heard 
by Lully in his chamber, and he was foolish enough not 
only to mention it, but to set to music the verses 
above quoted, which had been scribbled on the 
occasion, and was very deservedly dismissed for 
ais pains. 

The lady did not follow her resentment, and Lully 
found means to get himself entered among the king's 
violins : some say that at first he was only their boy, 
that carried their instruments ; be that as it may, he 
plied his studies so closely, that in a little time he 
became able to compose ; and some of his airs being 
noticed by the king, he called for the author, and 
was so struck with his performance of them on the 
violin, on which instrument Lully was now become 
a master, that he created a new band, called Les 
petits Violons, and placed him at the head of it ; 
and under his direction it soon surpassed the famous 
band of twenty-four, till then the most celebrated in 
Europe. This was about the year 1660, at which 

time the favorite entertainments at the French court, 
were representations of the dramatic kind, called 
Ballets ; these consisted of dancing, intermixed with 
action, and speaking in recitative ; and to many of 
them Lully composed the music. 

Entertainments of this kind suited not those ideas 
of grandeur and magnificence that filled the mind 
of the king : an academy had been established at 
Venice for the performance of operas, and Lewis 
determined to have one in France that should if 
possible exceed it. Cardinal Mazarine encouraged 
this disposition; accordingly in the year 1669 the 
king granted to the AbM Perrin, master of the 
ceremonies to Philip duke of Orleans, a privilege 
for the purpose of conducting an opera, to be per- 
formed in the French language, but after the model 
of that at Venice. 

Perrin had a talent for poetry; he immediately 
engaged with Cambert, the organist of St Honor^ ; 
this person had been sur-intendant de la musique to 
the queen mother, Ann of Austria, and the Marquis 
de Sourdeac, and was esteemed the best musician in 
France : the fruit of their joint labours was the opera 
of Pomone, which was performed in March, 1670, 
with universal applause ; but Lully having by this 
time gotten possession of the public, and indeed of the 
king's ear, and having been appointed Sur»intendant 
de la musique de la diambre du Roy, he soon found 
means to make the situation of Cambert so very 
uneasy, that he was glad for a consideration in money, 
backed with the iniunctions of his sovereign to quit 
it, and Lully was immediately appointed to fill his 
place.* Upon this Lully associated himself with 
Quinault, who was appointed to write the operas : 
and being now become composer and joint director ^ 
of the opera, he did not only detach himself from 
the former band, and instituted one of his own, but 
he determined on the building a new theatre near 
the Luxemburg palace, and in a short time ac- 
complished it, agreeably to a design of Vigarini, an 
Italian architect. 

The first musical performance in this newly erected 
theatre was in the month of November in the same 
year, 1670, of an entertainment consisting of a variety 
of detached pieces, included under the title of Le 
Combat de I'Amour et de Bacchus. 

From the day that the king made him super- 
intendant of his music Lully neglected the violin so 
much, that he even had not one in his house : whether 
it was vanity that made him put away from his sight 

* Cambert retired to England in 1672. and was faroured bjr Charles II. 
be performed his Pomone here, but with indifferent success ; and died 
with grief, as it it said, in 1677. His death is thus accounted for bj 
Bourdelot, ' Mais I'envie, qui est inseparable du m^rite. iui abregea les 
Mours. Les Anglois ne trouvent pas bon qu'un etranger se rodie de 
*Ieur plaire et de les instruire. Le paurre gar^n mourut lA un pen 
'plutOt qu'U ne seroit roort ailleurt.' Hist, de la Musique et de set 
Effets, torn. III. pag. 164. A modest reflection in the mouth of a man 
whose country haa produced frwer good musicians than any in Europe. 

Peihsps one reason of the dislike of the English to Cambert '& Pomona* 
was that the opera was a kind of entertainment to which they had not 
been accustomed ; another might be that the levity of the French 
musical drama is but ill suited to the taste of such as have a relish for 
harmony. The operas of Lully consist of recitatives, short airs, chiefly 
favots, minuets, and courants, set to words ; and choruses in counter- 
point, with entries, and splendid dances, and a great variety of scenery , 
and, in short, were such entertainments as none but a Frenchman could 
sit to hear, and it was never prettrnded that those of Cambert were at 
all better. 

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Book XIV. 

an inrtrnment that could not bat recall to his re- 
membrance hiB employment in her highness's kitchen; 
or whether his attachment to his studies, and the 
duties of his station, and the obligation he was under 
to gratify the call for new compositions, induced him 
to free himself from his subjection to an instrument 
that requires assiduity and unremitted practice, it is 
difiBcult to determine : be this as it will, his per- 
formance on the violin, even in this state of desuetude, 
was so excellent as to attract the admiration of all 
who heard him ; though it must be confessed, that 
after he was appointed to the direction of the opera, 
these were very few ; his usual answer, even to such 
persons of rank about the court, as requested to hear 
from him an air on the violin, being, that he looked 
upon himself as engaged to acknowledge only one 
master, the Marshal de Grammont, who alone had 
the power to make him play from time to time upon 
it This nobleman had a servant named La Lande, 
whom he afterwards made his valet^ and who became 
one of the best performers on the violin of any in 
Europe ; one day at the end of a meal the Marshal 
desired LuUy to hear his valet, and give him a few 
instructions ; La Lande came and played, and, with- 
out doubt, to the best of his power, but Lully, more 
attentive to his defects than his excellencies, when- 
ever he erred would snatch the instrument out of his 
hand, and, under the notion of teaching him, would 
indulge the enthusiastic spirit that at the instant 
seized him, and play on it sometimes for three hours, 
and at length became so enraptured with the music, 
as to lay down the instrument with regret* 

On the other hand, to the guitar, a trifling instru- 
ment, Lully retained throughout his life such a pro- 
I pensity, thiftt for his amusement he resorted to it 
voluntarily; and to perform on it, even before 
strangers, needed no incentive. The reason of this 
seeming perverseness of temper is thus accounted 
for : the guitar is an instrument of small estimation 
among persons skiUed in music, the power of per- 
forming on it is attained without much difficulty ; 
and, so far as regards the reputation of the performer, 
it is of small moment whether he plays very well on 
it ; but the performance on the violin is a delicate 
and an arduous energy ; thie Lully knew, and he set 
too hi^h a value on the reputation he had acquired 
when m constant practice, to risk the losing it ' 

In the year 1686 the king was seized with an 
indisposition that threatened his life, but, recovering 
from it, Lully was required to compose a Te Deum 
for the celebration of so providentid an event; 
accordingly he did compose one, which is not more 
remarkable for its excellence than for the unhappy 
accident that attended the performance of it He 
had neglected nothing in the composition of the 
music, and i)n preparations for the executing of it ; 
and, the better to demonstrate his zeal, he himself 
beat the time : with the cane he used for this purpose 
he struck himself in the heat of action, a blow upon 
the end of his foot ; this caused a small blister to 
arise thereon, which encreasing, Mons. Alliot, his 

* Uanj itotfos of the like kind an reI4t«d of tt«lalnianl wboMtcBptr 
«M tttch M rniden them credible. 

advised him immediately to have his 
little toe cut off, and, after a delay of some days, 
the foot, and at length the whole limb : at this 
juncture an adventurer in physic presented himself, 
who hardily offered to cure the patient without an 
amputation. The family of Vendome, who loved 
Lully, promised this quack two thousand pistoles in 
case he should accomplish the cure ; but this act of 
beneficence, and the efforts of the empiric, were in 
vain. Lully died on the twenty -second dav of 
March, 1687, and was interred in the church of the 
discalceat Augustines at Paris, where a fine monument 
for him is yet remaining. His wife was the daughter 
of Michael Lambert, an excellent performer on the 
lute, and composer and Maitre de la Musique de la 
Chambre du Roy. He had by her, living at his 
decease, three sons and three daughters. 

A story is related of a conversation between Lully 
and his confessor in his last illness, which proves the 
archness of the one, and the folly of the other, to this 
purpose: for some years before the accident that 
occasioned his illness, Lully had been closely engaged 
in composing for the opera ; the priest took occasion 
from hence to insinuate, that unless, as a testimony 
of his sincere repentance for all the errors of his past 
life he would throw the last of his compositions into 
the fire, he must expect no absolution. Lully at first 
would have excused himself, but tSier some opposition 
he acquiesced; and pointing to a drawer wherein 
the draft of Achilles and Polixene lay, it was taken 
out and burnt, and the confessor went away satisfied. 
Lully grew better, and was thought to be out of 
danger. One of the young princes, who loved Lully 
and his works, came to see him ; and ' What, Baptiste,' 
says he to him, ' have you thrown your opera into 
' the fire ? you were a fool for giving credit thus to 
'a dreaming Jansenist, and burning good music' 
' Hush, hush, my Lord,' answered Lully in a whisper, 
* 1 knew very well what I was about, I have a fair 
' copy of it' Unhappily this ill-timed pleasure was 
followed by a relapse ; the gangrene increased, and 
the prospect of inevitable death threw him into 
such pangs of remorse, that he submitted to be laid 
upon a heap of ashes, with a cord about his neck. 
In this situation he expressed a deep sense of his 
late transgression ; and, being replaced in his bed, 
he, farther to expiate his offence, sung, to an air of 
his own composing, the following words : — 
II faut mourir p^cheur il faut mourir. 

With respect to his person, Lully was of a thicker 
and shorter make than his prints represent; in 
other respects they sufficiently resemble him. His 
countenance was lively and singular, but by no 
means noble ; his complexion was black, eyes small, 
nose big, and mouth large and prominent ; and his 
sight was so short, that he could hardly distinguish 
the features of those whom he conversed with. In 
his temper there was a mixture of dignity and 
gentleness ; and it must be said to his praise that 
he behaved without pride or haughtiness to the 
lowest musician ; and yet he had less of what is 
generallv denominated politeness in his manner, than 
was to be expected from a man who had lived a 

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long time in a refined court He bad the gaiety, of 
a Frenchman^ with a little of the libertine, as far as 
regards wine and food, and no farther ; for it was 
never known that be bad any criminal connexion 
with women ; but be was so hr from being without 
a tincture of avarice, that in some instances it is said 
be was sordid ; and that this disposition moved him 
to fall out with Fontaine, whom he contrived to 
curtail of bis pay because be bad inserted in an opera 
some words that LuUy disliked. This at least must 
be allowed, that he knew the value of wealth, for it 
is said that be left behind him in ready money the 
sum of six hundred and thirty' thousand livres. 

The courtiers called LuUy a miser, not because be 
did not often entertain them, but because be enter- , 
tained them without profusion ; the excuse be made 
was that of a man of sense: be declared that be 
would not imitate those who prepare costly banquets 
for noblemen, and are laughed at by them for their 
pains. He bad a vivacity fertile in sallies of original 
wit, and told a story with admirable humour. These 
are the particulars of bis life and general character, 
it now remains to speak of him as a musician. 

At the time when Lully was placed at the head 
of the little band of violins, not half the musicians in 
France were able to play at sight : be was accounted 
an excellent master that could play thorough-bass on 
the harpsichord or theorbo in accompaniment to a 
scholar; and, with respect to composition, nothing 
can be conceived more inartificial than the sonatas 
and airs for violins of that time. The treble part 
contained the whole of the melody; the bass and 
the interior part were mere accompaniment, and the 

whole Was a gross and sullen counterpoint The 
combinations of sounds then allowed of were too few 
to admit of sufficient variety ; and the art of pre- 
paring and resolving discords was a secret too 
precious to be communicated. In every of these 
respects did Lully improve the music of France; 
farther in bis overtures he introduced fugues, and in 
chorusses be first made use of the side and kettle- 

To speak of bis style is a matter of some difficulty. 
He quitted Italy before he was old enough to receive 
any impressions either of melody or harmony, so 
that bis cannot be said to be the style of the Italians ; 
nor could it be that of the French, for at the time of 
bis arrival at Paris there was among them no style 
at all ; in short, his style was bis own, original, self- 
formed, and derived from no other source than the 
copious fountain of bis own invention. 

After the account above given, it would be need- 
less to mention that the compositions of Lully were 
chiefly operas, and other dramatic entertainments: 
these, though excellent in their kind, would give but 
little pleasure at this day, the airs being very short, 
formed of r^ular measures, and too frequently in- 
terrupted by the recitatives ; the reason whereof is, 
that Lewis XIV. was very fond of duicing, and bad 
no taste for any music but airs, in the composition 
whereof a stated and precise number of bars was the 
chief rule to be observed; of harmony, or fine melody, 
or of the relation between poetry and music, be seems 
to have bad no conception.* The following com- 
position, taken from bis Roland, may serve as a spe- 
cimen of the style of Lull/s opera airs : — 

di-vins ap-pas Fait vivre an de la da tr6-pas, L*Amoar deaee di-rins ap • pas Fait 

' lA a coDtMt between BapUaUmf a MhtHar of direlli, and one of Che 
French band, an ordinary performer, Lewis preferred an air In Cadmoa, 
an opera of LuIIt, and none of his best, to a solo, probably of CorelU, 
plaved by the former, saying, ' Voila mon goQt, i mol : Voila mon 
■odt.' Hist. Mas. et ses Eifets, torn III. page SSI. And it U said of 
LoDy, that to oomoly with the taste of his master, he labonred aa mneh 
la oMDpoeinf the danoes as the alrt of his operas. lb. 209. Th4 penom 

Mf tidmr«t or witk rrferenee to LulUt, wkoM name was BapUstt, ii bg ik* 
fttnth eaUed U pem BapHtU. He wu a scholar amltite adopted $o» eif 
CorelU, and U said to kavejiret introdmoed ike FioloneeUo into Framee, 
Me composed tkree operas, Melagre, Mamts la Fee, and Polpdore; hmt ie 
most celebrated for kU cantatas f one whereof, via., Demoerite et HeraaUte, 
Ike French hold in great estimmtlom* Se dkd so laieig ae the pear I7i». 

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Book XIV. 

The merit of Lully is therefore to be judged of 
by his overtures, and works of a more serious nature 
than his operas. Some motets of his are extant, 
though not in print; and Mons. Perrault, in his 
account of Lully among the Eloges Historiques, 
mentions a Tenebrae* of his, which at the performance 
of that solemn service, of which it is a part, excited 
such an universal approbation, that, for the merit of 
having composed it, the king was prevailed on to 
appoint hitn Sur-Intendant of his music, and to 
confer on him some honours that seem to be little 
more than titular.f 

His opera > and other compositions for the theatre 
were from time to time printed in folio, in a fine 
character, as they were performed ; the following 
is the list which the authors of the Nouveau Dic- 
tionnaire Historique-Portatif have given of them, 
viz., Cadmus, Alceste, Thes^e, Atys, Psyche, Belle- 
rophon, Proserpine, Persee, Phaeton, Amadis, Roland, 
Armide, these are tragedies in five acts. Les Fetes 
de r Amour et de Bacchus, Acis et Galath^e, pastorals 
in three acts ; Le Carnaval, a masque with entries ; 
Le Triomphe de V Amour, a ballet with entrees ; 
L* Idyle de la Paix, et L' Eglogue de Versailles, and 
Le Temple de la Paix, a ballet with entries. He 
also composed the music to some of the comedies of 
Moliere^ particularly 1' Amour M^ecin, Pourceaugnac, 
and Le Bourgeois Gkntilhomme, in which latter he 
performed the part of the Mufti with great applause. 

He composed also Symphonies for violins in three 
parts, but it does not appear that they were ever 
pablished. One observation more respecting this 
extraordinary person shall conclude the account of 
him. Lully may be said to be the inventor of that 
species of instrumental composition, the Overture ; 
more particularly that spirited movement the Largo, 
which is the general introduction to the fugue ; I for 

* An ofBoe in the Romith church, oelebretad about four or five in the 
afternoon, on Maundy-Thunday, Good Friday, and other •olemn dayi, 
to commemorate the darkness that overspread the face of the earth at 
the time of the oruciflxion. 

t In the tiUes of his operas he is styled Eecuyer, Conseiller, Secretaire 
du Roy. Maison Couronne de France et de see Finances ; et Sur-Intendant 
de la Musique de sa Cliambre. 

t It Is said that the orertnres of Lully were in such esteem, that they 
are to be found prefixed to many manuscript copies of Italian operas ; 
and Mattheson asserts that Mr. Handel In the composition of hit over- 
tures professed to imitate those of Lully. And indeed whoever will 
make the comparison, will find good reason to be of that opinion. Those 
to the operas of Theseus, Alexander, Muxio Scnrola, and Ariodante are 
much In bis cast ; and this may be remarked of the fUffues in the oTer- 
tures of Lully, that they are generally in the time of siz crotchets in a 
bar, equally dlTidad by the Tactus or beat 

Jean Baptiste Lullt. 

though it may be said that the symphonies and 
preludes of Carissimi, Golonna, Bassani, and others, 
are in effect overtures, yet the difference between 
them and those of Lully is apparent; the former 
were compositions of the mild and placid kind, and 
stole upon the affections insensibly; the latter are 
animated, and full of that energy which compels 


WoLFQANO Caspar Printz, was born the tenth 
day of October, 1664, at Weildthurn, a small city 
situate in the Upper Palatinate, on the frontiers of 
Bohemia, where his father was a principal magistrate, 
and a receiver of the public revenues, until, on 
account of his religion, he quitted that station, and 
removed to Vohenstraus, a small town in the territory 
of Furstenburg. Discovering an inclination to music, 
Printz was committed to the tuition of Wilhelm 
Stockel, a celebrated organist from Nuremburg, by 
whom he was taught the elements of the science, 
and the principles of composition. For his master 
on the Clavier or harpsichord and the violin he 
had Andrew Paul Vander Heyd, a Bohemian ; and 
having finished his exercises under these persons, he 
frequented the school at Weyden from the year 1665 
to the year 1659, having for his instructor on the 
harpsichord John Conrad Mertz, an organist, and 
a skilful composer ; and on certain wind instruments 
John George Schober, after which he went to the 
university at Altdorff, where he continued till the 
year 1661. 

Anno 1662, about Easter, having been recom- 
mended by Francesco Santi, a musician from Perugia, 
to Count Promnitz at Dresden, he was engaged in 
his service as music-director and court composer. 
With this nobleman, then a captain of foot* in 
the Imperial service, he travelled through Bilesia, 
Moravia, and Austria, and was with him at the 
encampment near Altenburg, in the month of June, 
1663 ; from which, the Count being taken with 
a dangerous illness, Printz departed in October in 
the same year, and arrived at Sorau, a town in the 
circle of Upper Saxony. 

Upon the decease of Count Promnitz, Printz was 
invited to the office of chanter in the church of a town 
named Triebel, where he married ; but, after a year's 

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continnance in that employment, being called to the 
Bame office in the church at Sorau, he entered upon 
it at Whitsuntide, 1665. In the year 1682 he was 
appointed to the direction of the choir of the same 
church ; and, as it is supposed, continued in that 
station till the time of his death. 

The works of this author are many, and are 
enumerated by Walther in bis Lexicon. Among 
them is a history of music, published at Dresden, in 
quarto, in the year 1690, with the title of fftstovidie 
Sfschreibung tiev ttitltn Jbtng^tuUi kling4iumitf 
of which it may be expected some account should 
here be given. 

It is written in chronological order; the author 
begins his history with the invention of the harp 
and organ by Jubal, founding his relation on the 
authority of the holy scriptures, and those testimonies 
respecting the ancient Jewish musicians, which 
Kircher has collected from the. rabbinical writers. 
He is very exact in his delineations of the Hebrew 
instruments, which for the most part are taken from 
Johannes Schatterus, the author of Collectaneis 
Philologicis. For want of better materials he adopts 
the fictions of the poets in the stories by them related 
of Orpheus, Amphion, and Arion. He relates the 
invention of the Mercurian Lyre from Nicomachns, 
Boetius, and other writers; and continues the suc- 
cession of the Greek musicians in short extracts 
from a variety of authors, nearly down to the 
Christian sra. He then, from Eusebius, Theodoret, 
Sozomen, and other ecclesiastical writers, explains 
the practice of antiphonal singing introduced among 
the primitive Christians by Flavianns and Diodorus ; 
and, from other authorities, the final establishment 
of church music by St Ambrose and St Gregory. 
He speaks of the invention of the organ, and the 
introduction of that instrument into the church- 
service by pope Vitalianus ; and celebrates Bede and 
Rabanus Maurus among the most eminent musicians 
of their time. 

He dates the invention of music in consonance 
from the year 940, and with great formality of 
circumstance ascribes it to St Dunstan, archbishop 
of Canterbury. The following is a translation of 
the author's own words : — * In the year of Christ 
' 940, Dunstan, otherwise Dunstaphus, an English- 
' man, being very young, betook himself to the study 

* of music, and thereby became of immortal memory. 
' He was the first that composed songs in different 

* parts, namely, Bass, Tenor, Discant, and Vagant or 

* Alt* A little farUier on in his work he is some- 
what more particular. He says that in the time of 
Dunstan the method of notation was by points placed 
on lines, of which method he gives a specimen, the 
same with that herein before inserted, page 158, from 
Galilei. He says that at this time the music of the 
cburcb was very simple, and that Dunstan was the 
first tbat found out the barmony of four different 
voices, though he proceeded no farther in it than the 
Contrapunctus Simplex. But that it was not till 
some years after this invention that the practice of 
singing in consonance became general.* 

* Prfntz professes to b«Te taken the shore aeconnt of the inTentfon 
'music in consonance fh>m one or both of the authors cited by him, 

The rest of this book contains a brief deduction 
of the history of the science, and a particular enu- 
meration of such persons as have excelled in it, 
down to his own time ; concluding with an account 
of himself and his studies, from which the foregoing 
particulars of his life are taken. Printz appears to 
have been a very able man in his profession, and to 
have bestowed great pains in the compilation of this 
work, the brevity of which is its only fault Walther 
says the author had written it also in Latin, but that 
he did not live to publish it in that language. 

Mattheson, in his ;ffnv%thtnXte% Orditstrft page 
242, relates that during the last illness of Printz he 
wrote a book entitled De Instrumentis in toto Orbe 
musicis ; and Walther adds that he died on bis birth- 
day, viz., the tenth of October, in the year 1717. 

JoHANN Christopher Dbnner is celebrated for 
his exquisite skill and ingenuity in the construction 
of flutes, and other instruments of the like kind ; 
he was born at Leipsic on the thirteenth day of 
August, 1655; and at the age of eight years was 
taken to Nuremburg, in which city his father, a com- 
mon turner in wood, had then lately chose to settle 
with his family. After a very few years stay there, 
the younger Denner, having been instructed like 
other boys of his age, in the rudiments of music, 
betook himself to his father's trade, and in particular 
to the fabrication of flutes, hautboys, and other wind 
instruments, which, by the help of a nice ear, added 
to the skill he had acquired in music, and the 
proficiency he had attained to in playing on them, 
he tuned so exquisitely, that his instruments were 
sought for from all parts. He is said to have 
greatly improved the Chalumeau, an instrument 
resembling the hautboy, and described by Mersennus 

namely, David ChytraeuB, and Conrad Dleterich ; nevertheleas Walther, 
who appears to have b«en very well acquainted with Printst's writinfa, 
aeemt to give very little credit to this relation ; for he cite« a book 
written by Salomon Van Til, entitled 'Sino-Dxcht.und SpiklKumst, 
page 125, wherein it is said that the Invention of mnsic In consonance i« 
of an older date than the time of St. Dunstan, though he admits tbat 
Dunittan might have Introduced it among his countrymen. 

The truth of the above relation is at this day so little questioned, that 
the modem writers on music seem generally agreed to acquiesce in it. 
Francis Lustig of Groningen and Marpourg of Berlin, have ex- 

prMsIy asserted that St. Dunstan was the inventor ot Counterpoint, the 
one in a treatise entitled ' Musik KmrDB,' the other in a book printed 
in quarto at Berlin in 1766, entitled Trait6 de la Fugue et du Contrepoint, 
part II. sect 7. But upon a careful enquiry after the evidence of the 
fact, there appears none to support it ; on the contrary, the relation in- 
volves in it a series of the grossest blunders, as shall hei^ be de. 

In the year 16 IS, one Johannes Nuetus, an ecclesiastic of Oorlits In 
Lusatia, published a book with the title of Musices Poetlcas, slve de 
Compositioni Cantus Prseceptiones absolutissimse, wherein, on whiU 
authority we know not, he asaerts that John of Dunstable, of whom an 
account is given page 274 of this work, waa the inventor of musical 
composition. His words are an answer to the question, * Quem dicimus 

* Poeticuro Mustcumf and are these: • Qui non solum praecepta musics 
' apprimi intelligit, et Juxta ea rect^ ac bend modulatur, sed qui propr^l 
*ingen|] penetralia tentans. novas cantilenas cudit et flexibiles sonos pio 
*Terborura pondere textibus aput. Talem artiticem Glareanus Sym- 
'phonetSB appellatione describit. Sicut Phonasci nomine cantorem 
Mnsinuat. Porr6 tales artifices darverunt, primum circa annum Christi 

* 1400 aut certi paul6 post. Dunastapli Anglus i quo primum figuralem 
' musicam inventam tradunt.' Mus. Poet. cap. I. 

It is extremely difficult to find out any sense In which the above re- 
lation can be said to be true ; for if by the term FIguralem musicam wf 
are to understand, as all men do, the Cantus figuratus or mensurable music, 
it is certain that that was in use some centuries before the time of John 
of Dunstable: if it be taken for music in consonance, the invt'ntlon of 
that, though at this time it is impossible to fix precisely the »ra of it, is 
at least as ancient as the time of Bede, who makes use of the word 
Discantus. See page 188. 

But taking the relation of Nvctus for true. It refers to John of 
Dunstable, who flourished about the year 1400. whereas his invention or 
hnproTement, whatever it was, is by Prints, Lustig, and Marpourg. the 
two last of whom are now living, ascribed to Dunstan, died about tb« 


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Book XIV. 

ftnd Kircher ; and to have been tlie original inventor 
of another inBtrument, which neither of them do so 
mnch as mention, namely, the Clarinet. He died on 
the twentieth day of April, 1707, leaving behind 
him two sons, who followed the bnsiness of their 
father, and, like him, were excellent performers on 
most of the instmments they professed to make.* 

A son of one of these Denners betook himself to 
painting, and became remarkable for the singularity 
of his s^le. "Em stndies were only heads, and those 
in general of old persons; his colouring was very 
fine, and his portraits were so -close a copy, that be 
represented the defects and decays of natnre, and 
even the ravages of disease in the human countenance. 
His pictures were so elaborate, and of consequence 
his price so high, that few, without the hope of 
a more favourable likeness than it was his practice 
to paint, would choose to sit to him. About the 
year 1745 a portrait of his, the head of an old man, 
was exhibited to public view in London, at the rate 
of half a crown each person, and many resorted to 
see it. Notwithstanding his ill success, a disciple of 
Denner, one Van Smissen, ventured to pursue the 
same course of study, and practised the same style of 
fainting. Trusting to the propensity which, as he 
lad been told, the English have to &vour foreigners, 
ke ciune over to England, and took lodgings m St 
Martin's Lane, London ; his paintings on canvas 
were like enamel, but he had no idea of grace or 
elegance; and meeting with but little encouragement, 
after a short stay he left this country. 

Albssanbro Stradella, one of the great Italian 
musicians in his time, flourished about t^e middle of 
the seventeenth century; he was both a very fine 
singer and an exquisite performer on the harp, an 
instrument in which he greatly delighted ; over and 
above which qualifications, he possessed a talent for 
vocal composition, sufiicient alone to have rendered 
him famous to all posterity. He was for some 
time composer to the opera at Venice, under an 
appointment of the magistrates of that republic, and 
freouently sang on the stage, cantatas and other 
of his own compositions, accompanying himself on 
the harp. 

His character as a musician was so high at Venice, 
that all who were desirous of excelling in the science 
were solicitous to become his pupils. Among the 
many whom he had the instruction of, was one, 
a young lady of a noble £Amily of Rome, nam^ 
Hortensia, who, notwithstanding her illustrious de- 
scent^ submitted to live in a criminal intimacy with a 
Venetian nobleman. The frequent access of Stradella 
to this lady, and the many opportunities he had of 
being alone with her, produced in them both such an 
affection for each other, that they agreed to go off 
together for Rome. In consequence of this resolution 
they embarked^ in a very £ne night, and by the 
favour of the wind affected their escape. 
Upon the discovery of the lady*s flignt, the Venetian 

* It to Mmiewhat reinark»bl« tbM many exedknt perfonnen on miek 
wind Inttnunrata m the flut« and baatbny, bare aiM been makert of 
them. Denner, Le Vaeher, and Qoldet, ao maeh celebrated by Her- 
•enniia, are faistanoee of thto; to whom may be added Meusehel of 
lluremboif , a maker of tmmpeta. 

had recourse to the usual method in that country of 
obtaining satisfaction for real or supposed injuries; 
he dispatched two assassins, with instructions to 
murder both Stradella and the lady, giving them 
a sum of money in hand, and a promise of a larger 
if they succeeded in the attempt. Being arrived at 
Naples, the assassins received intelligence that those 
whom they were in pursuit of were at Rome, where 
the lady passed for the wife of Stradella. Upon this 
they determined to execute their commission, wrote 
to their employer, requesting lettera of recommen- 
dation to the Venetian embassador at Rome, in order 
to secure an asylum for them to fly to, as soon as 
the deed should be perpetrated. 

Upon the receipt of letters for this purpose, the 
assassins made the best of their way towards Rome ; 
and being arrived there, they learned that on the 
morrow, at five in the evening, Stradelk was to give 
an oratorio in the church of San Giovanni Laterano. 
They failed not to be present at the performance, 
and had concerted to follow Stradella and his mistress 
out of the church, and, seizing a convenient op- 
portunity, to make the blow. The performance was 
now begfun, and these men had nothing to do but to 
watch Uie motions of Stradella, and attend to the 
music, which they had scarce begun to hear, before 
the suggestions of humanity began to operate upon 
their minds; they were seized with remorse, and 
reflected with borror on the thought of depriving of 
his life a man capable of giving to his auditon such 
pleasure as they had but just then felt. In short, 
they desisted from their purpose, and determined, 
instead of taking away his life, to exert their en- 
deavours for the preservation of it ; they waited for 
his coming out of the church, and courteously ad- 
dressed him and the lady, who was by his side, first 
returning him thanks for the pleasure they had 
received at hearing his music, and informed them 
both of the errand they had been sent upon ; expa- 
tiating upon the irresistible charms, which of savi^es 
had made them men, and had rendered it impoasiDle 
for them to effect their execrable purpose ; and con- 
cluded with their earnest advice that Stradella and 
the lady should both depart from Rome the next 
day, themselves promising to deceive their employer, 
and forego the remainder part of their rewMtl, by 
making him brieve that Stradella and his lady had 
quitted Rome on the morning of their arrival. 

Having thus escaped the malice of their enemv, 
the two loven took an immediate resolution to fly 
for safety to Tmrin, and soon arrived there. The 
assassins being returned to Venice, reported to their 
employer that Stradella and Hortensia had fled from 
Rome, and taken shelter in the city of Turin, a place 
where the lawA were very severe, and which, except- 
ing the houses of embassadora, afforded no protection 
for murderen ; they represented to him the difficulty 
of getting these two persons assassinated, and, for 
their own parts, notwithstanding their engagements, 
declined the enterprize. This disappointment, instead 
of allaying, served but to sharpen the resentment of 
the Venetian : he had found means to attach to his 
interest the father of Hortensia, and by various 

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arguments, to inspire bim with a resolution to become 
the mnrderer of bis own dangbter. Witb tbis old 
man, no less malevolent and vindictive tban bimself, 
tbe Venetian associated two ruffians, and dispatched 
them all ibree to Turin, fully inspired witb a reso- 
lution of stabbing Stradella and tbe old man's daughter 
wherever they found them. The Venetian also 
furnished them with letters from Mons. TAbb^ de 
Estrades, then embassador of France at Venice, 
addressed to the marquis of Villars, the French 
embassador at Turin. The purport of these letters 
was a recommendation of the bearers of them, who 
were therein represented to be merchants, to tbe 
protection of the embassador, if at any time they 
should stand in need of it 

The duchess of Savoy was at that time regent ; 
and she having been informed of the arrival of 
Stradella and nortensia, and the occasion of their 
precipitate flight from Home; and knowing the 
vindictive temper of the Venetians, placed the lady 
in a convent and retained Stradella in her palace 
as her principal musician. In a situation of such 
securiW as this seemed to be, Stradella's fears for 
the satety of himself and his mistress began to 
abate, till one evening, walking for the lur upon the 
ramparts of the city, he was set upon by the three 
assassins abovementioned, that is to say, the father 
of Hortensia, and the two ruffians, who each gave 
him a stab with a dagger in the breast, and im- 
mediately betook themselves to the house of the 
French embassador as to a sanctuary. 

The attack on Stradella having been made in tbe 
sight of numbers of people, who were walking in 
the^ same place, occasioned an uproar in the city, 
which soon reached the ears of tbe duchess : she 
ordered the gates to be shut, and diligent search to 
be made for the three assassins ; and being informed 
that they had taken refuge in the house of the 
French embassador, she went to demand them. The 
embassador insisting on the privileges which those of 
his function claimed from the law of nations, refused 
to deliver them up; he nevertheless wrote to tbe 
Abb^ de Estrades to know the reason of the attack 
upon Stradella, and was informed by the Abb^ that 
he had been surprized into a recommendation of 
the three men by one of the most powerful of the 
Venetian nobility. In the interim Stradella was 
cured of his wounds, and the marquis de Villars, to 
make short of the questio